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Encyclopedia > Neues Museum
The Egyptian hall, extract from Friedrich August Stüler, Das Neue Museum in Berlin, Riedel 1862
The Egyptian hall, extract from Friedrich August Stüler, Das Neue Museum in Berlin, Riedel 1862

The Neues Museum, located behind the Altes Museum on Berlin's Museum Island (a World Heritage Site), was built between 1843 and 1855 according to plans by Friedrich August Stüler, a student of the Schinkel school. The museum was nearly completely destroyed in World War II (only some of the outer walls remained) and is currently being rebuilt. The reconstruction is scheduled to be completed in 2009, after which the museum will exhibit the Egyptian and pre-historic collections, as it did before the war. Among the treasures shown will be the famous bust of the Egyptian queen Nefertiti. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2221x1628, 508 KB) Berlin, Neues Museum Aegyptischer Hof Source: Das Neue Museum in Berlin, 1862 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Neues Museum Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2221x1628, 508 KB) Berlin, Neues Museum Aegyptischer Hof Source: Das Neue Museum in Berlin, 1862 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Neues Museum Metadata This file contains... Berlin, Old Museum, June 2003 The Altes Museum or Old Museum was originally for the Prussian Royal familys art collection, built in Berlin in a neoclassical style by architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel between 1823 and 1830. ... This article is about the capital city of Germany. ... Map of Museum Island (in red) Museum Island (or, in German, Museumsinsel) in Berlin, Germany, is the name of the northern half of the Spreeinsel, an island in the Spree river, in the center of the city. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain range, lake, desert, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated, and confirmed, for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee. ... The Old Museum in Berlin Karl Friedrich Schinkel (March 13, 1781 - October 9, 1841) was a German architect and painter. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Bust of Richard Bently by Roubiliac A bust is a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ...


Both as a part of the Museum Island complex, and as an individual building, the museum testifies to the neoclassical architecture of museums in the 19th century. With its new industrialized building procedures and its use of iron construction, the museum plays an important role in the history of technology. Lazienkowski Palace in Warsaw The neoclassical movement that produced Neoclassical architecture began in the mid-18th century, as a reaction against both the surviving Baroque and Rococo styles, and as a desire to return to the perceived purity of the arts of Rome, the more vague perception (ideal) of Ancient...


Since the classical and ornate interiors of the Glyptothek and of the Alte Pinakothek in Munich were destroyed in World War II, the partly destroyed interior of the Neues Museum ranks among the last remaining testimonies of interior museum layout of this period in Germany. This article is in need of attention. ... The Alte Pinakothek (Old Pinakothek) is an art museum situated in the Kunstareal in Munich, Germany. ... Munich (German: München, (pronounced listen) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria. ...

Contents


Overview

East Facade of the Neues Museum with connection to the Altes Museum and the Colonnade, from Friedrich August Stüler, Das Neue Museum in Berlin, Riedel 1862
East Facade of the Neues Museum with connection to the Altes Museum and the Colonnade, from Friedrich August Stüler, Das Neue Museum in Berlin, Riedel 1862

The second museum on the Museum Island was built as an extension to house the collections which could not be accommodated in the Altes Museum. These were the collections of plaster casts, the Egyptian museum, the prehistoric and early historic collections (Museum der vaterländischen Altertümer), the ethnographic collection and the cabinet of copper artifacts. It is thus the "original source" of the collections in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin and the Ethnological Museum of Berlin. Although originally conceived as a general museum with a permanent collection, the "outsourcing" of individual collections, such as the ethnography collection, into separate museums illustrates the historical change from a general museum to a specialized one. This is a general development of most museums in the course of the 19th century. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (6114x1545, 947 KB) Berlin, Neues Museum Ostfassade Architekt: Friedrich August Stüler Source: Das neue Museum in Berlin : 24 Tafeln / von Friedrich August Stüler, Berlin : Ernst & Korn, 1862 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (6114x1545, 947 KB) Berlin, Neues Museum Ostfassade Architekt: Friedrich August Stüler Source: Das neue Museum in Berlin : 24 Tafeln / von Friedrich August Stüler, Berlin : Ernst & Korn, 1862 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Berlin, Old Museum, June 2003 The Altes Museum or Old Museum was originally for the Prussian Royal familys art collection, built in Berlin in a neoclassical style by architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel between 1823 and 1830. ... Berlin, Old Museum, June 2003 The Altes Museum or Old Museum was originally for the Prussian Royal familys art collection, built in Berlin in a neoclassical style by architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel between 1823 and 1830. ... // Gypsum plaster Plaster of Paris, or simply plaster, is a type of building material based on calcium sulfate hemihydrate, nominally (CaSOâ‚„)â‚‚*Hâ‚‚O. It is created by heating gypsum to about 150 ℃, 2(CaSOâ‚„ · 2Hâ‚‚O) → (CaSOâ‚„)â‚‚ · Hâ‚‚O + 3 Hâ‚‚O (released as steam). ... One half of a bronze mold for casting a socketed spear head dated to the period 1400-1000 BC. This article is about the manufacturing process; for other uses, see Casting (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic brown Atomic mass 63. ... Bust of Nefertiti, Ägyptisches Museum The Egyptian Museum of Berlin (German: Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung) is home to one of the worlds most important collections of Ancient Egyptian artefacts. ...


Moreover, the Neues Museum is an important monument in the history of construction and technology. With its various iron constructions, it is the first monumental building of Prussia to consistently apply techniques made possible by industrialization. As a further innovation, a steam engine was used for the first time in construction in Berlin. Among other things, it was used to ram stakes into the building ground. The soft, spongy soil around the River Spree requires buildings in the central area of Berlin to be anchored deep. The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Old Prussian: Prūsa; Polish: ) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had a substantial influence on German and European history. ... A steam engine is an external combustion heat engine that makes use of the thermal energy that exists in steam, converting it to mechanical work. ... The Spree (Slavic Špreva or Špreja, older form Sprevja, Sorbish Sprowja) is a river in Saxony, Brandenburg and Berlin, Germany. ...


History

Construction

Neues Museum in 1850, View from Friedrichsbrücke
Neues Museum in 1850, View from Friedrichsbrücke

Construction of the new museum, which began on 19 June 1841, began under the auspices of a committee established by Frederick William IV, which included the curator of the Royal Museums, Ignaz von Wolfers, as well as Friedrich August Stüler. The king had already assigned the construction project to Stüler with a royal command on 8 March 1841. The poor building ground became apparent quickly, when the workers discovered deposits of diatomaceous earth just below the surface. Therefore a pile structure was necessary under the whole building, consisting of 2344 wooden foundation piles between 6.9 and 18.2 meters long. To ram the stakes in, a five-horsepower (3.7 kW) steam engine was used, whose power could be increased if necessary to 10 HP (7.5 kW). It drove the pumps that drained of the building site, the elevators, and the mortar mixing machines. The newsletter of the Berlin Architecture Association reported on the building site and the new technical devices. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4097x2756, 515 KB) Berlin Neues Museum Ansicht von der Friedrichsbrücke um 1850 Stahlstich Source: Berlin und seine Kunstschätze, Payne Leipzig und Dresden, ca. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4097x2756, 515 KB) Berlin Neues Museum Ansicht von der Friedrichsbrücke um 1850 Stahlstich Source: Berlin und seine Kunstschätze, Payne Leipzig und Dresden, ca. ... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... take you to calendar). ... King Frederick William IV of Prussia (October 15, 1795 - January 2, 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in Leap years). ... take you to calendar). ... Diatomaceous earth, also known as diatomite, kieselguhr, kieselgur, and Celite, is a naturally occurring, soft, chalk-like, sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. ... Look up Pile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For other uses, please see Pile (disambiguation) A pile is one type of building foundation. ... SHP redirects here. ...


On April 6, 1843 the ceremony of laying the first stone on the foundations already specified up to the cellar sole took place. The walls were up-bricked since end of the same yearly up to the roof, so that 1844 could shift the building workers the Gesimse and complete the roofs. Into the year 1845 the iron constructions were drawn, the Gewölbe of the covers and the connecting gallery to the Altes Museum was brick-lined was finished. An auxiliary railway transported the building materials from the copper ditch to the steam engine-driven elevator, and also on the individual floors of the museum transport took place on rails. 1846 were locked the workers the external's building, apart from the sculptures in the Giebelfeldern, and began with the cleaning of the interiors, the shifting of the stairway steps and the implementing of the floors. These work had so far prospered to 1847 that with the aufwändigen interior fittings could be begun. The March revolution 1848 led to delays with the construction work, which was completely interrupted however at no time. As soon as the respective areas were completed, the list of the collection began, until the museum was finally opened 1855 for the public, whereby itself the work on parts of the interior equipment, particularly at the Wandfresken in the stairway, until 1866 moved. April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Berlin, Old Museum, June 2003 The Altes Museum or Old Museum was originally for the Prussian Royal familys art collection, built in Berlin in a neoclassical style by architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel between 1823 and 1830. ...


From the opening to World War II

Ruins of the Neues Museum 1984, View of the room of the south cuppola
Ruins of the Neues Museum 1984, View of the room of the south cuppola

At the opening of the museum, there were the Egyptian, patriotic and ethnographic collections in the ground floor, the collections of the plaster casts of sculptures of the Greek and Roman antique ones, the Byzantine art, the Romanesque, gothic, Renaissance and the classicism took up the first upper floor. The copper pass cabinet and the so-called art chamber, a collection of architecture models, furniture, clay/tone and glass containers, church articles divided the second upper floor and smaller works of art of the Middle Ages and the modern times. 1873 the created people customer museum referred 1886 its own, building destroyed in the Second World War at the Königgrätzer road, the today's Stresemannstrasse. With it the excerpt of the Ethnografi collection, the collection the patriotic Altertümer was connected and by parts of the art chamber. The again-created museum of arts and crafts took over 1875 the remaining nearly 7000 objects of the art chamber and referred 1881 likewise its own building, the today's Martin Gropius building. The freed areas in the ground floor again the Egyptian collection, the areas in the second upper floor occupied took over the copper pass cabinet. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2358x1935, 478 KB) Beschreibung Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Neues Museum ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2358x1935, 478 KB) Beschreibung Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Neues Museum ...


In the years 1883 to 1887 the new museum was increased by an additional, outward not visible Mezzaningeschoss. The collection of the gypsum castings, at the time of building center of the collections, grew in the process 19. Century to one of the most extensive and most comprehensive casting collections. Due to changed appreciation she was handed over however with exception of the Kolossalstatuen between 1916 and 1920 the citizen of Berlin university, where she was destroyed to a large extent in the Second World War. In the halls of the first upper floor the vase collection of the antique museum as well as the papyrus collection of the Egyptian museum were again set up. Changes in the ground floor in the years 1919 to 1923 led for the first time to larger interferences into the built volumes. Into the Greek yard the Apsis broken off, which yard with a glass roof covers, a new soil on height of the normal level of the ground floor was drawn and thus several halls and cabinets for the admission of the Amarna collection was created. Also in the adjacent areas of the ground floor and so modern, neutral showrooms produced covered suspended covers and plates the original decoration. The destruction in the Second World War followed these internal destruction. When bombardments on 23 November 1943 the central stairway with the Wandfresken burned out for the history of mankind. In February 1945 bombs destroyed the northwest wing as well as the transition to the old person museum and damaged the southwest wing as well as the Südostrisalit.


Sleeping Beauty slumber after 1945 and outlook

Nefertiti
Enlarge
Nefertiti

In the post-war period, the ruin of the Neues Museum sank into a Sleeping Beauty slumber. Other museums of the Museum Island used the least damaged areas of the building as a storage area. Reconstruction work only started in earnest in 1986, which was associated at that time with further (avoidable and unavoidable) abortions and with the loss of historical parts of the building. For instancee, the last remnants of the Egyptian yard were eliminated. For the intended reconstruction numerous construction units and fragments were taken and stored. After the aufwändigen safety device of the foundations and walls until 2008 in the framework Masterplan museum island for approximately €295 million one rebuilds. Again during the re-establishment the completely destroyed northwest wing and the Südostrisalit in close support to the original volumes and sequences of space are established after plans of the English architect David Chipperfield and the received construction units are restored and supplemented. After the planned reopening in 2009, the museum will house the Egyptian museum and papyrus collection with its famous bust of the queen Nefertiti and other works of art from the time of the king Echnaton. Another major collection will be part of the museum of pre- and early history, which will house finds from the Stone Age and other prehistoric epochs. Thus two collections of Berlin museums will return to their place of origin. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (500x752, 162 KB) Summary Description: Bust of queen Nefertiti in the Altes Museum, Berlin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (500x752, 162 KB) Summary Description: Bust of queen Nefertiti in the Altes Museum, Berlin. ... David Chipperfield (b. ... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ... Bust of Pharaoh Akhenaten. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... Prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is the period of human history prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ...


Reopening in 2009

Architect David Chipperfield has been entrusted with the work on the Neues Museum, in the framework of the Museum Island Master Plan. In January 2006, Chipperfield handed over his completed Modern (German) Literature Museum (Literaturmuseum der Moderne) to the German Literature Archives in Marbach am Neckar (Deutsches Literaturarchiv Marbach). Currently (2006), the architect sees the completion schedule for the Neues Museum as endangered. The city of Berlin anticipates about 4 million annual visitors (at present there are 1.5 million) after completion of the buildings on the Museum Island. A new reception building for these visitors, the "Cube", is also planned to be completed in 2009. The "Cube", which will cost about 60 million euros, is currently under a planning freeze, which Chipperfield sees as also endangering progress on the Neues Museum (according to ZDF, the Second German Television channel). In view of the total costs of the Museum Island master plan (estimated to cost 1.5 billion euros, of which 295 million euros are for the Neues Museum), the controversy over the 60 million euros for the "Cube" appears disproportionate not only to the architect. A March 11, 2006 report on ZDF commented "if the planning freeze is not lifted by the end of the year, the entrance building (the "Cube") cannot be completed in time. The idea that the portable toilets and ticket container which now stand in its place will still be there, is less that flattering for a a world cultural heritage site." David Chipperfield (b. ... Marbach am Neckar (pop. ... Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (ZDF), loosely translated to Second German Television Service, is a public service German language television network based in Mainz. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain range, lake, desert, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated, and confirmed, for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee. ...


Still, on June 24, 2003 the Federal Government Commissioner for Cultural and Media Affairs Christina Weiss, said on the occasion of the ceremony for the commencement of construction of the Neues Museum, that the master plan has "nearly squared the circle: to emphasize the buildings as a historical inheritance, to logiacally direct the flow of the host of visitors, and to make ready... a modern infrastucture."


If the ministry overseeing reconstruction is able to square the circle and all goes according to plan, in 2009 the Neues Museum will also become part of the archaeological promenade. The archaeological promenade will be an underground passageway connecting all the buildings on the Museum Island, with the exception of the Alte Nationalgalerie. It will integrate the Neues Museum as an important part of the historical architectural context of the Museum Island. The Neues Museum's restored, expanded, and new galleries will then again offer, as they did before their destruction, a worthy framework for the collections of the Egyptian Museum and the Museum for Pre- and Early History. Finally, the building will at last represent a lasting monument in stone for its first architect, Friedrich August Stüler, who wished that "the whole building should form a center for the highest mental interests of the people, the likes of which no other capital would likely be able to exhibit."


External links

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Das Neue Museum in Berlin

This article incorporates text translated from the corresponding German Wikipedia article as of 24 May 2006 Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...


 
 

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