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Encyclopedia > Neurohypophysis

The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. It consists mainly of neurons extending from supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus in the hypothalamus that secrete peptide hormones into the bloodstream.


Anatomy and development

Despite its name, the posterior pituitary gland is not a gland, per se; rather, it is largely a collection of axonal projections from the hypothalamus that terminate behind the anterior pituitary gland. Like the anterior pituitary, this tissue receives its blood supply from the hypophyseal artery, and secretes hormones into the hypophyseal vein.


During development, part of the neural ectoderm evaginates and forms a structure called Rathke's pouch. This later develops into the posterior pituitary.


Major hormones secreted

Hormones known classically as posterior pituitary hormones are actually synthesized by the hypothalamus. They are stored and secreted by the posterior pituitary into the bloodstream.

Hormone Target Effect
Oxytocin Uterus, mammary glands Uterine contractions; lactation
Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone; ADH) Kidneys Stimulate water retention


Endocrine system - Pituitary gland edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Pituitary_gland&action=edit)
Posterior pituitary - Pars nervosa - Median emminence - Infundibular stalk
Anterior pituitary - Pars intermedia - Pars tuberalis - Pars distalis - Somatotropes - Lactotropes - Thyrotropes - Gonadotropes - Corticotropes

  Results from FactBites:
 
Physiologyadenohypophysis (9114 words)
The neurohypophysis is subdivided into three regions on the basis of regional morphologic specializations: (1) the median eminence, (2) the infundibular stem, and (3) the neural lobe.
The neurohypophysis is drained rostrally by a series of fenestrated portal vessels that are interposed between the median eminence primary plexus and the pars distalis secondary plexus.
The neurohypophysis is drained caudally (at the level of the neural lobe) by paired posterior hypophyseal veins, which course parallel to the inferior hypophyseal arteries and drain to the posterior cavernous sinus lateral to the midline.
bc_martini_eap_3|The Endocrine System|Embryology Atlas (1706 words)
The neurohypophysis is an extension of the brain and, like the brain, meninges surround the entire pituitary gland.
The neurohypophysis (posterior lobe) develops as a neurohypophyseal bud, a depression in the neuroectoderm of the floor of the hypothalamus.
The neurohypophysis develops as the infundibulum grows inferiorly from the diencephalon to meet the developing adenohypophysis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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