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Encyclopedia > Neuroscience
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Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal

Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. Such studies may include the structure, function, evolutionary history, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology of the nervous system. Traditionally it is seen as a branch of biological sciences. However, recently there has been a surge in the convergence of interest from many allied disciplines, including cognitive- and neuro-psychology, computer science, statistics, physics, and medicine. The scope of neuroscience has now broadened to include any systematic scientific experimental and theoretical investigation of the central and peripheral nervous system of biological organisms. The methodologies employed by neuroscientists have been enormously expanded, from biochemical and genetic analysis of dynamics of individual nerve cells and their molecular constituents to imaging representations of perceptual and motor tasks in the brain. Image File history File links Phrenology1. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Drawing of the cells of the chick cerebellum by Santiago Ramón y Cajal, from Estructura de los centros nerviosos de las aves, Madrid, 1905?. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Drawing of the cells of the chick cerebellum by Santiago Ramón y Cajal, from Estructura de los centros nerviosos de las aves, Madrid, 1905?. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Santiago Ramón y Cajal Santiago Ramón y Cajal (May 1, 1852 – October 17, 1934) was a famous Spanish histologist, physician, and Nobel laureate. ... Neuroanatomy is the anatomy of the nervous system. ... Behavioral neuroscience approach. ... Evolutionary neuroscience is a young field which awaits a general unified theory of neuroscience in order for its full integration into the accepted framework of evolutionary biology. ... The study of neural development draws on both neuroscience and developmental biology to describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic development and throughout life. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... This is a discussion of a present category of science. ... Medicine is the science and art of maintaining andor restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. ... Neuroscience is a field of study which deals with the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology and pathology of the nervous system. ... Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Neuroimaging. ...


Neuroscience is at the frontier of investigation of the brain and mind. The study of the brain is becoming the cornerstone in understanding how we perceive and interact with the external world and, in particular, how human experience and human biology influence each other.

Contents

Overview

The scientific study of the nervous systems underwent a significant increase in the second half of the twentieth century, principally due to revolutions in molecular biology, neural networks and computational neuroscience. It has become possible to understand, in exquisite detail, the complex processes occurring inside a single neuron and in a network that eventually produces the intellectual behavior, cognition, emotion and physiological responses. Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... // See also Artificial neural network. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Neuroinformatics. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ...

stained neuron
stained neuron
The task of neural science is to explain behavior in terms of the activities of the brain. How does the brain marshal its millions of individual nerve cells to produce behavior, and how are these cells influenced by the environment...? The last frontier of the biological sciences--their ultimate challenge--is to understand the biological basis of consciousness and the mental processes by which we perceive, act, learn, and remember. — Eric Kandel, Principles of Neural science, fourth edition

The nervous system is composed of a network of neurons and other supportive cells (such as glial cells). Neurons form functional circuits, each responsible for specific tasks to the behaviors at the organism level. Thus, neuroscience can be studied at many different levels, ranging from molecular level to cellular level to systems level to cognitive level. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (864x1013, 59 KB) Neuron from Chicken embryo photographed with conical microscope after being dyed. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (864x1013, 59 KB) Neuron from Chicken embryo photographed with conical microscope after being dyed. ... Eric Richard Kandel (born November 7, 1929) is a neuroscientist who won a Nobel Prize in the year 2000 for his research on the physiological basis of memory storage in neurons. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... Neuroglia of the brain shown by Golgis method. ...


At the molecular level, the basic questions addressed in molecular neuroscience include the mechanisms by which neurons express and respond to molecular signals and how axons form complex connectivity patterns. At this level, tools from molecular biology and genetics are used to understand how neurons develop and die, and how genetic changes affect biological functions. The morphology, molecular identity and physiological characteristics of neurons and how they relate to different types of behavior are also of considerable interest. (The ways in which neurons and their connections are modified by experience are addressed at the physiological and cognitive levels.) Neurochemistry is a branch of neuroscience that is heavily devoted to the study of neurochemicals. ... An axon, or nerve fiber, is a long slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, which conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ...


At the cellular level, the fundamental questions addressed in cellular neuroscience are the mechanisms of how neurons process signals physiologically and electrochemically. They address how signals are processed by the dendrites, somas and axons, and how neurotransmitters and electrical signals are used to process signals in a neuron. Neurobiology is the study of cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior. ... Dendrites (from Greek dendron, “tree”) are the branched projections of a neuron that act to conduct the electrical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project. ... This article is about the Vedic plant and ritual. ... An axon or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ...


At the systems level, the questions addressed in systems neuroscience include how the circuits are formed and used anatomically and physiologically to produce the physiological functions, such as reflexes, sensory integration, motor coordination, emotional responses, learning and memory, et cetera. In other words, they address how these neural circuits function and the mechanisms through which behaviors are generated. For example, systems level analysis addresses questions concerning specific sensory and motor modalities: how does vision work? How do songbirds learn new songs and bats localize with ultrasound? The related field of neuroethology, in particular, addresses the complex question of how neural substrates underlies specific animal behavior. Systems neuroscience is a subdicipline of neuroscience which studies the neural circuit function, most commonly in awake, behaving intact organisms. ... This article is about biological reflex. ... Sensory integration is defined as the neurological process that organizes sensation from ones own body and the environment, thus making it possible to use the body effectively within the environment. ... Explain the dystonias connected with motor coordination. ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... A songbird is a bird belonging to the suborder Oscines of Passeriformes (ca. ... For the flying mammal see bat. ... For other uses, see Ultrasound (disambiguation). ... Neuroethology (from Greek - neuron meaning from nerves, ethos meaning trait or character, and logos meaning words or study) is the scientific study of animal behaviour with its base in neurology. ...

Animation of a stack of horizontal MRI sections of a normal adult human brain
Animation of a stack of horizontal MRI sections of a normal adult human brain

At the cognitive level, cognitive neuroscience addresses the questions of how psychological/cognitive functions are produced by the neural circuitry. The emergence of powerful new measurement techniques such as neuroimaging (e.g.,fMRI, PET, SPECT), electrophysiology and human genetic analysis combined with sophisticated experimental techniques from cognitive psychology allows neuroscientists and psychologists to address abstract questions such as how human cognition and emotion are mapped to specific neural circuitries. Made from an fMRI scan I had done. ... Diagram showing the three major planes of the body. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with functional neuroimaging. ... Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (or fMRI) describes the use of MRI to measure hemodynamic signals related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays. ... Current Clamp is a common technique in electrophysiology. ... A graphical representation of the normal human karyotype. ...


Neuroscience is also beginning to become allied with social sciences, and burgeoning interdisciplinary fields of neuroeconomics, decision theory, social neuroscience are starting to address some of the most complex questions involving interactions of brain with environment. The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Neuroeconomics combines neuroscience, economics, and psychology to study how we make choices. ... Decision theory is an interdisciplinary area of study, related to and of interest to practitioners in mathematics, statistics, economics, philosophy, management and psychology. ... Social neuroscience is a field of research that spans social psychology, neuroscience, and physiology. ...


Neuroscience generally includes all scientific studies involving the nervous system. Psychology, as the scientific study of mental processes, may be considered a sub-field of neuroscience, although some mind/body theorists argue that the definition goes the other way — that psychology is a study of mental processes that can be modeled by many other abstract principles and theories, such as behaviorism and traditional cognitive psychology, that are independent of the underlying neural processes. The term neurobiology is sometimes used interchangeably with neuroscience, though the former refers to the biology of nervous system, whereas the latter refers to science of mental functions that form the foundation of the constituent neural circuitries. In Principles of Neural Science, nobel laureate Eric Kandel contends that cognitive psychology is one of the pillar disciplines for understanding the brain in neuroscience. Neurobiology is the study of cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ...


Neurology and Psychiatry are medical specialties and are generally considered, in academic research, subfields of neuroscience that specifically address the diseases of the nervous system. These terms also refer to clinical disciplines involving diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Neurology deals with diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and stroke, while psychiatry focuses on mental illnesses. The boundaries between the two have been blurring recently and physicians who specialize in either generally receive training in both. Both neurology and psychiatry are heavily involved in and influenced by basic research in neuroscience. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, sometimes called Lou Gehrigs Disease, Maladie de Charcot or motor neurone disease) is a progressive, fatal, neurodegenerative disease caused by the degeneration of motor neurons, the nerve cells in the central nervous system that control voluntary muscle movement. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... The Scream, the famous painting commonly thought of as depicting the experience of mental illness. ...


History of Neuroscience

Main article: History of the brain

Evidence of trepanation, the surgical practice of either drilling or scraping a hole into the skull with the aim of curing headaches or mental disorders or relieving cranial pressure, being performed on patients dates back to Neolithic times and has been found in various cultures throughout the world. Manuscripts dating back to 5000BC indicated that the Egyptians had some knowledge about symptoms of brain damage. The history of the brain details the development of thoughts, speculations, and ideas as to the function of the central nervous system, over the last five-thousand years. ... 18th century French illustration of trepanation Trepanation (also known as trepanning, trephination, trephining or burr hole) is a form of surgery in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the skull, thus exposing the dura mater in order to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases, though in the... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ...


Early views on the function of the brain regarded it to be a "cranial stuffing" of sorts. In Egypt, from the late Middle Kingdom onwards, the brain was regularly removed in preparation for mummification. It was believed at the time that the heart was the seat of intelligence. According to Herodotus, during the first step of mummification: 'The most perfect practice is to extract as much of the brain as possible with an iron hook, and what the hook cannot reach is mixed with drugs.'[citation needed] The Middle Kingdom is: a old name for China a period in the History of Ancient Egypt, the Middle Kingdom of Egypt This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A mummy is a corpse whose skin and dried flesh have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or airlessness. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ...


The view that the heart was the source of consciousness was not challenged until the time of Hippocrates. He believed that the brain was not only involved with sensation, since most specialized organs (e.g., eyes, ears, tongue) are located in the head near the brain, but was also the seat of intelligence. Aristotle, however, believed that the heart was the center of intelligence and that the brain served to cool the blood. This view was generally accepted until the Roman physician Galen, a follower of Hippocrates and physician to Roman gladiators, observed that his patients lost their mental faculties when they had sustained damage to their brains. For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ...


In Al-Andalus, Abulcasis, the father of modern surgery, developed material and technical designs which are still used in neurosurgery. Averroes suggested the existence of Parkinson's disease and attributed photoreceptor properties to the retina. Avenzoar described meningitis, intracranial thrombophlebitis, mediastinal tumours and made contributions to modern neuropharmacology. Maimonides wrote about neuropsychiatric disorders and described rabies and belladonna intoxication.[1] Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Insertion of an electrode during neurosurgery for Parkinsons disease. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... A photoreceptor, or photoreceptor cell, is a specialized type of neuron found in the eyes retina that is capable of phototransduction. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar, Abumeron, ibn-Zohr) (1090? - 1162) was an Arab (Spanish-born) physician. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into deep vein thrombosis. ... Malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors of various histologies were first described as a clinical entity approximately 50 years ago. ... Neuropharmacology is the branch of health science concerned with the study of drugs on the nervous system. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Neuropsychiatry is the branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system. ... Binomial name L. Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), also known as belladonna or dwale, is a well-known perennial herbaceous plant, with leaves and berries that are highly toxic and hallucinogenic. ...


Studies of the brain became more sophisticated after the invention of the microscope and the development of a staining procedure by Camillo Golgi during the late 1890s that used a silver chromate salt to reveal the intricate structures of single neurons. His technique was used by Santiago Ramón y Cajal and led to the formation of the neuron doctrine, the hypothesis that the functional unit of the brain is the neuron. Golgi and Ramón y Cajal shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1906 for their extensive observations, descriptions and categorizations of neurons throughout the brain. The hypotheses of the neuron doctrine were supported by experiments following Galvani's pioneering work in the electrical excitability of muscles and neurons. In the late 19th century, DuBois-Reymond, Müller, and von Helmholtz showed neurons were electrically excitable and that their activity predictably affected the electrical state of adjacent neurons. Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ... Camillo Golgi, 1906. ... Santiago Ramón y Cajal Santiago Ramón y Cajal (May 1, 1852 – October 17, 1934) was a famous Spanish histologist, physician, and Nobel laureate. ... Ramón y Cajals drawing of the cells of the chick cerebellum, from Estructura de los centros nerviosos de las aves, Madrid, 1905. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Luigi Galvani Luigi Galvani (September 9, 1737–December 4, 1798) was an Italian physician and physicist who lived and died in Bologna. ... Paul David Gustav du Bois-Reymond (December 2, 1831 - April 7, 1889) was a mathematician who was born in Berlin, Germany and died in Freiburg, Germany. ... Johannes Peter Müller (July 14, 1801, Koblenz – April 28, 1858, Berlin), was a German physiologist, comparative anatomist, and ichthyologist not only known for his discoveries but also for his ability to synthesize knowledge. ... Hermann von Helmholtz Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist. ...


In parallel with this research, work with brain-damaged patients by Paul Broca suggested that certain regions of the brain were responsible for certain functions. This hypothesis was supported by observations of epileptic patients conducted by John Hughlings Jackson, who correctly deduced the organization of motor cortex by watching the progression of seizures through the body. Wernicke further developed the theory of the specialization of specific brain structures in language comprehension and production. Modern research still uses the Brodmann cytoarchitectonic (referring to study of cell structure) anatomical definitions from this era in continuing to show that distinct areas of the cortex are activated in the execution of specific tasks. Paul Pierre Broca (June 28, 1824 - July 9, 1880) was a French physician, anatomist and anthropologist. ... This article is about the neurological disorder as it affects humans. ... John Hughlings Jackson (1835–1911), was an English neurologist; born at Providence, Green Hammerton, Yorkshire. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wernicke is a surname, and may refer to Christian Wernicke Herbert Wernicke Karl Wernicke - a German physician after which Wernickes area and Wernickes encephalopathy was named after. ... Korbinian Brodmann (November 17, 1868 - August 22, 1918) was a German neurologist who became famous for his definition of the cerebral cortex into 52 distinct regions from their cytoarchitectonic (histological) characteristics. ...


ref: Principles of Neural Science, 4th ed. Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, Thomas M. Jessel, eds. McGraw-Hill:New York, NY. 2000.


Andrea Vesalius (1514-1564) René Descartes (1596-1650) Vesalius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... “Descartes” redirects here. ...


Major Branches of Neuroscience

Current neuroscience research activities can be very roughly categorized into the following major branches, based on the subject and scale of the system in examination as well as distinct experimental approaches. Individual neuroscientists, however, often work on questions that span several distinct subfields.

Branch Major Topics and Concepts Experimental and Theoretical Methods
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience behavioral genetics, neurocytology, glia, protein trafficking, ion channel, synapse, action potential, neurotransmitters, neuroimmunology PCR, immunohistochemistry, patch clamp, voltage clamp, molecular cloning, gene knockout, biochemical assays, linkage analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization, Southern blots, DNA microarray, green fluorescent protein, calcium imaging, two-photon microscopy, HPLC, microdialysis
Behavioral Neuroscience biological psychology, circadian rhythms, neuroendocrinology, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neurotransmitters, homeostasis, dimorphic sexual-behavior, motor control, sensory processing, photo reception, organizational/activational effects of hormones, drug/alcohol effects animal models (gene knockout), in situ hybridization, golgi stain, fMRI, immunohistochemistry, functional genomics, PET, pattern recognition, EEG, MEG
Systems Neuroscience primary visual cortex, perception, audition, sensory integration, population coding, pain, spontaneous and evoked activity, color vision, olfaction, taste, motor system, spinal cord, sleep, homeostasis, arousal, attention single unit recording, intrinsic signal imaging, microstimulation, voltage sensitive dyes, fMRI, patch clamp, genomics, training awake behaving animals, local field potential, ROC, cortical cooling, calcium imaging, two-photon microscopy
Developmental Neuroscience axon guidance, neural crest, growth factors, growth cone, neuromuscular junction, cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, cell survival and apoptosis, synaptic formation, motor differentiation, injury and regeneration Xenopus oocyte, protein chemistry, genomics, Drosophila, Hox gene
Cognitive Neuroscience attention, cognitive control, behavioral genetics, decision making, emotion, language, memory, motivation, motor learning, perception, sexual behavior, social neuroscience experimental designs from cognitive psychology, psychometrics, EEG, MEG, fMRI, PET, SPECT, single unit recording, human genetics
Computational and Theoretical Neuroscience cable theory, Hodgkin-Huxley model, neural networks, voltage-gated currents, Hebbian learning Markov chain Monte Carlo, simulated annealing, high performance computing, partial differential equations, self-organizing nets, pattern recognition
Neuroscience of Diseases and Aging dementia, peripheral neuropathy, spinal cord injury, autonomic nervous system, depression, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, addiction, memory loss clinical trials, neuropharmacology, deep brain stimulation, neurosurgery
Neural engineering Neuroprosthetic, brain-computer interface
Neurolinguistics language, Broca's area, generative grammar, language acquisition, syntax

Neurochemistry is a branch of neuroscience that is heavily devoted to the study of neurochemicals. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Behavioural genetics (behavioral genetics) is the field of biology that studies the role of genetics in animal behaviour. ... Neuroglia cells of the brain shown by Golgis method. ... Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. ... Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical synapse. ... A. A schematic view of an idealized action potential illustrates its various phases as the action potential passes a point on a cell membrane. ... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a presynaptic and a postsynaptic neuron. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with psychoneuroimmunology. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. ... Classical patch clamp setup, with microscope, antivibration table and micro manipulators Complete miniaturized planar patch clamp setup Patch clamp technique is a technique in electrophysiology that allows the study of individual ion channels in cells. ... Electrophysiology is the science and branch of physiology that pertains to the flow of ions in biological tissues and, in particular, to the electrical recording techniques that enable the measurement of this flow. ... Molecular cloning refers to the procedure of isolating a defined DNA sequence and obtaining multiple copies of it in vivo. ... A gene knockout is a genetically engineered organism that carries one or more genes in its chromosomes that has been made inoperative. ... Genetic linkage occurs when particular alleles are inherited together. ... A metaphase cell positive for the bcr/abl rearrangement using FISH. The chromosomes can be seen in blue. ... A Southern blot is a method routinely used in molecular biology to check for the presence of a DNA sequence in a DNA sample. ... It has been suggested that Gene chip technology be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that mGFP be merged into this article or section. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Two-photon excitation microscopy is a technique that allows imaging living tissue up to a depth of one millimeter. ... Chromatography is a family of analytical chemistry techniques for the separation of mixtures. ... Microdialysis is a technique to monitor the chemistry of the extracellular space in living tissue. ... Behavioral neuroscience approach. ... Biological psychology, sometimes referred to as psychobiology or biopsychology, is a subfield of psychology. ... The Circadian rhythm is a name given to the internal body clock that regulates the (roughly) 24 hour cycle of biological processes in animals and plants. ... Neuroendocrinology is the study of the interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is a way of referring to the combined effects of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity. ... It has been suggested that HTPA be merged into this article or section. ... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a presynaptic and a postsynaptic neuron. ... Homeostasis is the property of either an open system or a closed system,[1] especially a living organism, to regulate its internal environment to maintain a stable, constant condition. ... Motor control is the field of Neuroscience that studies neuronal mechanisms of movements. ... A gene knockout is a genetically engineered organism that carries one or more genes in its chromosomes that has been made inoperative. ... In situ hybridization (ISH) is a type of hybridization that uses a labeled complementary DNA or RNA strand (i. ... Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (or fMRI) describes the use of MRI to measure hemodynamic signals related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals. ... Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. ... A DNA microarray Functional genomics is a field of molecular biology that attempts to make use of the vast wealth of data produced by genomic projects (such as genome sequencing projects) to describe gene (and protein!) functions and interactions. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... Pattern recognition is a field within the area of machine learning. ... EEG can mean: Electroencephalography - the method and science of recording and interpreting traces of brain electrical activity as recorded from the skull surface or the device used to record such traces Emperor Entertainment Group - A Hong Kong entertainment company. ... Meg may refer to: An informal abbreviation for the SI unit megabyte An informal abbreviation for the SI unit megohm An informal abbreviation for the extinct megalodon shark Meg: A Novel of Deep Terror, a novel featuring a megalodon Meg (film), Status: Announced Meg (Mag), a short form of the... Systems neuroscience is a subdicipline of neuroscience which studies the neural circuit function, most commonly in awake, behaving intact organisms. ... Brodmann area 17 (primary visual cortex) is shown in red in this image which also shows area 18 (orange) and 19 (yellow) The primary visual cortex (usually called V1) is the most well-studied visual area in the brain. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Hearing is one of the traditional five senses, and refers to the ability to detect sound. ... Sensory integration is defined as the neurological process that organizes sensation from ones own body and the environment, thus making it possible to use the body effectively within the environment. ... Population encoding is a means by which information about something is encoded in the brain. ... “Hurting” redirects here. ... Color vision is the capacity of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect or emit. ... Young boy smelling a flower Olfaction, which is also known as Olfactics is the sense of smell, and the detection of chemicals dissolved in air. ... Taste is one of the traditional five senses and refers to the ability to detect the flavor of foodstuffs and other substances (e. ... Structure of a skeletal muscle Muscle is one of the four tissue types. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ... Homeostasis is the property of either an open system or a closed system,[1] especially a living organism, to regulate its internal environment to maintain a stable, constant condition. ... Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being awake. ... It has been suggested that Neural mechanisms behind shifts of attention be merged into this article or section. ... Single unit recording refers to the use of an electrode to record the electrophysiological activity (action potentials) from a single neuron. ... Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (or fMRI) describes the use of MRI to measure hemodynamic signals related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals. ... Classical patch clamp setup, with microscope, antivibration table and micro manipulators Complete miniaturized planar patch clamp setup Patch clamp technique is a technique in electrophysiology that allows the study of individual ion channels in cells. ... Genomics is the study of an organisms entire genome; Rathore et al, . Investigation of single genes, their functions and roles is something very common in todays medical and biological research, and cannot be said to be genomics but rather the most typical feature of molecular biology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A local field potential (LFP) is a particular class of electrophysiological signals, which is related to the sum of all dendritic synaptic activity within a volume of tissue. ... ROC, Roc, roc, R.O.C, The R.O.C. or R.o. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Two-photon excitation microscopy is a technique that allows imaging living tissue up to a depth of one millimeter. ... The study of neural development draws on both neuroscience and developmental biology to describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic development and throughout life. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The neural crest, a component of the ectoderm, is one of several ridgelike clusters of cells found on either side of the neural tube in vertebrate embryos. ... Growth factor is any of about twenty small proteins that attach to specific receptors on the surface of stem cells in bone marrow and promote differentiation and maturation of these cells into morphotic constituents of blood. ... Image of a growth cone (red) extending from an axon (green). ... A neuromuscular junction is the junction of the axon terminal of a motoneuron with the motor end plate, the highly-excitable region of muscle fiber plasma membrane responsible for initiation of action potentials across the muscles surface. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... Differentiation can mean the following: In biology: cellular differentiation; evolutionary differentiation; In mathematics: see: derivative In cosmogony: planetary differentiation Differentiation (geology); Differentiation (logic); Differentiation (marketing). ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow Apoptosis (pronounced apo tō sis) is a process of suicide by a cell in a multicellular organism. ... Species Xenopus amieti (volcano clawed frog) Xenopus andrei (Andres clawed frog) Xenopus borealis (Kenyan clawed frog) Xenopus boumbaensis (Mawa clawed frog) Xenopus clivii (Eritrea clawed frog) Xenopus fraseri (Frasers clawed frog) Xenopus gilli (Cape clawed frog) Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) Xenopus largeni Xenopus longipes (savannah clawed frog... An oocyte or ovocyte is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Genomics is the study of an organisms entire genome; Rathore et al, . Investigation of single genes, their functions and roles is something very common in todays medical and biological research, and cannot be said to be genomics but rather the most typical feature of molecular biology. ... Type species Drosophila funebris (Fabricius, 1787) Drosophila is a genus of small flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called fruit flies, or more appropriately vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger... A homeobox is a stretch of DNA sequence found in genes involved in the regulation of the development (morphogenesis) of animals, fungi and plants. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ... It has been suggested that Neural mechanisms behind shifts of attention be merged into this article or section. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Behavioural genetics (behavioral genetics) is the field of biology that studies the role of genetics in animal behaviour. ... Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Look up Motivation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Motor learning is the process of improving the smoothness and accuracy of movements. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Sexual behavior is a form of physical intimacy that may be directed to reproduction (one possible goal of sexual intercourse) and/or to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. ... Social neuroscience is a field of research that spans social psychology, neuroscience, and physiology. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... For the parapsychology phenomenon of distance knowledge, see psychometry. ... EEG can mean: Electroencephalography - the method and science of recording and interpreting traces of brain electrical activity as recorded from the skull surface or the device used to record such traces Emperor Entertainment Group - A Hong Kong entertainment company. ... Meg may refer to: An informal abbreviation for the SI unit megabyte An informal abbreviation for the SI unit megohm An informal abbreviation for the extinct megalodon shark Meg: A Novel of Deep Terror, a novel featuring a megalodon Meg (film), Status: Announced Meg (Mag), a short form of the... Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (or fMRI) describes the use of MRI to measure hemodynamic signals related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays. ... Single unit recording refers to the use of an electrode to record the electrophysiological activity (action potentials) from a single neuron. ... A karyotype of a human male, showing 46 chromosomes including XY sex chromosomes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Neuroinformatics. ... // [edit] Overview Figure. ... The Hodgkin-Huxley Model is a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations, named after Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley, that approximates the electrical characteristics of excitable cells such as neurons and cardiac myocytes. ... // See also Artificial neural network. ... Hebbian learning is a hypothesis for how neuronal connections are enforced in mammalian brains; it is also a technique for weight selection in artificial neural networks. ... Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods (which include random walk Monte Carlo methods) are a class of algorithms for sampling from probability distributions based on constructing a Markov chain that has the desired distribution as its stationary distribution. ... For other uses, see Annealing. ... The field of high performance computing (HPC) comprises computing applications on (parallel) supercomputers and computer clusters. ... In mathematics, and in particular analysis, a partial differential equation (PDE) is an equation involving partial derivatives of an unknown function. ... Pattern recognition is a field within the area of machine learning. ... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ... Peripheral neuropathy is the term for damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases of the nerve or from the side-effects of systemic illness. ... Spinal cord injury, or myelopathy, is a disturbance of the spinal cord that results in loss of sensation and/or mobility. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder, or unipolar depression when compared to bipolar disorder) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ... For other uses, see addicted. ... Memory loss can be caused by many things. ... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ... Neuropharmacology is the branch of health science concerned with the study of drugs on the nervous system. ... In neurotechnology, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical treatment involving the implantation of a medical device called a brain pacemaker, which sends electrical impulses to specific parts of the brain. ... Insertion of an electrode during neurosurgery for Parkinsons disease. ... It has been suggested that Neuro cybernetics be merged into this article or section. ... Neuroprosthetics is an area of neuroscience concerned with neural prostheses, developing artificial devices to replace or improve the function of an impaired nervous system. ... // A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain (or brain cell culture) and an external device. ... Neurolinguistics is the science concerned with the human brain mechanisms underlying the comprehension, production, and abstract knowledge of language, be it spoken, signed, or written. ... Brocas area is the section of the human brain (in the opercular and triangular sections of the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cortex) that is involved in language processing, speech production and comprehension. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Generative linguistics. ... Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics Language acquisition is the process by which the language capability develops in a human. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ...

Major Themes of Research

Neuroscience research from different areas can also be seen as focusing on a set of specific themes and questions. (Some of these are taken from http://www.northwestern.edu/nuin/fac/index.htm)

  • Neurobiology of the neuron
  • Sensation and perception
  • Sleep
  • Autonomic systems and homeostasis
  • Arousal, attention and emotion
  • Genetics of the nervous system
  • Injury of the nervous systems

Chronobiology is a field of science that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with functional neuroimaging. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Current Clamp is a common technique in electrophysiology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Neuroinformatics. ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Neurochemistry is a branch of neuroscience that is heavily devoted to the study of neurochemicals. ... Motor control is the field of Neuroscience that studies neuronal mechanisms of movements. ... Neurobiology is the study of cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior. ... Neuroendocrinology is the study of the interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with psychoneuroimmunology. ... Overview of signal transduction pathways In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in... Systems neuroscience is a subdicipline of neuroscience which studies the neural circuit function, most commonly in awake, behaving intact organisms. ... Universal grammar is a theory of linguistics postulating principles of grammar shared by all languages, thought to be innate to humans. ... Vision science is the science dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of visual perception and the visual system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sensation and perception psychology. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ...

Allied and Overlapping Fields

Neuroscience, by its very interdiciplinary nature, overlaps with and encompasses many different subjects. Below is a list of related subjects and fields.

Aphasiology is the study of linguistics problems resulting from brain damage. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Generative linguistics. ... As a broad subfield of artificial intelligence, machine learning is concerned with the design and development of algorithms and techniques that allow computers to learn. At a general level, there are two types of learning: inductive, and deductive. ... A neural network is an interconnected group of neurons. ... Evolutionary neuroscience is a young field which awaits a general unified theory of neuroscience in order for its full integration into the accepted framework of evolutionary biology. ... It has been suggested that Neuro cybernetics be merged into this article or section. ... Neuroanatomy is the anatomy of the nervous system. ... Neurobiology is the study of cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior. ... Neurochemistry is a branch of neuroscience that is heavily devoted to the study of neurochemicals. ... Neuroeconomics combines neuroscience, economics, and psychology to study how we make choices. ... The term Neuroergonomics was first used by Raja Parasuraman for describing the study of brain and behavior at work. ... Neuroendocrinology is the study of the interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system. ... Neuroesthetics is a relatively recent subdiscipline of empirical aesthetics. ... Neuroethics is most commonly understood to be the bioethics subcategory concerned with neuroscience and neurotechnology. ... Neuroethology (from Greek - neuron meaning from nerves, ethos meaning trait or character, and logos meaning words or study) is the scientific study of animal behaviour with its base in neurology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with functional neuroimaging. ... Neurolinguistics is the science concerned with the human brain mechanisms underlying the comprehension, production, and abstract knowledge of language, be it spoken, signed, or written. ... Neuromarketing is a new field of marketing which uses medical technologies such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to study the brains responses to marketing stimuli. ... Neuropharmacology is the branch of health science concerned with the study of drugs on the nervous system. ... Neurophenomenology is a hybrid scientific methodology that combines neuroscience with phenomenological psychology in order to study consciousness. ... Neurophilosophy is the interdisciplinary study of neuroscience and philosophy. ... Neurophysiology is a part of physiology as a science, which is concerned with the study of the nervous system. ... Neuroproteomics is dedicated to the analysis of proteins and protein complexes in the nervous system. ... Neuroprosthetics is an area of neuroscience concerned with neural prostheses, developing artificial devices to replace or improve the function of an impaired nervous system. ... Neuropsychiatry is the branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... Technical advancements in recent years have allowed progress toward the understanding of the brain and how drugs can be made to affect it. ... Not to be confused with neuroethology. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) investigates the relations between the psychophysiological and immunophysiological dimensions of living beings. ... Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry. ... This article or section should be merged with biological psychology Psychobiology, also called biopsychology, is the scientific study of mental functioning and behavior in relation to other biological processes, or put another way, of the effects of cognition, emotions, and experience on animal physiology. ... Biological psychology, sometimes referred to as psychobiology or biopsychology, is a subfield of psychology. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...

Future directions

Unsolved problems in : Note: Use the unsolved tag: {{unsolved|F|X}}, where F is any field in the sciences: and X is a concise explanation with or without links. ...

See also

Look up neuroscience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... This is a list of terms related to neuroscience. ... Many famous neuroscientists are from the 20th and 21st century, as neuroscience is a fairly new science. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A mind scientist is a person who studies the relations between society, philosophy and neuroscience. ...

References

Citations

  1. ^ Martin-Araguz, A.; Bustamante-Martinez, C.; Fernandez-Armayor, Ajo V.; Moreno-Martinez, J. M. (2002). "Neuroscience in al-Andalus and its influence on medieval scholastic medicine", Revista de neurología 34 (9), p. 877-892.

Textbooks

  • Bear, M.F.; B.W. Connors, and M.A. Paradiso (2001). Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. Baltimore: Lippincott. ISBN 0-7817-3944-6. 
  • Kandel, ER; Schwartz JH, Jessell TM (2000). Principles of Neural Science, 4th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-8385-7701-6. 
  • Squire, L. et al. (2003). Fundamental Neuroscience, 2nd edition. Academic Press; ISBN 0-12-660303-0
  • Byrne and Roberts (2004). From Molecules to Networks. Academic Press; ISBN 0-12-148660-5
  • Sanes, Reh, Harris (2005). Development of the Nervous System, 2nd edition. Academic Press; ISBN 0-12-618621-9
  • Siegel et al. (2005). Basic Neurochemistry, 7th edition. Academic Press; ISBN 0-12-088397-X
  • Rieke, F. et al. (1999). Spikes: Exploring the Neural Code. The MIT Press; Reprint edition ISBN 0-262-68108-0

Eric Richard Kandel (born November 7, 1929) is a psychiatrist, a neuroscientist and professor of biochemistry and biophysics at Columbia University. ... Principles of Nerual Science cover First published in 1981, Principles of Neural Science is a neuroscience textbook edited by Eric R. Kandel, James Schwartz, and Thomas Jessell. ... MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...

Online textbooks

  • Neuroscience 2nd ed. Dale Purves, George J. Augustine, David Fitzpatrick, Lawrence C. Katz, Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, James O. McNamara, S. Mark Williams. Published by Sinauer Associates, Inc., 2001.
  • Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular, and Medical Aspects 6th ed. by George J. Siegel, Bernard W. Agranoff, R. Wayne Albers, Stephen K. Fisher, Michael D. Uhler, editors. Published by Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

Popular works

  • Andreasen, Nancy C. (March 4 2004). Brave New Brain: Conquering Mental Illness in the Era of the Genome. Oxford University Press. 392 pages, 56 halftones & line illus.; 8 color plates, 234x154 mm. ISBN 9780195145090. 
  • Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York, Avon Books. ISBN 0-399-13894-3 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-380-72647-5 (Paperback)
  • Gardner, H. (1976). The Shattered Mind: The Person After Brain Damage. New York, Vintage Books, 1976 ISBN 0-394-71946-8
  • Goldstein, K. (2000). The Organism. New York, Zone Books. ISBN 0-942299-96-5 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-942299-97-3 (Paperback)
  • Llinas R. (2001)." I of the Vortex: From Neurons to Self" MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-12233-2 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-262-62163-0 (Paperback)
  • Luria, A. R. (1997). The Man with a Shattered World: The History of a Brain Wound. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-224-00792-0 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-674-54625-3 (Paperback)
  • Luria, A. R. (1998). The Mind of a Mnemonist: A Little Book About A Vast Memory. New York, Basic Books, Inc. ISBN 0-674-57622-5
  • Pinker, S. (1999). "How the Mind Works." W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-31848-6
  • Pinker, S. (2002). "The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature." Viking Adult. ISBN 0-670-03151-8
  • Ramachandran, V.S. (1998). Phantoms in the Brain. New York, New York Harper Collins. ISBN 0-688-15247-3 (Paperback)
  • Rose, S. (2006). "21st Century Brain: Explaining, Mending & Manipulating the Mind" ISBN 0099429772 (Paperback)
  • Sacks, O. The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. Summit Books ISBN 0-671-55471-9 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-06-097079-0 (Paperback)
  • Sacks, O. (1990). Awakenings. New York, Vintage Books. (See also Oliver Sacks) ISBN 0-671-64834-9 (Hardcover) ISBN 0-06-097368-4 (Paperback)
  • Sternberg, E. (2007) Are You a Machine? The Brain, the Mind and What it Means to be Human. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

Nancy C. Andreasen, M.D., Ph. ... The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat is a 1985 book by neurologist Oliver Sacks describing the case histories of some of Dr. Sackss patients. ... Oliver Sacks in 2005. ...

Notes From Online Courses

Smith College is a private, independent womens liberal arts college located in Northampton, Massachusetts. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
neuroscience

Neuroscience subfields: Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Behavioral Neurology | Biological Psychology | Cognitive Neuroscience | Cognitive Psychophysiology | Computational Neuroscience | Molecular Cellular Cognition | Neural Engineering | Neuroanatomy | Neurobiology | Neurochemistry | Neuroendocrinology | Neuroimaging | Neurolinguistics | Neurology | Neuromonitoring | Neuropharmacology | Neurophysiology | Neuropsychology | Neuropsychiatry | Neurosurgery | Psychiatry | Psychobiology | Psychopharmacology | Psychophysiology | Systems Neuroscience

Psychology subfields: Behavioral neurology is a subspecialty of neurology that studies the neurological basis of behavior, memory, and cognition, the impact of neurological damage and disease upon these functions, and the treatment thereof. ... Biological psychology, sometimes referred to as psychobiology or biopsychology, is a subfield of psychology. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Neuroinformatics. ... Key goals of studies in the field of molecular cellular cognition (MCC) include the derivation of explanations of cognitive processes that integrate molecular, cellular, and behavioral mechanisms, and finding mechanism and treatments for cognitive disorders. ... It has been suggested that Neuro cybernetics be merged into this article or section. ... Neuroanatomy is the anatomy of the nervous system. ... Neurobiology is the study of cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior. ... Neurochemistry is a branch of neuroscience that is heavily devoted to the study of neurochemicals. ... Neuroendocrinology is the study of the interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with functional neuroimaging. ... Neurolinguistics is the science concerned with the human brain mechanisms underlying the comprehension, production, and abstract knowledge of language, be it spoken, signed, or written. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... The scientific practice of neuromonitoring takes place in the surgical suite (OR). ... Neuropharmacology is the branch of health science concerned with the study of drugs on the nervous system. ... Neurophysiology is a part of physiology as a science, which is concerned with the study of the nervous system. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... Neuropsychiatry is the branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system. ... Insertion of an electrode during neurosurgery for Parkinsons disease. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... This article or section should be merged with biological psychology Psychobiology, also called biopsychology, is the scientific study of mental functioning and behavior in relation to other biological processes, or put another way, of the effects of cognition, emotions, and experience on animal physiology. ... Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Systems neuroscience is a subdicipline of neuroscience which studies the neural circuit function, most commonly in awake, behaving intact organisms. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ...

Behavioral Neurology | Cognitive Psychology | Cognitive Neuroscience | Biological Psychology | Neuroimaging | Psycholinguistics | Psychophysics | Psychophysiology | Neuropsychology | Neuropsychiatry | Psychopharmacology | Systems Neuroscience | Mathematical Psychology | Developmental Psychology | Social Psychology | Clinical Psychology | Evolutionary Psychology | Forensic Psychology

  Results from FactBites:
 
Neuroscience - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (874 words)
Neuroscience is a field of study that deals with the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology of the nervous system, consisting of the myriad nerve pathways running throughout the body.
Some researchers believe that cognitive neuroscience provides a bottom-up approach to understanding the mind and consciousness that is complementary to, or may replace, the top-down approach of psychology.
Molecular and cellular neuroscience, which integrate neurobiology with neurochemistry with the goal of understanding the cellular and chemical mechanisms of normal and abnormal brain function.
Hamilton College - Academics - Neuroscience (773 words)
The neuroscience program at Hamilton is operated jointly by the Departments of Psychology and Biology, and students in the program explore the fascinating, rapidly changing intersection of those disciplines – the biological basis of behavior.
Recent senior fellows in neuroscience have studied the neurochemistry of octopamine, patterns of human motion, integration of sensory information by single neurons, evoked potential correlates of cognitive processing, brain mechanisms of reward, and tactile psychophysics.
Neuroscience students have access to lab facilities for scanning and transmission electron microscopes, tissue culture, analytical neurochemistry, molecular biology, neuroanatomical research, intracellular and extracellular single neuron recording, voltage and patch clamping, eye movement tracking, evoked-potential recording, and tactile psychophysics.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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