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Encyclopedia > Neurotransmitter
Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter.
Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter.

Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a neuron and another cell. According to the prevailing beliefs of the 1960s, a chemical can be classified as a neurotransmitter if it meets the following conditions: Image File history File links Chemical structure of Aspartic Acid. ... Image File history File links Chemical structure of Aspartic Acid. ... It has been suggested that the central science be merged into this article or section. ... The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ...

  • It is synthesized endogenously, that is, within the presynaptic neuron;
  • It is available in sufficient quantity in the presynaptic neuron to exert an effect on the postsynaptic neuron;
  • Externally administered, it must mimic the endogenously-released substance; and
  • A biochemical mechanism for inactivation must be present.

However, there are other materials, such as the zinc ion, that are neither synthesized nor catabolized (i.e., degraded; see Anabolism) and are considered neurotransmitters by some. Thus, the old definitions are being revised. In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... In a synapse between two neurons, the cell that releases the neurotransmitter is referred to as the presynaptic cell. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... A synapse is a connection between two neurons: presynaptic and postsynaptic. ... Biochemistry is the chemistry of life. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas colored yellow robert ford An ion is an atom or group of atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged. ... Anabolism is the metabolic process that builds larger molecules from smaller ones. ...

Contents

Types of neurotransmitters

There are many different ways to classify neurotransmitters. Often, dividing them into amino acids, peptides, and monoamines is sufficient for many purposes. In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... In biochemistry, monoamines are a group of organic compounds containing only one amino group. ...


Some more precise divisions are as follows:

The major "workhorse" neurotransmitters of the brain are glutamic acid (=glutamate) and GABA. The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... In biochemistry, monoamines are a group of organic compounds containing only one amino group. ... Norepinephrine (INN) or noradrenaline (BAN) is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ... Dopamine is a phenethylamine naturally produced by the human body. ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ... Glutamic acid (Glu), also referred to as glutamate (the anion), is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids. ... Chemical structure of GABA Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter in widely divergent species. ... Aspartic acid (Asp, D), also known as aspartate, the name of its anion, is one of the 20 natural proteinogenic amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins. ... For the plant, see Glycine (plant). ... Purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring that is fused with an imidazole ring. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) is also known as guanosine-5-triphosphate. ... Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals which activate the bodys cannabinoid receptors. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... Somatostatin is a hormone. ... Neurotensin is a 13 amino acid neuropeptide that is implicated in the regulation of luteinizing hormone and prolactin release and has significant interaction with the dopaminergic system. ... Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is a polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ...


Effects

Some examples of neurotransmitter action:

  • Acetylcholine - voluntary movement of the muscles
  • Norepinephrine - wakefulness or arousal
  • Dopamine - voluntary movement and emotional arousal
  • Serotonin - memory, emotions, wakefulness, sleep and temperature regulation
  • GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) - inhibition of motor neurons
  • Glycine - spinal reflexes and motor behaviour
  • Neuromodulators - sensory transmission-especially pain

It is important to appreciate that it is the receptor that dictates the neurotransmitter's effect. The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... Norepinephrine (INN) or noradrenaline (BAN) is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ... Dopamine is a phenethylamine naturally produced by the human body. ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ... Chemical structure of GABA Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter in widely divergent species. ... For the plant, see Glycine (plant). ... A neuromodulator is a substance other than a neurotransmitter, released by a neuron at a synapse and conveying information to adjacent or distant neurons, either enhancing or damping their activities. ...


Mechanism of action

Within the cells, small-molecule neurotransmitter molecules are usually packaged in vesicles. When an action potential travels to the synapse, the rapid depolarization causes calcium ion channels to open. Calcium then stimulates the transport of vesicles to the synaptic membrane; the vesicle and cell membrane fuse, leading to the release of the packaged neurotransmitter, a mechanism called exocytosis. Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hook from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. POOP Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A. A schematic view of an idealized action potential illustrates its various phases as the action potential passes a point on a cell membrane. ... Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical synapse. ... The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is a semipermeable lipid bilayer common to all living cells. ... This page is currently under construction. ...


The neurotransmitters then diffuse across the synaptic cleft to bind to receptors. The receptors are broadly classified into ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Ionotropic receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that open or close through neurotransmitter binding. Metabotropic receptors, which can have a diverse range of effects on a cell, transduct the signal by secondary messenger systems, or G-proteins. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Synapses allow nerve cells to communicate with one another through axons and dendrites, converting electrical signals into chemical ones. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... ... Metabotropic receptor is a transmembrane receptor, which starts some intracellular biochemical cascade after its activation by an agonistic ligand. ... G-proteins, short for guanine nucleotide binding proteins, are a family of proteins involved in second messenger cascades. ...


Neuroactive peptides are made in the neuron's soma and are transported through the axon to the synapse. They are usually packaged into dense-core vesicles and are released through a similar, but metabolically distinct, form of exocytosis used for small-molecule synaptic vesicles. The soma is the bulbous end of a neuron, containing the nucleus. ... An axon or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. ...


Post-synaptic effect

A neurotransmitter's effect is determined by its receptor. For example, GABA can act on both rapid or slow inhibitory receptors (the GABA-A and GABA-B receptor respectively). Many other neurotransmitters, however, may have excitatory or inhibitory actions depending on which receptor they bind to. Chemical structure of GABA Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter in widely divergent species. ... The GABAA receptor is one of the three ligand-gated ion channels responsible for mediating the effects of Gamma-AminoButyric Acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. ... GABAB receptors (GABABR) are metabotropic transmembrane receptors that are linked via G-proteins to potassium channels (Chen et al. ...


Neurotransmitters may cause either excitatory or inhibitory post-synaptic potentials. That is, they may help the initiation of a nerve impulse in the receiving neuron, or they may discourage such an impulse by modifying the local membrane voltage potential. In the central nervous system, combined input from several synapses is usually required to trigger an action potential. Glutamate is the most prominent of excitatory transmitters; GABA and glycine are well-known inhibitory neurotransmitters. Glutamate is the anion of glutamic acid. ... Chemical structure of GABA Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter in widely divergent species. ... For the plant, see Glycine (plant). ...


Many neurotransmitters are removed from the synaptic cleft by neurotransmitter transporters in a process called reuptake (or often simply 'uptake'). Without reuptake, the molecules might continue to stimulate or inhibit the firing of the postsynaptic neuron. Another mechanism for removal of a neurotransmitter is digestion by an enzyme. For example, at cholinergic synapses (where acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter), the enzyme acetylcholinesterase breaks down the acetylcholine. Neuroactive peptides are often removed from the cleft by diffusion, and eventually broken down by proteases. meow Neurotransmitter transporters are proteins that span cellular membranes and that serve to carry neurotransmitters across these membranes and to transport them to specific locations. ... Reuptake, or re-uptake, is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by the neurotransmitter transporter of a pre-synaptic neuron after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... In biochemistry, cholinesterase is a term which refers to one of the two enzymes (EC 3. ...


Specifications

While some neurotransmitters (glutamate, GABA, glycine) are used very generally throughout the central nervous system, others can have more specific effects, such as on the autonomic nervous system, by both pathways in the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system, and the action of others are regulated by distinct classes of nerve clusters which can be arranged in familiar pathways around the brain. For example, Serotonin is released specifically by cells in the brainstem, in an area called the raphe nuclei, but travels around the brain along the medial forebrain bundle activating the cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus and cerebellum. Also, it is released in the Caudal serotonin nuclei, so as to have effect on the spinal cord. In the peripherial nervous system (such as in the gut wall) serotonin regulates vascular tone. Dopamine classically modulates two systems: the brain's reward mechanism, and movement control. meow This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Grays FIG. 838– The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses. ... Autonomic nervous system innervation, showing the sympathetic and parasympathetic (craniosacral) systems, in red and blue, respectively The parasympathetic nervous system is one of three divisions of the autonomic nervous system. ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ... The raphe nuclei (Latin for the bit in a fold or seam) is a moderately sized cluster of nuclei found in the brain stem, and releases serotonin to the rest of the brain. ... The Medial forebrain bundle is a portion of the brain between the ventral tegmentum and the hypothalamus. ... Look up cortex in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The hippocampus is structurally located inside the medial temporal lobe of the brain. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The hypothalamus, also known as the master gland, links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output. ... Dopamine is a phenethylamine naturally produced by the human body. ...


Neurotransmitters that have these types of specific actions are often targeted by drugs.

Some neurotransmitter/neuromodulators like zinc not only can modulate the sensitivity of a receptor to other neurotransmitters (allosteric modulation) but can even penetrate specific, gated channels in post-synaptic neurons, thus entering the post-synaptic cells. This "translocation" is another mechanism by which synaptic transmitters can affect postsynaptic cells. Cocaine (see also: crack) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Dopamine is a phenethylamine naturally produced by the human body. ... Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical synapse. ... Background Fluoxetine hydrochloride (brand names include Prozac®, Symbyax® (compounded with olanzapine), Sarafem®, Fontex® (Sweden), Fluctine (Austria, Germany), Prodep (India), Fludac (India)) is an antidepressant drug used medically in the treatment of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and many other disorders. ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of antidepressants. ... alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) is a drug that temporarily reduces brain catecholamine activity. ... // Therapeutic use L-DOPA is used to replace dopamine lost in Parkinsons disease because dopamine itself cannot cross the blood-brain barrierwhere its precursor can. ... Reserpine is an indole alkaloid antipsychotic and antihypertensive drug known to irreversibly bind to storage vesicles of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. ... In cell biology, a vesicle is a relatively small and enclosed compartment, separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer. ... Selegiline/l-Deprenyl Selegiline (l-deprenyl, Eldepryl® or Anipryl® [veterinary]) is a drug used for the treatment of early-stage Parkinsons disease and senile dementia. ... Monoamine oxidase Monoamine oxidases (singular abbreviation MAO) (EC 1. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... In biochemistry, an enzyme or other protein is allosteric if its activity or efficiency changes in response to the binding of an effector molecule at a so-called allosteric site. ...


Diseases may affect specific neurotransmitter pathways. For example, Parkinson's disease is at least in part related to failure of dopaminergic cells in deep-brain nuclei, for example the substantia nigra. Treatments potentiating the effect of dopamine precursors have been proposed and effected, with moderate success. meow The substantia nigra, (Latin for black substance, Soemering) or locus niger is a heterogeneous portion of the midbrain, separating the pes (foot) from the tegmentum (covering), and a major element of the basal ganglia system. ...


Common neurotransmitters

Category Name Abbreviation Metabotropic Ionotropic
Small: Amino acids Aspartate - -
Small: Amino acids Glutamate (glutamic acid) Glu Metabotropic glutamate receptor NMDA receptor, Kainate receptor, AMPA receptor
Small: Amino acids Gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA GABAB receptor GABAA receptor, GABAC receptor
Small: Amino acids Glycine Gly - Glycine receptor
Small: Acetylcholine Acetylcholine Ach Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
Small: Monoamine (Phe/Tyr) Dopamine DA Dopamine receptor -
Small: Monoamine (Phe/Tyr) Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) NE - -
Small: Monoamine (Phe/Tyr) Epinephrine (adrenaline) Epi - -
Small: Monoamine (Phe/Tyr) Octopamine - -
Small: Monoamine (Phe/Tyr) Tyramine -
Small: Monoamine (Trp) Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) 5-HT Serotonin receptor, all but 5-HT3 5-HT3
Small: Monoamine (Trp) Melatonin Mel Melatonin receptor -
Small: Monoamine (His) Histamine H Histamine receptor -
PP: Gastrins Gastrin - -
PP: Gastrins Cholecystokinin CCK Cholecystokinin receptor -
PP: Neurohypophyseals Vasopressin Vasopressin receptor -
PP: Neurohypophyseals Oxytocin Oxytocin receptor -
PP: Neurohypophyseals Neurophysin I - -
PP: Neurohypophyseals Neurophysin II - -
PP: Neuropeptide Y Neuropeptide Y NY Neuropeptide Y receptor -
PP: Neuropeptide Y Pancreatic polypeptide PP - -
PP: Neuropeptide Y Peptide YY PYY - -
PP: Opiods Corticotropin (adrenocorticotropic hormone) ACTH Corticotropin receptor -
PP: Opiods Dynorphin - -
PP: Opiods Endorphin - -
PP: Opiods Enkephaline - -
PP: Secretins Secretin Secretin receptor -
PP: Secretins Motilin Motilin receptor -
PP: Secretins Glucagon Glucagon receptor -
PP: Secretins Vasoactive intestinal peptide VIP Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor -
PP: Secretins Growth hormone-releasing factor GRF - -
PP: Somtostatins Somatostatin Somatostatin receptor -
SS: Tachykinins Neurokinin A - -
SS: Tachykinins Neurokinin B - -
SS: Tachykinins Substance P - -
PP: Other Bombesin - -
PP: Other Gastrin releasing peptide GRP - -
Gas Nitric oxide NO - -
Gas Carbon monoxide CO - -
Other Anandamide - -
Other Adenosine triphosphate ATP P2Y12 P2X receptor

Metabotropic receptor is a transmembrane receptor, which starts some intracellular biochemical cascade after its activation by an agonistic ligand. ... ... Aspartic acid, also known as aspartate, the name of its anion, is one of the 20 natural proteinogenic amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins. ... Glutamate is the anion of glutamic acid. ... Metabotropic glutamate receptors, or mGluRs, are a type of glutamate receptor which are active through an indirect metabotropic process. ... The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is an ionotropic receptor for glutamate (NMDA (N-methyl d-aspartate) is a name of its selective specific agonist). ... Kainate receptors are ionotropic receptors which respond to both glutamate, which is their physiological ligand, or kainate which is a drug first isolated from red alga Digenea simplex. ... The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4- propionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is a non-NMDA-type ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid (usually abbreviated to GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the nervous systems of widely divergent species. ... GABAB receptors (GABABR) are metabotropic transmembrane receptors that are linked via G-proteins to potassium channels (Chen et al. ... The GABA-a pentameric receptor The GABAA receptor is one of the three ligand-gated ion channels responsible for mediating the effects of Gamma-AminoButyric Acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human body. ... The GABAC receptor is a biochemical receptor for the neurotransmitter Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). ... For the plant, see Glycine (plant). ... The Glycine receptor is one of the most widely distributed inhibitory receptors in the Central nervous system. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... Amanita muscaria from which muscarine was isolated Acetylcholine - natural agonist of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are ionotropic receptors that form ion channels in cells plasma membranes. ... Phe redirects here. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins. ... Dopamine is a phenethylamine naturally produced by the human body. ... The dopamine receptors are a class of metabotropic G-protein-coupled receptors with the neurotransmitter dopamine as their endogenous ligand. ... Phe redirects here. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins. ... Norepinephrine (INN) or noradrenaline (BAN) is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ... Phe redirects here. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Phe redirects here. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins. ... Octopamine (4-(2-amino-1-hydroxy-ethyl)phenol) is a biogenic amine which is closely related to noradrenaline. ... Phe redirects here. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins. ... Tyramine (4-hydroxy-phenethylamine) is a monoamine compound derived from the amino acid tyrosine. ... Tryptophan is an amino acid and essential in human nutrition. ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ... In the field of neurochemistry, 5-HT receptors are receptors for the neurotransmitter and peripheral signal mediator serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT. 5-HT receptors are located on the cell membrane of nerve cells and other cell types in animals and mediate the effects of serotonin... The 5-HT3 receptors are excitatory ligand-gated cation channel receptors, a unique property in the 5-HT receptor family. ... Tryptophan is an amino acid and essential in human nutrition. ... Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ... A melatonin receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor which binds melatonin. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The histamine receptors are a class of G-protein coupled receptors with histamine as their endogenous ligand. ... In humans, gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the stomach. ... Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ... Cholecystokinin receptors or CCK receptors are a group of G_protein coupled receptors. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... A vasopressin receptor is one of the cell surface receptors which binds vasopressin. ... Articles with similar titles include OxyContin. ... Oxytocin receptors are expressed by the myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland, and in both the myometrium and endometrium of the uterus at the end of pregnancy. ... Neurophysin I is a carrier protein with a size of 10 KDa and containing 90 to 97 aminoacids that transports neurohypophysial hormones along axons, from the hypothalamus to the posterior lobe of the pituitary. ... Neurophysin II is a carrier protein which binds vasopressin. ... Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino acid peptide neurotransmitter found in the brain and autonomic nervous system. ... There are actually 5 known neuropeptide y receptors designated Y1 through Y5. ... Pancreatic polypeptide is an enzyme secreted by PP cells in the tail of pancreas. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with PYY. (Discuss) Peptide YY is a peptide produced in the small intestine and colon. ... Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus. ... Melanocortin receptors are members of the rhodopsin family of 7-transmembrane, G-protein coupled receptors. ... Dynorphin (Dyn) is a popular and powerful opioid ligand. ... Runners high redirects here. ... Enkephaline one of several naturally occurring morphinelike substances which are released from nerve ends of the central nervous system and the adrenal medulla. ... Secretin is a peptide hormone produced in the S cells of the duodenum. ... The secretin receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor which binds secretin. ... Motilin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the small intestine that increases gastrointestinal motility and stimulates the production of pepsin. ... Motilin receptor is a membrane protein which binds motilin. ... Glucagon ball and stick model A microscopic image stained for glucagon. ... The glucagon receptor is a 62 kDa peptide that is activated by glucagon and is a member if the g-protein coupled family of receptors. ... VIP is a peptide hormone containing 28 amino acid residues. ... There are two known receptors for the vasoactive intestinal peptide(VIP) termed VPAC1 and VPAC2. ... It sucks if you do not have a high one. ... Somatostatin is a hormone. ... There are five known somatostatin receptors, SSTR1-5. ... Neurokinin A is a member of the tachykinin familiy of neuropeptide neurotransmitters. ... Neurokinin B is a tachykinin peptide. ... In neuroscience, Substance P is a neuropeptide: a short-chain polypeptide that functions as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. ... Bombesin is a 14 amino acid peptide originally isolated from the skin of a frog. ... Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) is released by the post-ganglionic fibres of the vagus nerve which innervate the G cells of the stomach and stimulate them to release gastrin. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Anandamide, also known as arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a naturally occurring endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter found in the brain of animals, as well as other organs. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... P2X receptors are a family of cation-permeable ligand gated ion channels that open in response to extracellular adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP). ...

See also

Technical advancements in recent years have allowed progress toward the understanding of the brain and how drugs can be made to affect it. ... The Human Nervous System The nervous system of a human coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Anxiety Zone - Neurotransmitter (785 words)
Around 10 small-molecule neurotransmitters are generally admitted: acetylcholine, 5 amines, and 3 or 4 amino acids (depending on exact definition used).
Many neurotransmitters are removed from the synaptic cleft by a process is called reuptake (or often simply uptake).
Dopamine acts as the neurotransmitter of choice for cells in the hypothalamus which are effectively the brain's reward system, however it is also involved in the control of movement.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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