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Encyclopedia > Neutrophil granulocyte
A blood smear showing a Neutrophil Granulocyte; the three-lobulated nucleus can be seen. This picture has been stained with MayGrunwald Giemsa, and observed with a 1000x objective in oil immersion.
A blood smear showing a Neutrophil Granulocyte; the three-lobulated nucleus can be seen. This picture has been stained with MayGrunwald Giemsa, and observed with a 1000x objective in oil immersion.

Neutrophil granulocytes, generally referred to as neutrophils, are the most abundant type of white blood cells and form an integral part of the immune system. Their name arrives from staining characteristics on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histological preparations. Whereas basophilic cellular components stain dark blue and eosinophilic components stain bright red, neutrophilic components stain a neutral pink. These phagocytes are normally found in the blood stream. However, during the acute phase of inflammation, particularly as a result of bacterial infection, neutrophils leave the vasculature and migrate toward the site of inflammation in a process called chemotaxis. They are the predominant cells in pus, accounting for its whitish/yellowish appearance. Neutrophils react within an hour of tissue injury and are the hallmark of acute inflammation.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Neutrophil. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Neutrophil. ... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Haematoxylin is extracted from the wood of the logwood tree. ... Eosin is an orange-pink dye derived from coal tar. ... A phagocyte is a cell that ingests and destroys foreign matter such as microorganisms or debris via a process known as phagocytosis. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... In medicine, an acute disease is a disease with either or both of: a rapid onset; a short course (as opposed to a chronic course). ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Chemotaxis is a kind of taxis, in which bodily cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. ... Pus is a whitish-yellow or yellow substance produced during inflammatory responses of the body that can be found in regions of pyogenic bacterial infections. ...

Contents

Measurement of neutrophils

Neutrophil granulocyte migrates from the blood vessel to the matrix, sensing proteolytic enzymes, in order to determine intercellular connections (to the improvement of its mobility) and envelop bacteria through phagocytosis.
Neutrophil granulocyte migrates from the blood vessel to the matrix, sensing proteolytic enzymes, in order to determine intercellular connections (to the improvement of its mobility) and envelop bacteria through phagocytosis.

Neutrophil granulocytes have an average volume of 330 femtoliters (fl) and a diameter of 12-15 micrometers (µm) in peripheral blood smears. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (574x701, 126 KB) Source: http://de. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (574x701, 126 KB) Source: http://de. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... Blood films, Giemsa stained A blood film or peripheral blood smear is a slide made from a drop of blood, that allows the cells to be examined. ...


With the eosinophil and the basophil, they form the class of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), named for the nucleus's characteristic multilobulated shape (as compared to lymphocytes and monocytes, the other types of white cells). Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cells; they account for 70% of all white blood cells (leukocytes). Image of an eosinophil Eosinophil granulocytes, commonly referred to as eosinophils (or less commonly as acidophils), are white blood cells of the immune system that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in vertebrates. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a single human lymphocyte. ... Monocyte A monocyte is a leukocyte, part of the human bodys immune system that protect against blood-borne pathogens and move quickly to sites of infection in the tissues. ...


The stated normal range for blood counts varies between laboratories, but a neutrophil count of 2.5-7.5 x 109/L is a standard normal range. People of African and Middle Eastern descent may have lower counts which are still normal.


Lifespan

The average halflife of a non-activated neutrophil in the circulation is about 4-10 hours. Upon activation, they marginate (position themselves adjacent to the blood vessel endothelium), undergo selectin dependent capture followed by integrin dependent adhesion after which they migrate into tissues, where they survive for 1-2 days. Selectins are a family of cell-surface adhesion molecules of leukocytes and endothelial cells. ... An integrin, or integrin receptor, is an integral membrane protein in the plasma membrane of cells. ...


Neutrophils are much more numerous than the longer-lived monocyte/macrophages. The first phagocyte a pathogen (disease-causing microorganism) is likely to encounter is a neutrophil. Some experts feel that the short lifetime of neutrophils is an evolutionary adaptation to minimize propagation of those pathogens that parasitize phagocytes. The more time such parasites spend outside a host cell, the more likely they will be destroyed by some component of the body's defenses. However, because neutrophil antimicrobial products can also damage host tissues, other authorities feel that their short life is an adaptation to limit damage to the host during inflammation.[citation needed] Monocyte A monocyte is a leukocyte, part of the human bodys immune system that protect against blood-borne pathogens and move quickly to sites of infection in the tissues. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or slows the growth of microbes like bacteria (antibacterial activity), fungi (antifungal activity), viruses (antiviral activity), or parasites (antiparasitic activity). ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ...


Chemotaxis

Neutrophils undergo a process called chemotaxis that allows them to migrate toward sites of infection or inflammation. Cell surface receptors are able to detect chemical gradients of molecules such as interleukin-8 (IL-8), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), and C5a which these cells use to direct the path of their migration. Chemotaxis is a kind of taxis, in which bodily cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. ... Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells. ... Interferon-gamma or IFN-g is a dimerized soluble cytokine which is a Type II Interferon. ... C5a is a protein fragment released from complement component C5. ...


Function

Neutrophil
Neutrophil

Being highly motile, neutrophils quickly congregate at a focus of infection, attracted by cytokines expressed by activated endothelium, mast cells and macrophages. Image File history File links Neutrophil. ... Image File history File links Neutrophil. ... Motility is a biological term which refers to the ability to move spontaneously and independently. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Cytokines are a group of proteins and peptides that are used in organisms as signaling compounds. ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... Mast cells A mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of areolar connective tissue (loose connective tissue) that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. ... A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, makros = long, phagein = eat) are white blood cells, more specifically phagocytes, acting in the nonspecific defense as well as the specific defense system of vertebrate animals. ...


Phagocytosis

Neutrophils are phagocytes, capable of ingesting microorganisms or particles. They can internalise and kill many microbes, each phagocytic event resulting in the formation of a phagosome into which reactive oxygen species and hydrolytic enzymes are secreted. The consumption of oxygen during the generation of reactive oxygen species has been termed the "respiratory burst," although it actually has nothing to do with respiration or energy production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) include oxygen ions, free radicals and peroxides both inorganic and organic. ... Respiratory burst is the rapid release of reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide) from different types of cells. ...


The respiratory burst involves the activation of the enzyme NADPH oxidase, which produces large quantities of superoxide, a reactive oxygen species. Superoxide dismutates, spontaneously or through catalysis via the enzyme catalase, to hydrogen peroxide, which is then converted to hypochlorous acid (HOCl, also known as chlorine bleach) by the green heme enzyme myeloperoxidase. It is thought that the bactericidal properties of HOCl are enough to kill bacteria phagocytosed by the neutrophil, but this has not been proven conclusively. Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... The NADPH oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase) complex is an enzyme complex that is made up of five subunits. ... Lewis electron configuration of superoxide. ... Catalase (human erythrocyte catalase: PDB 1DGF, EC 1. ... Hypochlorous acid is a weak, unstable acid with chemical formula HOCl. ... Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a peroxidase enzyme (EC 1. ...


Degranulation

Neutrophils also release an assortment of proteins in three types of granules by a process called degranulation: The degranulation process in a Mast cell. ...

Granule type Protein
specific granules (or "secondary granules") Lactoferrin and Cathelicidin
azurophilic granules (or "primary granules") myeloperoxidase, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI), Defensins and the serine proteases neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G
tertiary granules cathepsin, gelatinase

Specific granules are the granules found in granulocytes which are specific to that type of cell (as opposed to azurophilic granules, primarily lysosomes, which are found in all three types of granulocytes. ... Lactoferrin is a globular protein found in milk and many mucosal secretions such as tears. ... Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial peptide produced in macrophages triggered by bacteria, viruses, and fungi, when the hormone 1,25-D is present. ... Azurophil is referred to the readily staining with an azure dye. ... Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a peroxidase enzyme (EC 1. ... Bactericidal/permeability increasing protein is a bactericidal protein in neutrophil granulocytes. ... Defensins are small (30-35 residue) cysteine rich cationic proteins found in vertebrate phagocytes (notably the azurophil granules of neutrophils) and active against bacteria, fungi and enveloped viruses. ... Crystal structure of Trypsin, a typical serine protease. ... Neutrophil elastase (or leukocyte elastase) is a type of enzyme that acts as a platelet activator. ... A cathepsin is one of a family of proteases, a type of protein that breaks apart other proteins, found in many types of cells including those in all animals. ... A cathepsin is a type of protease, ie a type of protein that breaks apart other proteins. ... In Biology and Chemistry, Gelatinase is an proteolic enzyme that allows a living organism to hydrolyse gelatin into its sub-compounds (polypeptides, peptides, and aminoacids) that can cross the cell membrane and be used by the organism. ...

NETs

There is controversy about whether neutrophils can also extrude neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), a web of fibers composed of chromatin and serine proteases that trap and kill microbes extracellularly. It is suggested that NETs provide a high local concentration of antimicrobial components and bind, disarm, and kill microbes independent of phagocytic uptake. In addition to their possible antimicrobial properties, NETs may serve as a physical barrier that prevents further spread of pathogens. Recently, NETs have been shown to play a role in inflammatory diseases, as NETs could be detected in preeclampsia, a pregnancy related inflammatory disorder in which neutrophils are known to be activated. [citation needed] A neutrophil extracellular trap is a set of extracellular fibres generated by a neutrophil that bind Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. ... Chromatin is the complex of DNA and protein found inside the nuclei of eukaryotic cells. ... Crystal structure of Trypsin, a typical serine protease. ... Pre-eclampsia (previously called toxemia) is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. ...


Role in disease

Low neutrophil counts are termed "neutropenia". This can be congenital (genetic disorder) or it can develop later, as in the case of aplastic anemia or some kinds of leukemia. It can also be a side-effect of medication, most prominently chemotherapy. Neutropenia predisposes heavily for infection. Finally, neutropenia can be the result of colonization by intracellular neutrophilic parasites. Neutropenia (or neutropaenia, adjective neutrop(a)enic) is a hematological disorder characterized by an abnormally low number of neutrophil granulocytes (a type of white blood cell). ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... A genetic disorder is a disease caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes. ... Aplastic anemia is a condition where bone marrow does not produce sufficient new cells to replenish blood cells. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ...


Functional disorders of neutrophils are often hereditary. They are disorders of phagocytosis or deficiencies in the respiratory burst (as in chronic granulomatous disease, a rare immune deficiency, and myeloperoxidase deficiency). Phagocytosis is a form of endocytosis wherein large particles are enveloped by the cell membrane of a (usually larger) cell and internalized to form a phagosome, or food vacuole. ... Respiratory burst is the rapid release of reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide) from different types of cells. ... ]] compounds (most importantly, the superoxide radical) used to kill certain ingested pathogens. ... A rare disease (sometimes known as an orphan disease) has such a low prevalence in a population that a doctor in a busy general practice would not expect to see more than one case a year. ... In medicine, immune deficiency (or immunodeficiency) is a state where the immune system is incapable of defending the organism from infectious disease. ... Myeloperoxidase deficiency is a genetic disorder featuring deficiency of myeloperoxidase. ...


In alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, the important neutrophil enzyme elastase is not adequately inhibited by alpha 1-antitrypsin, leading to excessive tissue damage in the presence of inflammation - most prominently pulmonary emphysema. Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1AD or Alpha-1) is a genetic disorder caused by defective production of alpha 1-antitrypsin, deficient activity in the blood and lungs, and deposition of excessive amounts of abnormal A1AT protein in liver cells. ... Protein Crystal Growth Porcine Elastase In molecular biology, elastase is an enzyme from the class of proteases (or better peptidases) that break down proteins. ... Alpha 1-antitrypsin or α1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), a mutation in the pyrin (or marenostrin) gene, which is expressed mainly in neutrophil granulocytes, leads to a constitutionally active acute phase response and causes attacks of fever, arthralgia, peritonitis and - eventually - amyloidosis.[clarify] Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary inflammatory disorder that affects groups of patients originating from around the Mediterranean Sea (hence its name). ... MEFV (Mediterranean fever) is a human gene that provides instructions for making a protein called pyrin (also known as marenostrin). ... Acute-phase proteins are a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute phase proteins) in response to inflammation. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Media

  • Neutrophil phagocytosis ( file info) — Watch in browser
    • A rapidly moving neutrophil can be seen taking up several conidia over an imaging time of 2 h with one frame every 30 s.
  • Selective phagocytosis by neutrophils ( file info) — Watch in browser
    • A neutrophil can be seen here selectively taking up several Candida yeasts (fluorescently labeled in green) despite several contacts with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia (unlabeled, white/clear) in a 3-D collagen matrix. Imaging time was 2 h with an interval of 30 s after every frame.
  • Problems seeing the videos? See media help.

Image File history File links S1-Polymorphonuclear_Cells_with_Conidia_in_Liquid_Media. ... Conidia are asexual spores of fungus. ... Image File history File links S15-Competitive_Phagocytosis_Assay_in_Collagen. ... Species C. albicans C. dubliniensis C. glabrata C. guilliermondii C. kefyr C. krusei C. lusitaniae C. milleri C. oleophila C. parapsilosis C. tropicalis C. utilis Candida is a genus of yeasts. ... Fluorescent labeling is the process of covalently attaching a fluorophore to another molecule, such as a protein or nucleic acid. ... Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungus of the genus Aspergillus, and it is one of the most common Aspergillus species to cause disease in humans with a weakened immune response. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ...

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