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Encyclopedia > Neurology

Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Medical professionals (such as Biomedical Doctors and Physicians) specializing in the field of neurology are called neurologists and are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage patients with neurological disorders. Most neurologists are trained to treat and diagnose adults with neurological disorders. Pediatric neurologists, nearly always a subspecialty of pediatrics, treat neurological disease in children. Neurologists may also be involved in clinical research, clinical trials, as well as basic research and translational research. For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... A biomedical scientist (or biomedical doctor, biomedician, medical scientist), is a scientist educated in the field of biological science, especially in the context of medicine. ... The word physician should not be confused with physicist, which means a scientist in the area of physics. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... Using the knowledge gained in basic and applied research to conduct research (generally with humans) in treating disease or dysfunction in a new way. ... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ... For the suburb of Melbourne, Australia, see Research, Victoria. ... Translational medicine is a branch of medical research that attempts to more directly connect basic research to patient care. ...

Contents

Field of work

Neurological disorders are disorders that affect the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), the peripheral nervous system (peripheral nerves - cranial nerves included), or the autonomic nervous system. A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... The Peripheral nervous system resides or extends outside the CNS central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to serve the limbs and organs. ... The peripheral nervous system or PNS, is part of the nervous system, and consists of the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system--to serve the limbs and organs, for example. ... Cranial nerves are nerves which start directly from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Major conditions include:

Behavioral neurology is a subspecialty of neurology that studies the neurological basis of behavior, memory, and cognition, the impact of neurological damage and disease upon these functions, and the treatment thereof. ... A headache (cephalalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Cluster headaches are rare, extremely painful and debilitating headaches that occur in groups or clusters. ... Tension headaches, which were renamed tension-type headaches by the International Headache Society in 1988, are the most common type of primary headaches. ... This article is about epileptic seizures. ... Neurodegenerative disease is a condition which affects the brain function. ... Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, sometimes called Lou Gehrigs Disease, Maladie de Charcot or motor neurone disease) is a progressive, fatal, neurodegenerative disease caused by the degeneration of motor neurons, the nerve cells in the central nervous system that control voluntary muscle movement. ... Motor neurone disease (MND) is a term used to cover a number of illnesses of the motor neurone: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), progressive bulbar palsy (PBP) and progressive lateral sclerosis (PLS). ... A transient ischemic attack (TIA, often colloquially referred to as mini stroke) is caused by the temporary disturbance of blood supply to a restricted area of the brain, resulting in brief neurologic dysfunction that usually persists for less than 24 hours. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... Myelitis is a human disease involving swelling of the spinal cord, which disrupts central nervous system functions linking brain and limbs. ... Infection is also the title of an episode of the television series Babylon 5; see Infection (Babylon 5). ... Botulism (Latin, botulus, sausage) is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is sudden and abnormal growth in a tissue or organ. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... A brain tumor is any intracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either in the brain itself (neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin-producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and pineal gland, or... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers or axons, which includes the glia that ensheath the axons in myelin. ... A neuroma is a tumor growth of nerve cells and fibres. ... List of Movement disorders Akinesia (lack of movement) Athetosis (contorted torsion or twisting) Ataxia Ballismus (violent involuntary rapid and irregular movements) Hemiballismus Bradykinesia (slow movement) Chorea (rapid, involuntary movement) Sydenhams chorea Rheumatic chorea Huntingtons chorea Dystonia (sustained torsion) Dystonia muscularum Blepharospasm Writers cramp Spasmodic torticollis (twisting of... Hemiballismus is a movement disorder characterised by unilateral wild, large amplitude flinging movements of the arm and leg, normally causing falls and preventing postural maintenance. ... A tic is a repeated, impulsive action, almost reflexive in nature, which the actor feels powerless to control or avoid. ... “Tourette” redirects here. ... A demyelinating disease is any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged. ... The Peripheral nervous system resides or extends outside the CNS central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to serve the limbs and organs. ... Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) (IPA pronunciation: is an acute, autoimmune, polyradiculoneuropathy affecting the peripheral nervous system, usually triggered by an acute infectious process. ... Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system but often can have central nervous system involvement. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... In medicine, a myopathy is a neuromuscular disease in which the muscle fibers do not function for any one of many reasons, resulting in muscular weakness. ... A neuromuscular junction is the junction of the axon terminal of a motoneuron with the motor end plate, the highly-excitable region of muscle fiber plasma membrane responsible for initiation of action potentials across the muscles surface. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... Encephalopathy literally means disease of the brain. ... In medicine, a coma (from the Greek koma, meaning deep sleep) is a profound state of unconsciousness. ... A communication disorder is a disease or condition that partially or totally prevents human communication. ...

Educational requirements

A neurologist's educational background and medical training varies with the country of training. Typically it includes a medical degree, and some years of postgraduate training, between 2-5 years. In the US, neurologists follow the standard pattern with an undergraduate degree, four years of medical school, a one-year internship and three years of specialized training. Many neurologists also have additional training or interest in one area of neurology such as stroke, epilepsy, neuromuscular, sleep medicine, pain management, or movement disorders.


Testing examinations

During a neurological examination, the neurologist reviews the patient's health history with special attention to the current condition. The patient then takes a neurological exam. Typically, the exam tests vision, strength, coordination, reflexes and sensation. This information helps the neurologist determine if the problem exists in the nervous system and the clinical localization. Localization of the pathology is the key process by which neurologist develop their differential diagnosis. Further tests may be needed to confirm a diagnosis and ultimately guide therapy and appropriate management.


Clinical tasks

General caseload

Neurologists are responsible for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of all the above conditions. When surgical intervention is required, the neurologist may refer the patient to a neurosurgeon, an interventional neuroradiologist, or a neurointerventionalist. In some countries, additional legal responsibilities of a neurologist may include making a finding of brain death when it is suspected that a patient is deceased. Neurologists frequently care for people with hereditary (genetic) diseases when the major manifestations are neurological, as is frequently the case. Lumbar punctures are frequently performed by neurologists. Other neurologists may develop an interest in particular subfields, such as dementia, movement disorders, headaches, epilepsy, sleep disorders, chronic pain management, multiple sclerosis or neuromuscular diseases. Neurosurgery is the surgical discipline focused on treating the central and peripheral nervous system. ... Interventional Neuroradiology (INR) / Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiology (ESN) is an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited medical subspecialty centered on minimally invasive image-based technologies/procedures used to diagnosis and treat diseases of the head, neck, and spine. ... Interventional Neuroradiology (INR) / Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiology (ESN) is an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited medical subspecialty centered on minimally invasive image-based technologies/procedures used to diagnosis and treat diseases of the head, neck, and spine. ... Brain death is defined as a complete and irreversible cessation of brain activity. ... A patient having his blood pressure taken by a doctor. ... This page deals with the cessation of life. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... A patient undergoes a lumbar puncture at the hands of a neurologist. ... A neurologist is a physician who is specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of neurologic diseases. ... A headache (cephalalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ...


Overlapping areas

There is some overlap with other specialties, varying from country to country and even within a local geographic area. Acute head trauma is most often treated by neurosurgeons, whereas sequela of head trauma may be treated by neurologists or specialists in rehabilitation medicine. Although stroke cases have been traditionally managed by internal medicine or hospitalists, the emergence of vascular neurology and endovascular neurosurgery as disciplines has created a demand for stroke specialists. The establishment of JCAHO stroke centers has increased the role of neurologists in stroke care in many primary as well as tertiary hospitals. Some cases of nervous system infectious diseases are treated by infectious disease specialists. Most cases of headache are diagnosed and treated primarily by general practitioners, at least the less severe cases. Similarly, most cases of sciatica and other mechanical radiculopathies are treated by general practitioners, though they may be referred to neurologists or a surgeon (neurosurgeons or orthopedic surgeons). Sleep disorders are also treated by pulmonologists. Cerebral palsy is initially treated by pediatricians, but care may be transferred to an adult neurologist after the patient reaches a certain age. Head injury is a trauma to the head, that may or may not include injury to the brain (see also brain injury). ... Neurosurgery is the surgical discipline focused on treating the central and peripheral nervous system. ... A sequela, (IPA ) (plural sequelæ) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, or other trauma. ... Physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) or physiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with functional restoration of a person affected by physical disability. ... The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) is a US based non-profit organization formed in 1951 with a mission to maintain and elevate the standards of healthcare delivery through evaluation and accreditation of healthcare organizations. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... A headache (cephalalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... A general practitioner (GP), family physician or family practitioner (FP) is a physician/medical doctor who provides primary care. ... Sciatica is pain caused by general compression and/or irritation of one of five nerve roots that are branches of the sciatic nerve. ... This fracture of the lower cervical vertebrae, known as a teardrop fracture is one of the conditions treated by orthopaedic surgeons. ... In medicine, pulmonology (aka pneumology) is the specialty that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ...


Clinical neuropsychologists are often called upon to evaluate brain-behavior relationships for the purpose of assisting with differential diagnosis, planning rehabilitation strategies, documenting cognitive strengths and weaknesses, and measuring change over time (e.g., for identifying abnormal aging or tracking the progression of a dementia). Clinical neuropsychology is a subdiscipline of psychology that specialises in the clinical assessment and treatment of patients with brain injury or neurocognitive deficits. ... Neuropsychological assessment was traditionally carried out to assess the extent of impairment to a particular skill and to attempt to locate an area of the brain which may have been damaged after brain injury or neurological illness. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... For the Björk song, see Human Behaviour Human behavior is the collection of behaviors exhibited by human beings and influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions, values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion, coercion and/or genetics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) or physiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with functional restoration of a person affected by physical disability. ... Cognitive The scientific study of how people obtain, retrieve, store and manipulate information. ... Ageing or aging is the process of getting older. ... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ...


Relationship to clinical neurophysiology

In some countries, e.g. USA and Germany, neurologists may specialize in clinical neurophysiology, the field responsible for EEG, nerve conduction studies, EMG and evoked potentials. In other countries, this is an autonomous specialty (e.g. United Kingdom, Sweden). Clinical neurophysiology is a medical speciality that studies the central and peripheral nervous systems through the recording of bioelectrical activity, whether spontaneous or stimulated. ... “EEG” redirects here. ... A nerve conduction study (NCS) is a test commonly used to evaluate the function, especially the ability of electrical conduction, of the motor and sensory nerves of the human body. ... Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording physiologic properties of muscles at rest and while contracting. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Evoked potential. ...


Overlap with psychiatry

Further information: Psychoneuroimmunology and Neuropsychiatry

Although many mental illnesses are believed to be neurological disorders affecting the central nervous system, traditionally they are classified separately, and treated by psychiatrists. In a 2002 review article in the American Journal of Psychiatry, Professor Joseph B. Martin, Dean of Harvard Medical School and a neurologist by training, wrote that 'the separation of the two categories is arbitrary, often influenced by beliefs rather than proven scientific observations. And the fact that the brain and mind are one makes the separation artificial anyway.' (Martin JB. The integration of neurology, psychiatry and neuroscience in the 21st century. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159:695-704) Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) investigates the relations between the psychophysiological and immunophysiological dimensions of living beings. ... Neuropsychiatry is the branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). ... kkdkd ... Harvard Medical School (HMS) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ...


There are strong indications that neuro-chemical mechanisms play an important role in the development of, for instance, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. As well, 'neurological' diseases often have 'psychiatric' manifestations, such as post-stroke depression, depression and dementia associated with Parkinson's disease, mood and cognitive dysfunctions in Alzheimer's disease, to name a few. Hence, there is no sharp distinction between neurology and psychiatry on a biological basis - this distinction has mainly practical reasons and strong historical roots (such as the dominance of Freud's psychoanalytic theory in psychiatric thinking in the first three quarters of the 20th century - which has since then been largely replaced by the focus on neurosciences - aided by the tremendous advances in genetics and neuroimaging recently.) For other uses, see Bipolar. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... pychoanalysis today comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind; the term also refers to a specific type of treatment where the analyst, upon hearing the thoughts of the analysand (analytic patient), formulates and then explains the unconscious bases for the patients symptoms and character problems. ... Neuroscience is a field of study which deals with the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology and pathology of the nervous system. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with functional neuroimaging. ...


External links

  • European Federation of Neurological Societies
  • European Journal of Neurology
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
  • On Line Neurology Journal Club (via JournalReview.org)
  • Fast-MAG The Field Administration of Stroke Therapy – Magnesium Phase 3 Clinical Trial
  • Journal of The American Stroke Association
  • Therapeutic Guidelines - Neurology
  • Revista de neurologia (Spanish) (English)

Neuroscience subfields: Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ...

Behavioral Neurology | Biological Psychology | Cognitive Neuroscience | Cognitive Psychophysiology | Computational Neuroscience | Molecular Cellular Cognition | Neural Engineering | Neuroanatomy | Neurobiology | Neurochemistry | Neuroendocrinology | Neuroimaging | Neurolinguistics | Neurology | Neuromonitoring | Neuropharmacology | Neurophysiology | Neuropsychology | Neuropsychiatry | Neurosurgery | Psychiatry | Psychobiology | Psychopharmacology | Psychophysiology | Systems Neuroscience

Psychology subfields: Behavioral neurology is a subspecialty of neurology that studies the neurological basis of behavior, memory, and cognition, the impact of neurological damage and disease upon these functions, and the treatment thereof. ... Biological psychology, sometimes referred to as psychobiology or biopsychology, is a subfield of psychology. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Computational neuroscience is an interdisciplinary science that links the diverse fields of neuroscience, cognitive science, electrical engineering, computer science, physics and mathematics. ... Key goals of studies in the field of molecular cellular cognition (MCC) include the derivation of explanations of cognitive processes that integrate molecular, cellular, and behavioral mechanisms, and finding mechanism and treatments for cognitive disorders. ... It has been suggested that Neuro cybernetics be merged into this article or section. ... Neuroanatomy is the anatomy of the nervous system. ... Neurobiology is the study of cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior. ... Neurochemistry is a branch of neuroscience that is heavily devoted to the study of neurochemicals. ... Neuroendocrinology is the study of the interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with functional neuroimaging. ... Neurolinguistics is the science concerned with the human brain mechanisms underlying the comprehension, production, and abstract knowledge of language, be it spoken, signed, or written. ... The scientific practice of neuromonitoring takes place in the surgical suite (OR). ... Neuropharmacology is the branch of health science concerned with the study of drugs on the nervous system. ... Neurophysiology is a part of physiology as a science, which is concerned with the study of the nervous system. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... Neuropsychiatry is the branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system. ... Insertion of an electrode during neurosurgery for Parkinsons disease. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... This article or section should be merged with biological psychology Psychobiology, also called biopsychology, is the scientific study of mental functioning and behavior in relation to other biological processes, or put another way, of the effects of cognition, emotions, and experience on animal physiology. ... Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Systems neuroscience is a subdicipline of neuroscience which studies the neural circuit function, most commonly in awake, behaving intact organisms. ... Psychological science redirects here. ...

Behavioral Neurology | Cognitive Psychology | Cognitive Neuroscience | Biological Psychology | Neuroimaging | Psycholinguistics | Psychophysics | Psychophysiology | Neuropsychology | Neuropsychiatry | Psychopharmacology | Systems Neuroscience | Mathematical Psychology | Developmental Psychology | Social Psychology | Clinical Psychology | Evolutionary Psychology | Forensic Psychology

  Results from FactBites:
 
Neurology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (587 words)
Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Physicians specializing in the field of neurology are called neurologists and are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage patients with neurological disorders.
The integration of neurology, psychiatry and neuroscience in the 21st century.
Neurology - Information for Authors (91 words)
Neurology, the official journal of the American Academy of Neurology, publishes clinical and research articles about Neurology, neuroscience, and related fields.
A manuscript, or the essence of its content, must be previously unpublished except in abstract form, and may not be under simultaneous consideration by another journal.
Neurology encourages but does not require submission of papers presented at annual meetings of the American Academy of Neurology.
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