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Encyclopedia > Neurosis

Neurosis, also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, is a "catch all" term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but, unlike a psychosis or some personality disorders, does not prevent or affect rational thought. It is particularly associated with the field of psychoanalysis. Look up Distress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... Personality disorders form a class of mental disorders that are characterized by long-lasting rigid patterns of thought and behaviour. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ...

Contents

History and use of the term

To differentiate between neurosis and neurotic: "Neurotic", or affected by neurosis, has come to describe a person with any degree of depression or anxiety, depressed feelings, lack of emotions, low self-confidence, and/or emotional instability.


The term was coined by the Scottish doctor William Cullen in 1769 to refer to "disorders of sense and motion" caused by a "general affection of the nervous system." For him, it described various nervous disorders and symptoms that could not be explained physiologically. It derives from the Greek word neuron (nerve) with the suffix -osis (diseased or abnormal condition). The term was however most influentially defined by Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud over a century later. William Cullen (April 15, 1710 – February 5, 1790) was a Scottish physician and chemist. ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ... Jung redirects here. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ...


The American DSM-III has eliminated the category of Neurosis altogether. This largely reflects a decline in the fashionability of psychoanalysis, and the progressive expurgation of psychoanalytical terminology from the DSM. Those who retain a psychoanalytical perspective, which would include a majority of psychologists in countries such as France, continue to use the term 'neurosis'. According to The American Heritage Medical Dictionary it is "no longer used in psychiatric diagnosis."[1] The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States and other countries. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ...


Psychoanalytical account of neurosis

As an illness, neurosis represents a variety of psychiatric conditions in which emotional distress or unconscious conflict is expressed through various physical, physiological, and mental disturbances, which may include physical symptoms (e.g., hysteria). The definitive symptom is anxieties. Neurotic tendencies are common and may manifest themselves as depression, acute or chronic anxiety, obsessive-compulsive tendencies, phobias, and even personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. It has perhaps been most simply defined as a "poor ability to adapt to one's environment, an inability to change one's life patterns, and the inability to develop a richer, more complex, more satisfying personality." [2] Neurosis should not be mistaken for psychosis, which refers to loss of touch with reality. Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health) can be defined as a state of poor health. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ... This article is about state anxiety. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... This article is about state anxiety. ... OCD redirects here. ... For other uses, see Phobia (disambiguation). ... Personality disorders form a class of mental disorders that are characterized by long-lasting rigid patterns of thought and behaviour. ... Borderline Personality Disorder (DSM-IV Personality Disorders 301. ... OCPD redirects here. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ...


The term connotes an actual disorder or disease, but under its general definition, neurosis is a normal human experience, part of the human condition. Most people are affected by neurosis in some form. A psychological problem develops when neuroses begin to interfere with, but not significantly impair, normal functioning, and thus cause the individual anxiety. Frequently, the coping mechanisms enlisted to help "ward off" the anxiety only exacerbate the situation, causing more distress. It has even been defined in terms of this coping strategy, as a "symbolic behavior in defense against excessive psychobiologic pain [which] is self-perpetuating because symbolic satisfactions cannot fulfill real needs." [3] A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... This article is about the medical term. ... For other uses, see Human condition (disambiguation). ...


According to psychoanalytic theory, neuroses may be rooted in ego defense mechanisms, but the two concepts are not synonymous. Defense mechanisms are a normal way of developing and maintaining a consistent sense of self (i.e., an ego), while only those thought and behavior patterns that produce difficulties in living should be termed neuroses. Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... eGO is a company that builds electric motor scooters which are becoming popular for urban transportation and vacation use. ... In psychoanalytic theory, a defence mechanism is an unconscious way to protect ones personality from unpleasant thoughts which may otherwise cause anxiety. ... eGO is a company that builds electric motor scooters which are becoming popular for urban transportation and vacation use. ...


Effects and symptoms

There are many different specific forms of neuroses: pyromania, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety neurosis, hysteria (in which anxiety may be discharged through a physical symptom), and an endless variety of phobias. According to Dr. George Boeree, effects of neurosis can involve: Property damage caused by fire Pyromania is an obsession with fire and starting fires in an intentional fashion. ... This article is about state anxiety. ... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ... For other uses, see Phobia (disambiguation). ...

...anxiety, sadness or depression, anger, irritability, mental confusion, low sense of self-worth, etc., behavioral symptoms such as phobic avoidance, vigilance, impulsive and compulsive acts, lethargy, etc., cognitive problems such as unpleasant or disturbing thoughts, repetition of thoughts and obsession, habitual fantasizing, negativity and cynicism, etc. Interpersonally, neurosis involves dependency, aggressiveness, perfectionism, schizoid isolation, socio-culturally inappropriate behaviors, etc. [4] This article is about state anxiety. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... OCD redirects here. ... Perfectionism, in psychology, is a belief that perfection should be strived for. ...

Treatment

Although neuroses are targeted by psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, counseling, cognitive behavioral therapy or other psychiatric techniques, there is still controversy over whether these professionals can perform accurate and reliable diagnoses, and whether many of the resulting treatments are also appropriate, effective, and reliable. Some studies show no benefit is gained from talk therapies; yet a vast majority of studies suggest therapy is beneficial, particularly when adequate rapport is established between client and therapist. Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... The word counseling or counselling comes from the Middle English counseil, from Old French conseil, from Latin cōnsilium; akin to cōnsulere, to take counsel, consult. ... A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapy based on modifying cognitions, assumptions, beliefs and behaviors, with the aim of influencing disturbed emotions. ... An MRI scan of a human brain and head. ...



Jung's theory of neurosis

Jung found his approach particularly fitting for people who are successfully adjusted by normal social standards, but who nevertheless have issues with the meaning of their life. Jungs theory of neurosis is based on the premise of a self-regulating psyche composed of tensions between opposing attitudes of the ego and the unconscious. ...

I have frequently seen people become neurotic when they content themselves with inadequate or wrong answers to the questions of life (Jung, [1961] 1989:140).

The majority of my patients consisted not of believers but of those who had lost their faith (Jung, [1961] 1989:140).

[Contemporary man] is blind to the fact that, with all his rationality and efficiency, he is possessed by "powers" that are beyond his control. His gods and demons have not disappeared at all; they have merely got new names. They keep him on the run with restlessness, vague apprehensions, psychological complications, an insatiable need for pills, alcohol, tobacco, food – and, above all, a large array of neuroses. (Jung, 1964:82).

Jung found that the unconscious finds expression primarily through an individual’s inferior psychological function, whether it is thinking, feeling, sensing, or intuition. The characteristic effects of a neurosis on the dominant and inferior functions are discussed in Psychological Types. Psychological Types is the sixth volume in the Princeton/Bollingen edition of the Collected Works of Carl Jung. ...


Jung saw collective neuroses in politics... "Our world is, so to speak, dissociated like a neurotic" (Jung, 1964:85).


Mass Neurosis

Sir V.S. Naipaul, in his book Beyond Belief: Islamic Excursions among the Converted Peoples calls certain communities as undergoing Mass Neurosis, esp. converted ones, like Islamic and Christian communities which exhibit all symptoms and behaviours of neurosis, but on a larger social scale.


References

  1. ^ The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin. 2007. (ISBN 9780618824359)
  2. ^ Boeree, Dr. C. George. "A Bio-Social Theory of Neurosis", 2002.
  3. ^ Janov, Dr. Arthur. "Neurosis", 1998.
  4. ^ Boeree, Dr. C. George. "A Bio-Social Theory of Neurosis", 2002.
  • Freud, Sigmund. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Trans. James Strachey. 24 vols. London: Hogarth, 1953-74.
  • Horney, Karen. The Collected Works. (2 Vols.) Norton, 1937.
  • Jung, C.G., et al. (1964). Man and his Symbols, New York, N.Y.: Anchor Books, Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-05221-9.
  • Jung, C.G. (1966). Two Essays on Analytical Psychology, Collected Works, Volume 7, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01782-4.
  • Jung, C.G. [1921] (1971). Psychological Types, Collected Works, Volume 6, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01813-8.
  • Jung, C.G. [1961] (1989). 'Memories, Dreams, Reflections, New York, N.Y.: Vantage Books. ISBN 0-679-72395-1
  • Winokur, Jon. Encyclopedia Neurotica. 2005. ISBN 0-312-32501-0.
  • Naipaul, Sir V.S. (1998) Beyond Belief: Islamic Excursions among the Converted Peoples, Vintage books.

Karen Horney (pronounced Horn-eye, 1885-1952) was a German-American psychoanalyst She is usually classified as neo-Freudian). Horney was born in Hamburg into a Norwegian-Dutch family. ...

External links

  • Boeree, Dr. C. George, "A Bio-Social Theory of Neurosis".
  • Janov, Dr. Arthur, "Neurosis".[[tr:Nevroz]

  Results from FactBites:
 
Neurosis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (811 words)
In modern psychology, the term neurosis, also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, is a general term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but (unlike a psychosis or personality disorder) does not interfere with rational thought or an individual's ability to function in daily life.
A neurosis, in psychoanalytic theory, is an ineffectual coping strategy that Sigmund Freud suggested is a situation where the ego's efforts to resolve emotional conflicts between the id and superego using one or more coping or defense mechanisms fail.
There are many different specific forms of neuroses: pyromania, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety neurosis, hysteria (in which anxiety may be discharged through a physical symptom), and an endless variety of phobias.
Neurosis (band) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (341 words)
Neurosis is an experimental metal/indie/industrial/hardcore music band with influences ranging from hardcore punk and sludge metal to dark ambient, industrial, and tribal music.
Although Neurosis has been lumped into the crossover thrash genre, probably because of their previous gutter punk style, the band has steadily evolved into a musical whirlwind of what one may refer to as an Apocalyptic folk sound.
Neurosis' sound is on occasion reminiscent of the more experimental work of Swans and Pink Floyd.
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