Neurophysin I is a carrier protein with a size of 10 KDa and containing 90 to 97 aminoacids that transports neurohypophysial hormones along axons, from the hypothalamus to the posterior lobe of the pituitary. This protein is necessary to prevent diffusion of peptide hormones out of the axons. Hormones of hte posterior lobe of the pituitary are synthesized in hypothalamic nuclei and ar epackaged in secretory granules with their respective neurophysins. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... The unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic masses and molecular masses. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... An axon, or nerve fiber, is a long slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the hypothalamus is a region of the brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities. ... Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ... Schematic drawing of the effects of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane. ... A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ...
Neurophysin serves as a carrier for the hormones within the pituitary and shares common biosynthetic precursors with the hormones.
In the case of neurophysin, dimerization is markedly altered by factors distant from the monomer-monomer interface, such as hormone-binding, chemical modification of a single residue or deletion of a few amino-terminal residues.
Neurophysins and neurophysin precursors containing mutations associated with diabetes insipidus are prepared by recombinant DNA technology and their folding and functional properties analyzed.
A pattern of neurophysin II immunoreactivity similar to that in normal control mice was observed in hypogonadal mice which had been implanted for 4 weeks with silicone elastomer capsules containing testosterone or oestradiol-17 beta, but not 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone or progesterone.
In the androgen-insensitive testicular feminized mouse immunoreactive neurophysin II was undetectable in the lateral septum and lateral habenula.
These results show that the expression of neurophysin II immunoreactivity in the lateral septum and lateral habenula of the mouse brain is dependent on the presence of aromatizeable androgens or oestrogens.
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