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Encyclopedia > Neutron activation

Neutron activation is the process by which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials. It occurs when nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier nuclei in excited states. These nuclei are frequently radioactive, sometimes with very short half-lives, and so they and their decay products generally make the material radioactive. Thus unlike alpha, beta or gamma radiation, neutron radiation leaves the exposed materials emitting their own radiation long after exposure. Neutron radiation consists of free neutrons. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha particles or alpha rays are a form of particle radiation which are highly ionizing and have low penetration. ... Beta particles are high-energy electrons emitted by certain types of radioactive nuclei such as potassium-40. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ...


In places with high neutron fluxes (primarily the cores of nuclear reactors) neutron activation contributes to material erosion, and the materials themselves must be disposed of as low-level radioactive waste. Some materials are more subject to neutronactivation than others, so a suitably chosen low-activation material can significantly reduce these problems. One way to demonstrate that nuclear fusion is occurring inside a Farnsworth-Hirsch fusor is to use a Geiger counter to measure the radioactivity induced in a sheet of aluminum foil. Nuclear power station at Leibstadt, Switzerland. ... A Russian fissile material storage facility Radioactive waste is waste material containing radioactive chemical elements which does not have a practical purpose. ... In physics, nuclear fusion (a thermonuclear reaction) is a process in which two nuclei join, forming a larger nucleus and releasing energy. ... US3386883 - fusor -- June 4, 1968 The Farnsworth-Hirsch Fusor, or simply fusor, is an apparatus designed by Philo T. Farnsworth to create nuclear fusion. ... An antique Victoreen civil defense survey meter (a type of low accuracy geiger counter). ... Aluminium foil (aluminum foil in North American English) is aluminium prepared in thin sheets (on the order of . ...


The lasting radiation from a nuclear weapon is in large part due to neutron activation of the bomb itself and surrounding material. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Neutron Activation Analysis (677 words)
Neutron Activation Analysis is an analytical technique based on the measurement of characteristic gamma rays emitted by isotopes of the sample that are produced by irradiation with thermal neutrons.
Neutron Activation Analysis is a comparative technique; standards are prepared from certified solutions of known concentration of the elements of interest.
The sensitivity obtained by activation analysis is a function of the neutron cross section of the element in question, available neutron flux, length of irradiation, resolution of the detector, matrix composition, and the "total" sample size.
NS&T : Industry : Neutron Activation (378 words)
Neutron Activation is a method of determining the concentration of elements in a wide variety of samples, accurately and precisely.
Neutron activation is capable of simultaneous determination of many elements in samples even when parameters are selected to optimize detection sensitivity of one particular element.
Neutron activation can also detect elements at extremely low concentrations, at sensitivity levels that are superior to those attainable by non-nuclear methods, on the order of parts per billion or better.
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