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Neurology is the branch of See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. This article is about medical practice. Medicine is a branch of health science concerned with restoring and maintaining health. Broadly, it is the practical science of preventing and curing diseases. However, medicine often refers more specifically to... medicine that deals with the nervous system and disorders affecting it. Medical specialists in neurology are called neurologists. Surgical operations on the nervous system are done by specialist Neurosurgery is the surgical discipline focused on treating the central and peripheral nervous system. Neurosurgeons undergo a rigorous training program consisting of 6-7 years post-graduate study after medical school. Neurosurgical conditions include primarily brain and spinal cord disorders. Some of the most common conditions treated by neurosurgeons include... neurosurgeons.


Neurological disorders are disorders of the The human central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. These lie in the midline of the body and are associated with the skull and vertebrae respectively. (see Nervous System) The central nervous system along with the peripheral nervous system comprise a primary division of controls that command... central nervous system ( In the anatomy of animals, the brain, or encephalon, is the supervisory center of the nervous system. Although the brain is usually cited as the supervisory center of vertebrate nervous systems, the same term can also be used for the invertebrate central nervous system. In most animals, the brain is... brain, The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. It is the major route for communication between the forebrain and the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. It also controls various functions including respiration, regulation of heart rhythms, and primary aspects of sound localization. Mostly enveloped by... brainstem and Cerebellum (in blue) of the human brain General Features Location: It is found at the bottom rear of the head (the hindbrain), directly above the brainstem. Role: The cerebellum is involved in computing movements, directing attention, measuring time, and many other motor and cognitive functions. It is involved in guiding... cerebellum), the The peripheral nervous system or PNS, is part of the nervous system, and consists of the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system--to serve the limbs and organs, for example. The peripheral nervous system is further divided into the somatic nervous system and the... peripheral nervous system ( Neuropathy is a disease of the peripheral nervous system. Many people with diabetes eventually develop nerve damage. The three major forms of nerve damage are: peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, and mononeuropathy. The most common form is peripheral neuropathy, which mainly affects the feet and legs. Besides diabetes, the common causes... neuropathy, including Cranial nerves are nerves which start directly from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. In human anatomy, there are exactly 12 pairs of them, traditionally abbreviated by the corresponding Roman numerals: Olfactory nerve (I) Optic nerve (II) Oculomotor nerve (III) Trochlear nerve (IV) Trigeminal nerve (V) Abducens nerve (VI... cranial nerves), or the Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, and metabolism, and by modulating blood pressure. Although these functions are... autonomic nervous system (parts of which are located in both central and peripheral nervous system). Major conditions include:

  • A headache is a condition of mild to severe pain in the head; sometimes upper back or neck pain may also be interpreted as a headache. Headaches have a wide variety of causes, ranging from eyestrain to inflammation of the sinus cavities to life-threatening conditions such as encephalitis, brain... headache
  • stupor and For other meanings of the word coma, especially in astronomy, see coma (disambiguation) In medicine, a coma is a profound state of unconsciousness, which may result from a variety of conditions including intoxication (drug, alcohol or toxins), metabolic abnormalities (hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, etc.), central nervous system diseases, stroke, head trauma... coma
  • Dementia (from Latin demens) is progressive decline in cognitive function due to damage or disease in the brain beyond what might be expected from normal aging. Particularly affected areas may be memory, attention, language and problem solving, although particularly in the later stages of the condition, affected persons may be... dementia, including Alzheimers disease (AD) or senile dementia of Alzheimers type is a neurodegenerative disease which results in a loss of mental functions due to the deterioration of brain tissue. Its exact aetiology (cause) is still unknown, but environmental as well as genetic factors are thought to contribute ( mutations in... Alzheimer's disease
  • This article is about the medical condition. In law, seizure can also refer to taking possession of an item: see search and seizure. Seizures (or convulsions) are temporary alterations in brain function expressing themselves into a changed mental state, tonic or clonic movements and various other symptoms. They are due... seizures and Epilepsy (often referred to as a seizure disorder) is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. The condition is named from the Greek epilepsia (a taking hold of or seizing). It is commonly controlled with medication, although experimental surgical methods are slowly gaining acceptance. In the past, epilepsy... epilepsy
  • Definition A sleep disorder is a disorder in the sleep patterns of a person or animal. Some sleep disorders can interfere with mental and emotional function, due to their interference with REM sleep. Common sleep disorders The most common sleep disorders include: Bruxism: The sufferer involuntarily grinds his or her... sleep disorders
  • Cerebral palsy or CP is a group of disorders associated with developmental brain injuries that occur during fetal development, birth, or shortly after birth. It is characterized by a disruption of motor skills, with symptoms such as spasticity, paralysis, or seizures. Cerebral palsy is a form of static encephalopathy and... cerebral palsy
  • Infection is also the title of an episode of the television series Babylon 5; see Infection (Babylon 5). An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. The colonizing organism interferes with the normal functioning and perhaps the survival of the host. The infecting organism... infections
  • Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is sudden and abnormal growth in a tissue or organ. Such a growth is called a neoplasm, also known as a tumor. Neoplasia and cancer are often used interchangeably, although technically the latter refers specifically to malignant neoplasia. Neoplasia is also the name of a scientific... neoplasms,
  • List of Movement disorders Akinesia (lack of movement) Athetosis (contorted torsion or twisting) Ataxia Ballismus (violent involuntary rapid and irregular movements) Hemiballismus Bradykinesia (slow movement) Chorea (rapid, involuntary movement) Sydenhams chorea Rheumatic chorea Huntingtons chorea Dystonia (sustained torsion) Dystonia muscularum Blepharospasm Writers cramp Spasmodic torticollis (twisting of... movement disorders such as Parkinsons disease (PD; paralysis agitans) is a neurodegenerative disease of the substantia nigra (an area in the basal ganglia of the brain). The disease was first discovered and its symptoms documented in 1817 (Essay on the Shaking Palsy) by the British physician Dr. James Parkinson; the associated biochemical changes... Parkinson's disease
  • A demyelinating disease is any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged. This impairs the conduction of signals in the affected nerves, causing impairment in sensation, movement, cognition, or other functions depending on which nerves are involved. The term describes the effect of... demyelinating diseases such as Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease, a non-contagious chronic autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system which can present with a variety of neurological symptoms occurring in attacks or slowly progressing over time. It has no cure yet and the exact cause remains unknown. Due to its effects... multiple sclerosis
  • The spinal cord is a part of the vertebrate nervous system that is enclosed in and protected by the vertebral column (it passes through the spinal canal). It consists of nerve cells. The cord conveys the 31 spinal nerve pairs of the peripheral nervous system, as well as central nervous... spinal cord disorders, and
  • disorders of peripheral A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers or axons, which includes the glia that ensheath the axons in myelin. Neurons are sometimes called nerve cells, though this term is technically imprecise since many neurons do not form nerves. Nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system... nerves, Structure of a skeletal muscle Muscle is one of the four tissue types. The other three types are: epithelium, connective tissue and nervous tissue. The primary purpose of muscle tissue is to contract. Muscle contraction is used to move parts of the body, as well as to move substances within... muscle and A neuromuscular junction is the junction of the axon terminal of a motoneuron with the motor end plate, the highly-excitable region of muscle fiber plasma membrane responsible for initiation of action potentials across the muscles surface. Mechanism of Action Upon the arrival of an action potential at the... neuromuscular junctions.

Along with treating all of the above disorders, the responsibilities of a neurologist include making a finding of Brain death is defined as a complete and irreversible cessation of brain activity. Absence of apparent brain function is not enough; evidence needs to be available that the condition is irreversible. Traditionally, death was defined as the cessation of all body functions, including respiration and heartbeat. Since it became possible... brain death when it is suspected that a A patient is the name given to any person who is ill or injured and is being treated by, or in need of treatment by, a physician or other medical professional. Health consumer or health care consumer is another name for patient, usually used by some governmental agencies, insurance companies... patient is This page deals with the cessation of life. For other meanings of death, see death (disambiguation). Death is a term that can refer to either the termination of life in a living system, or the state of that organism after that event. A common perception of death is a grim... deceased, and filling out the paperwork to ensure issuance of a A death certificate is a document issued by an official, such as a government registar, that declares the date, location and cause of a persons death. The authorities usually require a certificate from a doctor or coroner to validate the cause of death. In the United Kingdom, in 2000... death certificate for the patient.


Many The Scream, the famous painting commonly thought of as depicting the experience of mental illness. A mental illness is a disorder of the brain that results in a disruption in a persons thinking, feeling, moods, and ability to relate to others. Mental illness is distinct from the legal concept... mental illnesses are believed to be neurological disorders of the central nervous system, but they are classified separately. They are not traditionally listed as neurological diseases because their causes are not definitely determined as biological, although there are good reasons to suspect that Bipolar Affective Disorder, also known as manic depression, or BPAD is a disorder of the brain resulting in unusually extreme highs and lows of an individuals mood, i.e. affect, over time. The high part of the mood is called mania (often times a euphoria) and the low part... bipolar disorder and Schizophrenia is a psychiatric diagnosis denoting a persistent, often chronic, mental illness variously affecting behavior, thinking, and emotion. The term schizophrenia comes from the Greek words σχίζω (schizo, split or divide) and φρενός (phrenos, mind) and is best translated as shattered... schizophrenia have neuro-chemical causes.


External links

  • http://www.aan.com American Academy of Neurology.
  • http://www.neuropsychological.blogspot.com/ brainblog: news about our knowledge of the brain and behavior.

See also

  • This is a list of major and frequently observed neurological disorders (e.g. Alzheimers disease), symptoms (e.g.back pain), signs (e.g. aphasia) and syndromes (e.g. Aicardi syndrome). Contents: Top - A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q... List of neurological disorders
  • This is a list of the most important neurologists, with their dates of birth and death and nationality. Théophile Alajouanine 1890 - 1980 France Alois Alzheimer 1864 - 1915 Germany Joseph Babinski 1857 - 1932 France Wladimir Bechterew 1857 - 1927 Russia Hans Berger 1873 - 1941 Germany Lucio Bini 1908 - 1964 Italy Otto... List of neurologists
  • Clinical neurophysiology is a medical speciality that studies the central and peripheral nervous systems through the recording of bioelectrical activity, whether spontaneous or stimulated. In some countries it is a part of neurology, whereas in others (such as Spain, Italy, the United Kingdom and Finland, for example) it is an... Clinical neurophysiology


Health science is the discipline of applied science which deals with human and animal health. There are two parts to health science: the study, research, and knowledge of health and the application of that knowledge to improve health, cure diseases, and understanding how humans and animals function. Research builds on... Health science - See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. This article is about medical practice. Medicine is a branch of health science concerned with restoring and maintaining health. Broadly, it is the practical science of preventing and curing diseases. However, medicine often refers more specifically to... Medicine
Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. This allows patients to undergo surgery and other procedures without the distress and pain they would otherwise experience. There are several forms of anesthesia: general anesthesia — with reversible loss of consciousness local... Anesthesiology - Dermatology is a branch of medicine dealing with the skin, its structure, functions, and diseases (from Greek derma, skin), as well as its appendages (nails, hair, sweat glands). A doctor who practices dermatology is a dermatologist. A dermatologist must be degreed in medicine, either as a Medical Doctor or a... Dermatology - Emergency medicine is a branch of medicine that is practiced in a hospital emergency department, in the field (in a modified form; see EMS), and other locations where initial medical treatment of trauma and illness takes place. Emergency medicine focuses on situations where care is required immediately or urgently. While... Emergency Medicine - A general practitioner (GP) or family physician (FP) is a physician who provides primary care. A GP/FP treats acute and chronic illnesses, provides preventive care and health education for all ages and both sexes. Some also care for hospitalized patients, do minor surgery and/or obstetrics. The term family... General practice - Intensive care medicine or critical care medicine is concerned with providing greater than ordinary medical care and observation to people in a critical or unstable condition. People requiring intensive care include those after major surgery, with severe head trauma, life-threatening acute illness, respiratory insufficiency, coma, haemodynamic insufficiency, severe fluid... Intensive care medicine - Internal medicine is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of internal diseases, that is, those that affect internal organs or the body as a whole. A physician who practices internal medicine is, in the United States, an internist. It is hard to define the boundaries between internal medicine and several... Internal medicine - Neurology - This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Obstetrics (from the Latin obstare, to stand by) is the surgical specialty dealing with the care of a woman and her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (the period shortly after birth... Obstetrics &  The shamefulness associated with the examination of female genitalia has long inhibited the science of gynaecology. This 1822 drawing by Jacques-Pierre Maygnier shows a compromise procedure, in which the physician is kneeling before the woman but cannot see her genitalia. Modern gynaecology has overcome these inhibitions. Gynaecology (British) or... Gynecology - Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants and children. Most pediatricians are members of a national body, such as the Canadian Paediatric Society, the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons or the American Academy of Pediatrics. One of... Pediatrics - Podiatry (US English), or chiropody (British English), is the field of medicine devoted to the study and treatment of disorders of the foot and ankle (translated literally, chiropody refers to medicine of the hand and foot, but the term no longer has this meaning). For information about podiatry as a... Podiatry - Public Health is an aspect of Health Services concerned with threats to the overall health of the population of a community based on population health analysis. It generally includes surveillance and control of infectious disease and promotion of healthy behaviours (health promotion),among members of the community. Both vaccination programs... Public Health &  Occupational Therapists work with the disabled, the elderly, newborns, school-aged children, and with anyone who has a permanent or temporary impairment in their physical or mental functioning. The aim of occupational therapy is to help the client to perform daily tasks in their living and working environments, and to... Occupational Medicine - Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). The term alienist is an old term for a psychiatrist, and the term shrink (from head shrinker) is a (sometimes offensive) slang term for a psychotherapist. Note that psychiatry is practiced by psychiatrists... Psychiatry - Radiology is the branch of medical science dealing with the medical use of x-ray machines or other such radiation devices. It is also the examination of the inner structure of opaque objects using X rays or other penetrating radiation. Subdivisions As a medical specialty, radiology can be classified into... Radiology - Surgery Surgery is the medical specialty that treats diseases or injuries by operative manual and instrumental treatment. Its practitioners are referred to as surgeons. History of surgery Although surgeons are now considered to be specialised physicians, the profession of surgeon and that of physician have different historical roots. For example... Surgery
Branches of Internal medicine is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of internal diseases, that is, those that affect internal organs or the body as a whole. A physician who practices internal medicine is, in the United States, an internist. It is hard to define the boundaries between internal medicine and several... Internal medicine
Cardiology is the branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart and blood vessels. The human heart is a complex organ, consisting of two ventricles and two atria. Coronary arteries feed the heart the blood it needs to sustain itself. Selected topics in cardiology: Anatomy & physiology Basic anatomy... Cardiology - Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. An endocrinologist is a doctor who specializes in treating such disorders. Hormones are molecules that act as signals from one type of cells to another. Those secreted by the endocrine glands... Endocrinology - Gastroenterology or Gastrology might be better described as the field of digestive diseases, which are traditionally separated by anatomic or functional category. For example, disorders of the esophagus might be listed under esophagus and also included in a description of motility disorders (disorders of motor function). List of signs and... Gastroenterology - Hematology is the branch of medicine that is concerned with blood and its disorders. It is commonly divided into three sub-areas, according to the type and group of cells it refers to. This subdivision is incomplete, as many diseases affect most or all of the components of blood and... Hematology - In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent (e.g. virus, bacterium or parasite), as opposed to physical (e.g. burns) or chemical (e.g. intoxication) causes. Agents and vectors Infectious disease requires an agent and a mode of transmission (or vector). A good... Infectious diseases - See the article on the kidney for the anatomy and function of healthy kidneys and a list of diseases involving the kidney. Nephrology is the branch of internal medicine dealing with the study of the function and diseases of the kidney. The word nephrology is derived from the Greek word... Nephrology - Please refer to cancer for the biology of malignant disease, as well as a list of malignant diseases. Oncology is the medical study and treatment of cancer. A physician who practices oncology is an oncologist. The term is from the Greek onkos, meaning bulk, mass or tumor, and the suffix... Oncology - In medicine, pulmonology is the specialty that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract. It is called chest medicine and respiratory medicine in some countries and areas. Pulmonology is generally considered a branch of internal medicine, although it is closely related to intensive care medicine when dealing... Pulmonology - Rheumatology, a subspecialty of internal medicine, is devoted to the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases. Rheumatologists mainly deal with problems involving the muscles and/or joints. Diseases Diseases diagnosed or managed by the rheumatologist include: rheumatoid arthritis lupus erythematosus Sjögrens syndrome scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) dermatomyositis polymyositis polymyalgia... Rheumatology
Branches of Surgery Surgery is the medical specialty that treats diseases or injuries by operative manual and instrumental treatment. Its practitioners are referred to as surgeons. History of surgery Although surgeons are now considered to be specialised physicians, the profession of surgeon and that of physician have different historical roots. For example... Surgery
General Surgery deals with surgical treatment of abdominal organs, e.g. intestines inclusive esophagus, stomach, colon, liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, and furthermore of the thyroid gland (depending on the availability of head and neck surgery specialists) and hernia. In the US and in the UK, general surgeons are responsible... General surgery - In medicine, the field of (cardio)thoracic surgery is involved in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting the heart (cardiovascular disease) and lungs (lung disease). Procedures: Heart Coronary artery bypass surgery Valve replacement Congenital heart disease Pulmonology Mediastinoscopy Video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS) Lobectomy (e.g. for lung cancer) Bullectomy (for... Cardiothoracic surgery - Neurosurgery is the surgical discipline focused on treating the central and peripheral nervous system. Neurosurgeons undergo a rigorous training program consisting of 6-7 years post-graduate study after medical school. Neurosurgical conditions include primarily brain and spinal cord disorders. Some of the most common conditions treated by neurosurgeons include... Neurosurgery - Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine which deals with the diseases of the eye and their treatment. The word ophthalmology comes from the Greek roots ophthalmos meaning eye and logos meaning word; ophthalmology literally means the science of eyes. As a disciple it applies to animal eyes also, since the... Ophthalmology - Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics (BE: orthopaedics) is the branch of surgery concerned with acute, chronic, traumatic and recurrent injuries and other disorders of the locomotor system, its musclular and bone parts. Apart from the mechanical considerations, it is also concerned with the pathology, genetics, intrinsic, extrinsic and biomechanical factors involved... Orthopedic surgery - Otolaryngology (ENT) - Plastic surgery is a general term for operative manual and instrumental treatment which is performed for functional or aesthetic reasons. The word plastic derrives from the Greek plastikos meaning to mould or to shape. It is not connected with modern plastics. The principal areas of plastic surgery include two broad... Plastic surgery - Podiatric surgery refers to surgery performed by a foot doctor. Unlike other specialists, a Doctor of Podiatric Medicine (D.P.M.) is a separate education from that of a Medical Doctor (M.D.) or Doctor of Osteopathy (D.O.). M.D.s and D.O.s differ in their approach... Podiatric surgery - Urology is the field of medicine that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and of the male reproductive system. It is multidisciplinary in that the discipline includes management of medical (ie., non-surgical) problems such as urinary infections and surgical problems such as the correction of congenital... Urology - Vascular surgery is the branch of surgery that occupies itself with surgical interventions of arteries and veins, as well as conservative therapies for disease of the peripheral vascular system. Surgery of the heart is the specialism of the cardiothoracic surgeon, and is effectively a branch of vascular surgery. Categories: Medicine... Vascular surgery

  Results from FactBites:
 
Neurology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (599 words)
Neurologists are responsible for diagnosing and treating all of the above conditions, except for surgical interventions, which fall into the responsibility of neurosurgeons, and in some cases interventional neuroradiologists.
In some countries, additional legal responsibilities of a neurologist include making a finding of brain death when it is suspected that a patient is deceased, and filing the necessary paperwork for issuance of a death certificate.
In a 2002 review article in the American Journal of Psychiatry, Professor Joseph B. Martin, Dean of Harvard Medical School and a neurologist by training, wrote that 'the separation of the two categories is arbitrary, often influenced by beliefs rather than proven scientific observations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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