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Encyclopedia > Nevado del Ruiz
Nevado del Ruiz

Steam eruption in September, 1985
Elevation 5,321 metres (17,457 ft)
Location Colombia
Range Cordillera Central
Coordinates 4°53′33″N, 75°19′25″W
Type Stratovolcano
Volcanic arc/belt Andean Volcanic Belt
Last eruption 1991
First ascent 1936 by M. Rapp and party
Space radar image of Nevado del Ruiz
Space radar image of Nevado del Ruiz
Nevado del Ruiz 2006
Nevado del Ruiz 2006

Nevado del Ruiz is an Andean stratovolcano in Caldas Department, Colombia. It is the northernmost volcano of the Andean Volcanic Belt and lies about 15 miles southeast of Manizales, with the town of Armero in the valley below. It is the northernmost and highest Colombian volcano with historical activity. Its 1985 eruption produced a lahar which completely buried the city and caused an estimated 23,000 deaths in what came to be known as the Armero tragedy. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (981x632, 46 KB) Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia Steam eruption in September 1985 prior to the major eruption on November 13, 1985 Original source URL: National Geophysical Data Center, URL: http://www. ... A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... The Cordillera Central range is one of the three main ranges in the Andes Mountains that divides the south of Colombia. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Mountains can be characterized in several ways. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount St. ... Mariana Islands, an oceanic island arc Cascade Volcanic Arc, a continental volcanic arc A volcanic arc is a chain of volcanic islands or mountains formed by plate tectonics as an oceanic tectonic plate subducts under another tectonic plate and produces magma. ... A volcanic belt is a district of volcanoes, located in a certain area. ... The Andean Volcanic Belt is a major volcanic belt in coastal Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Argentina, South America. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... In climbing, a first ascent (FA) is the first climb to reach the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Image File history File links Ruiz_volcano. ... Image File history File links Ruiz_volcano. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 1654 KB) El Nevado del Ruiz (El Ruiz snow peak). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2288x1712, 1654 KB) El Nevado del Ruiz (El Ruiz snow peak). ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... A cutaway diagram of a stratovolcano Mount St. ... Motto: Capital Manizales Governor Area 7,291 km² Population  - Total (2003)  - Density   1,170,187 160 people/km² Adjective Caldas is a department of Colombia. ... The Andean Volcanic Belt is a major volcanic belt in coastal Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Argentina, South America. ... Motto: The city of open doors - World Capital of Coffee Location of the city and municipality of Manizales in the Department of Caldas. ... Armero is the name of a city in Colombia that was buried by ash after a nearby volcano erupted, killing about 23,000 people. ... Lahar from a March 1982 eruption of Mount St. ... Armero, the aftermath. ...


The Nevado del Ruiz was produced by subduction of the oceanic Nazca Plate beneath the continental South American Plate. Stratovolcanoes in the Andes are for the most part Plinian, as is Nevado del Ruiz, and produce pyroclastic flows. Nevado del Ruiz consists of andesite and dacite lava. The Juan de Fuca plate sinks below the North America plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. ...  The Nacza plate, shown in light blue The Nazca Plate, named after the Nazca region of southern Peru, is an oceanic tectonic plate in the eastern Pacific Ocean basin off the west coast of South America. ...  The South American plate, shown in purple The South American Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of South America and extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ... Eruption of Vesuvius in 1822. ... Pyroclastic flows sweep down the flanks of Mayon Volcano, Philippines, in 1984 Pyroclastic flows are a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions. ... A sample of andesite (dark groundmass) with amygdaloidal vesicules filled with zeolite. ... Grey, red, black, altered white/tan, flow-banded pumice dacite Dacite (IPA: ) is an igneous, volcanic rock with a high iron content. ...


Nevado del Ruiz has been called "the Sleeping Lion" by the local towns around it.

Contents

1985 eruption

On November 13th , 1985, at 9:08 pm, Nevado del Ruiz erupted. Pyroclastic flows melted ice and snow at the summit which formed lahars that rushed down several river valleys. The lahars were up to 50 metres thick and travelled more than 100 kilometres.[1] November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ... Pyroclastic flows sweep down the flanks of Mayon Volcano, Philippines, in 1984 Pyroclastic flows are a common and devastating result of some volcanic eruptions. ... Lahar from a March 1982 eruption of Mount St. ...


Many houses and towns were devastated by the lahars. The town of Armero was completely covered by debris, killing approximately 21,000 people (out of 28,700). The eruption caused an estimated 23,000 deaths, 5,000 injuries, and destroyed more than 5,000 homes. This was the second-deadliest volcanic disaster in the 20th century (the 1902 eruption of Mount Pelée was the worst). The disaster gained some major international notoriety due in part to a photograph taken by photographer Frank Fournier, of a young girl named Omayra Sánchez who was trapped beneath rubble for three days before she died. [2] Armero is the name of a city in Colombia that was buried by ash after a nearby volcano erupted, killing about 23,000 people. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Not to be confused with the similarly named volcano on Io. ... Omayra Sanchez trapped in the Armero tragedy. ...


Survivors who fled to other towns in the area were gradually housed in new government schemes, but problems for the displaced population occurred for many years after. The villagers were warned about the possibility of the disaster but because of past false information about it happening and the false statements of the Tolima Department Governor, among other officials, saying that the volcano was not going to erupt, many people did not believe these warnings.


There were hundreds of cases where people a few feet apart were either killed by the massive mud and stone wave or survived the disaster. Among the terrible consequences for survivors was that the temperature of the mud and rock avalanche served as a gigantic culture media for all kinds of pathogenic fungus and bacteria. Some survivors who had minor cuts were killed by the infections, which could not be treated with known antibiotics.


Aftermath

The eruption cost Colombia 7.7 billion dollars; about 20% of the country’s GNP for the year in question. A lack of preparation contributed to the high death toll. Armero had been built directly on old mudflows and authorities ignored a hazard-zone map which showed the potential damage to the town if lahars were to avalanche down the mountain. Habitants were also told to stay inside and avoid the falling ash, not thinking the mudflows would bury them.


Several years later the scarred sides of the creeks along which the lahar flowed were clearly visible from commercial airplanes. Even in the mid 1990s the town was covered with up to 20 feet of ash and debris. Local villagers harvested stones for building work and often, still found human bones that they placed on the shrines that dot the area. A few small trees were trying to grow, protected from wandering animals by makeshift fences.


Now a new system can detect lahars, giving people more warning to evacuate before they happen. The system involves the use of acoustic flow monitors (AFM) which analyze ground shaking that could potentially result in a lahar. These AFMs are placed in the volcano and warn officials if there is an exceedingly high amount of shaking.


See also

This is a list of active and extinct volcanoes in Colombia. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Deadly Lahars from Nevado del Ruiz at the USGS
  2. ^ Picture power: Tragedy of Omayra Sanchez BBC News, September 30, 2005 - Retrieved: July 9, 2007

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ...

References

  • Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program: Nevado del Ruiz
  • Navado del Ruiz at South Dakota State University
  • Nevado del Ruiz facts at the NOAA

  Results from FactBites:
 
Vic Camp - the Nevado del Ruiz eruption (1426 words)
Nevado del Ruiz is the northernmost of several Colombian stratovolcanoes in the Andes Volcanic Chain of western South America.
With a summit elevation of 5,389 m (over 17,500 ft), Nevado del Ruiz is the highest of the Colombian volcanoes.
Nevado del Ruiz had served up a steady menu of minor earthquakes and steam eruptions for 51 weeks prior to the November 13 eruption.
Nevado del Ruiz - Peakware World Mountain Encyclcopedia (267 words)
Nevado del Ruiz is an active volcano, located in a compact cluster of volcanic mountains near the center of Colombia.
Nevado del Ruiz is not only the highest mountain in the region, but is one of the easiest to ascend, straight up the snowy west slope from a parking lot at the base of the mountain.
Nevado del Ruiz is the northernmost peak in this north-south alignment of peaks, while Nevado del Tolima is the farthest south.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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