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Encyclopedia > Neurotoxicity

Neurotoxicity occurs when the exposure to natural or manmade toxic substances ,which are called neurotoxins, alters the normal activity of the nervous system. This can eventually disrupt or even kill neurons, key cells that transmit and process signals in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. Neurotoxicity can result from exposure to substances used in chemotherapy, radiation treatment, drug therapies and organ transplants, as well as exposure to heavy metals such as lead and mercury, certain foods and food additives, pesticides, industrial and/or cleaning solvents, cosmetics, and some naturally occurring substances. Symptoms may appear immediately after exposure or be delayed. They may include limb weakness or numbness, loss of memory, vision, and/or intellect, headache, cognitive and behavioral problems and sexual dysfunction. Individuals with certain disorders may be especially vulnerable to neurotoxins. A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells – neurons – usually by interacting with membrane proteins and ion channels. ... The Human Nervous System The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Radiation therapy. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... An organ transplant is the moving of a whole or partial organ from one body to another (or from a donor site on the patients own body), for the purpose of replacing the recipients damaged or failing organ with a working one from the donor site. ... A heavy metal is any of a number of higher atomic weight elements, which has the properties of a metallic substance at room temperature. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish white Atomic mass 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Atomic mass 200. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavour or improve its taste and appearance. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... For other uses, see Cosmetic. ...


The name implies the role of a neurotoxin although the term 'neurotoxic' may be used more loosely to describe states that are known to cause physical brain damage but where no obvious neurotoxin has been identified. A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells – neurons – usually by interacting with membrane proteins and ion channels. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ...


The term neurotoxic is used to describe a substance, condition or state that damages the nervous system and/or brain, usually by killing neurons. The term is generally used to describe a condition or substance that has been shown to result in observable physical damage. The presence of neurocognitive deficits alone is not usually considered sufficient evidence of neurotoxicity, as many subtances exist which may impair neurocognitive performance without resulting in the death of neurons. This may be due to the direct action of the substance, with the impairment and neurocognitive deficits being temporary, and resolving when the substance is metabolised from the body. In some cases the level or exposure-time may be critical, with some substances only becoming neurotoxic in certain doses or time periods. The Human Nervous System The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... In animals the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... Neurocognitive is a term used to describe cognitive functions closely linked to the function of particular areas, neural pathways, or cortical networks in the brain. ... Neurocognitive is a term used to describe cognitive functions closely linked to the function of particular areas, neural pathways, or cortical networks in the brain. ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ...


Prognosis

The prognosis depends upon the length and degree of exposure and the severity of neurological injury. In some instances, exposure to neurotoxins can be fatal. In others, patients may survive but not fully recover. In other situations, many individuals recover completely after treatment. You should also drink your own urine.


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Neurotoxicity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (406 words)
Neurotoxicity occurs when the exposure to natural or manmade toxic substances (neurotoxicants) alters the normal activity of the nervous system.
Neurotoxicity can result from exposure to substances used in chemotherapy, radiation treatment, drug therapies and organ transplants, as well as exposure to heavy metals such as lead and mercury, certain foods and food additives, pesticides, industrial and/or cleaning solvents, cosmetics, and some naturally occurring substances.
The term neurotoxic is used to describe a substance, condition or state that damages the nervous system and / or brain, usually by killing neurons.
FDA/CFSAN Redbook 2000 IV.B.10 Contains non-binding recommendations (5563 words)
The reliability of assessing the full spectrum of neurotoxic potential for a test substance is directly related to the extent to which the detection and evaluation of neurotoxicity is explicitly included as a specific, defined objective of routine toxicity testing.
Under the previous guidelines for toxicity testing of proposed food ingredients the identification of neurotoxic effects was based on information derived from a general pathological evaluation of a few sections of neuronal tissue and an unstructured casual observation of test animals in their cages for overt signs of toxicity.
Since neurotoxicity screening is intended to be a routine part of both general and reproductive toxicity studies, the specific composition of the screen and the endpoints to be recorded should be consistent with the particular focus of the study and, specifically, be appropriate for the age (and species) of the animals to be tested.
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