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Encyclopedia > Network switch

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Maintenance use only: {{subst:Nothanks-web|pg=Network switch|url=http://www.sencilo.com/network-switches.php}} ~~~~
Typical SOHO network switch.
Typical SOHO network switch.
Back view of Atlantis network switch with Ethernet ports.
Back view of Atlantis network switch with Ethernet ports.

A network switch is a computer networking device that connects network segments. In the past, it was faster to use Layer 2 techniques to switch, when only MAC addresses could be looked up in content addressable memory (CAM). With the advent of ternary CAM (TCAM), it was equally fast to look up an IP address or a MAC address. TCAM is expensive, but very appropriate for enterprise switches that use default routes plus a moderate number of other routes. For routers that need a full Internet routing table, TCAM may not be cost-effective. Look up switch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... Ports on the Apple iBook (Early 2003) In computer hardware, a port serves as an interface between the computer and other computers or devices. ... Computer networking devices are units that mediate data in a computer network. ... A computer network is an interconnection of a group of computers. ... In computer networking a Media Access Control address (MAC address) or Ethernet Hardware Address (EHA) or hardware address or adapter address is a quasi-unique identifier attached to most network adapters (NICs). ... Content addressable memory, or CAM, is a special type of computer memory used in certain very high speed searching applications. ...


The first Ethernet switch was introduced by Kalpana in 1989. [1] Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... Kalpana was a Silicon Valley computer networking equipment manufacturer in the 1980s and 1990s, who invented the Ethernet switch. ...

Contents

Function

As with hubs, Ethernet implementations of network switches support either 10/100 Mbit/s or 10/100/1000 Mbit/s ports Ethernet standards. Large switches may have 10 Gbit/s ports. Switches differ from hubs in that they can have ports of different speed.


The network switch, packet switch (or just switch) plays an integral part in most Ethernet local area networks or LANs. Mid-to-large sized LANs contain a number of linked managed switches. Small office, home office (SOHO) applications typically use a single switch, or an all-purpose converged device such as gateway access to small office/home office broadband services such as DSL router or cable, WiFi router. In most of these cases, the end user device contains a router and components that interface to the particular physical broadband technology, as in the Linksys 8-port and 48-port devices. User devices may also include a telephone interface to VoIP. Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... LAN redirects here. ... For other uses, see Switch (disambiguation). ... The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ... Technological convergence is the modern presence of a vast array of different types of technology to perform very similar tasks. ... A residential gateway is a hardware device connecting a home network with a wide area network (WAN) or the Internet. ... Broadband in telecommunications is a term that refers to a signaling method that includes or handles a relatively wide range of frequencies, which may be divided into channels or frequency bins. ... Linksys befsr41 DSL Router DSL Routers are a type of router that connect a LAN to the Internet via a DSL connection. ... An outdated model of the Motorola Surfboard cable modem A cable modem is a type of modem that provides access to a data signal sent over the cable television infrastructure. ... Wi-Fi (IPA: ) is the common name for a popular wireless technology used in home networks, mobile phones, video games and more. ... This article is about a computer networking device. ... IP Telephony, also called Internet telephony, is the technology that makes it possible to have a telephone conversation over the Internet or a dedicated Internet Protocol (IP) network instead of dedicated voice transmission lines. ...


Role of switches in networks

Network switch is a marketing term rather than a technical one. Switches may operate at one or more OSI layers, including physical, data link, network, or transport (i.e., end-to-end). A device that operates simultaneously at more than one of these layers is called a multilayer switch, although use of the term is diminishing. The Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model (OSI Reference Model or OSI Model for short) is a layered, abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The data link layer is layer two of the seven-layer OSI model as well as of the five-layer TCP/IP reference model. ... The network layer is third layer out of seven in OSI model and it is the third layer out of five in TCP/IP model. ... In computing and telecommunications, the transport layer is the second highest layer in the four and five layer TCP/IP reference models, where it responds to service requests from the application layer and issues service requests to the Internet layer. ... It has been suggested that layer 4 router be merged into this article or section. ...


In switches intended for commercial use, built-in or modular interfaces makes it possible to connect different types of networks, for example Ethernet, Fibre Channel, ATM, and 802.11. This connectivity can be at any of the layers mentioned. While Layer 2 functionality is adequate for speed-shifting within one technology, interconnecting technologies such as Ethernet and token ring are easier at Layer 3. Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... Fibre Channel is a gigabit-speed network technology primarily used for storage networking. ... Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell relay, packet switching network and data link layer protocol which encodes data traffic into small (53 bytes; 48 bytes of data and 5 bytes of header information) fixed-sized cells. ... IEEE 802. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... Token-Ring local area network (LAN) technology was developed and promoted by IBM in the early 1980s and standardised as IEEE 802. ...


Again, "switch" is principally a marketing term; interconnection of different Layer 3 networks is done by routers. If there are any features that characterize "Layer-3 switches" as opposed to general-purpose routers, it tends to be that they are optimized, in larger switches, for high-density Ethernet connectivity. This article is about a computer networking device. ...


In some service provider and other environments where there is a need for much analysis of network performance and security, switches may be connected between WAN routers as places for analytic modules. Some vendors provide firewall,[2][3] network intrusion detection,[4] and performance analysis modules that can plug into switch ports. Some of these functions may be on combined modules.[5] Firewall may refer to: Firewall (construction), a physical barrier inside a building or vehicle, designed to limit the spread of fire, heat and structural collapse Firewall (networking), a logical barrier designed to prevent unauthorized or unwanted communications between sections of a computer network Firewall (film), a 2006 action film written... In Information security, Intrusion Detection is the act of detecting actions that attempt to compromise the confidentiality, integrity or availability of a resource. ...


In other cases, the switch is used to create a "mirror" image of data that can go to an external device. Since most switch port mirroring provides only one mirrored stream, network hubs can be useful for fanning out data to several read-only analyzers, such as intrusion detection systems and packet sniffers. In general, a hub is a centre point: a wheels hub, which is the center of the wheel with spokes radiating out from it. ... An Intrusion Detection System or IDS is a software tool used to detect unauthorised access to a computer system or network. ... A packet sniffer (also known as a network analyzer or protocol analyzer or, for particular types of networks, an Ethernet sniffer or wireless sniffer) is computer software or computer hardware that can intercept and log traffic passing over a digital network or part of a network. ...


Layer-specific functionality

A modular network switch with three network modules (a total of 24 Ethernet and 14 Fast Ethernet ports) and one power supply.
A modular network switch with three network modules (a total of 24 Ethernet and 14 Fast Ethernet ports) and one power supply.

While switches may learn about topologies at many layers, and forward at one or more layers, they do tend to have common features. Other than for computer-room very high performance applications, modern commercial switches use primarily Ethernet interfaces, which can have different input and output speeds of 10, 100, 1000 or 10,000 megabits per second. Switch ports almost always default to full-duplex operation, unless there is a requirement for interoperability with devices that are strictly half duplex. Half-duplex means that the device can only send or receive at any given time, whereas full-duplex can send and receive at the same time. ImageMetadata File history File links Smartswitch6000. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Smartswitch6000. ... The Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model (OSI Reference Model or OSI Model for short) is a layered, abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design. ... In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ... In telecommunications, duplex means two-way when referring to communications channels. ... In telecommunications, duplex means two-way when referring to communications channels. ...


At any layer, a modern switch may implement power over Ethernet (PoE), which avoids the need for attached devices, such as an IP telephone or wireless access point, to have a separate power supply. Since switches can have redundant power circuits connected to uninterruptible power supplies, the connected device can continue operating even when regular office power fails. Wireless LAN Access Point, powered by a PoE-Splitter Power over Ethernet or PoE technology describes a system to transmit electrical power, along with data, to remote devices over standard twisted-pair cable in an Ethernet network. ... Planet WAP-4000 Wireless Access Point In computer networking, a wireless access point (WAP or AP) is a device that connects wireless communication devices together to form a wireless network. ... An uninterruptible power supply (UPS), also known as an uninterruptible power source or a battery backup is a device which maintains a continuous supply of electric power to connected equipment by supplying power from a separate source when utility power is not available. ...


Layer-1 hubs versus higher-layer switches

A network hub, or repeater, is a fairly unsophisticated broadcast device, and rapidly becoming obsolete. Hubs do not manage any of the traffic that comes through them. Any packet entering a port is broadcast out or "repeated" on every other port, save the port of entry. Since every packet is repeated on every other port, packet collisions result, which slows down the network. In general, a hub is a centre point: a wheels hub, which is the center of the wheel with spokes radiating out from it. ... Ports on the Apple iBook (Early 2003) In computer hardware, a port serves as an interface between the computer and other computers or devices. ... In telecommunication, the term collision has the following meanings: In a data transmission system, the situation that occurs when two or more demands are made simultaneously on equipment that can handle only one at any given instant. ...


Hubs have actually become hard to find, due to the widespread use of switches. There are specialized applications where a hub can be useful, such as copying traffic to multiple network sensors. High end switches have a feature which does the same thing called port mirroring. There is no longer any significant price difference between a hub and a low-end switch. Port mirroring is used on a network switch to send a copy of all network packets seen on one switch port to a network monitoring connection on another switch port. ...


Layer 2

A network bridge, operating at the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer of the data link layer, may interconnect a small number of devices in a home or office. This is a trivial case of bridging, in which the bridge learns the MAC address of each connected device. Single bridges also can provide extremely high performance in specialized applications such as storage area networks. A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. ... The Media Access Control (MAC) data communication protocol sub-layer, also known as the Medium Access Control, is a part of the data link layer specified in the seven-layer OSI model (layer 2). ... In computer networking a Media Access Control address (MAC address) or Ethernet Hardware Address (EHA) or hardware address or adapter address is a quasi-unique identifier attached to most network adapters (NICs). ... In computing, a storage area network (SAN) is a network designed to attach computer storage devices such as disk array controllers and tape libraries to servers. ...


Bridges may also interconnect using a spanning tree protocol that allows the best path to be found within the constraint that it is a tree. In contrast to routers, bridges must have topologies with only one active path between two points. The older IEEE 802.1D spanning tree protocol could be quite slow, with forwarding stopping for 30-90 seconds while the spanning tree would reconverge. A Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol was introduced as IEEE 802.1w, but the newest edition of IEEE 802.1D-2004, adopts the 802.1w extensions as the base standard. Based on an algorithm invented by Radia Perlman while working for Digital Equipment Corporation[1][2], Spanning Tree Protocol Is an OSI layer-2 protocol which ensures a loop free topology for any bridged LAN. The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), is defined in the IEEE Standard 802. ... Links ANSI/IEEE Std 802. ... The Rapid Spanning Tree network protocol and algorithm provides a loop free topology for any LAN or bridged network. ...


While "layer 2 switch" remains more of a marketing term than a technical term, the products that were introduced as "switches" tended to use microsegmentation and full duplex to prevent collisions among devices connected to Ethernets. By using an internal forwarding plane much faster than any interface, they give the impression of simultaneous paths among multiple devices. Microsegmentation is a term used to describe the segmentation of a collision domain into as many segments as there are circuits, minus one. ... Duplex is the having of two principal elements or parts. ... In routing, the forwarding plane defines the part of the router architecture that decides what to do with packets arriving on an inbound interface. ...


Once a bridge learns the topology through a spanning tree protocol, it forwards data link layer frames using a layer 2 forwarding method. There are four forwarding methods a bridge can use, of which the second through fourth method were performance-increasing methods when used on "switch" products with the same input and output port speeds:

  1. Store and forward: The switch buffers and, typically, performs a checksum on each frame before forwarding it on.
  2. Cut through: The switch reads only up to the frame's hardware address before starting to forward it. There is no error checking with this method.
  3. Fragment free: A method that attempts to retain the benefits of both "store and forward" and "cut through". Fragment free checks the first 64 bytes of the frame, where addressing information is stored. This way the frame will always reach its intended destination. Error checking of the actual data in the packet is left for the end device in Layer 3 or Layer 4 (OSI), typically a router.
  4. Adaptive switching: A method of automatically switching between the other three modes.

Cut-through switches have to fall back to store and forward if the outgoing port is busy at the time the packet arrives. While there are specialized applications, such as storage area networks, where the input and output interfaces are the same speed, this is rarely the case in general LAN applications. In LANs, a switch used for end user access typically concentrates lower speed (e.g., 10/100 Mbits/s) into a higher speed (at least 1 Gbit/s). Alternatively, a switch that provides access to server ports usually connects to them at a much higher speed than is used by end user devices. Store and forward is a communications technique in which messages are sent to a intermediate station where they are kept and sent at a later time to the final destination or to another intermediate station. ... A checksum is a form of redundancy check, a simple way to protect the integrity of data by detecting errors in data that are sent through space (telecommunications) or time (storage). ... In computer networking, cut-through switching is a switching method for packet switching systems, wherein the switch starts forwarding that frame (or packet) before the whole frame has been received, normally as soon as the destination address is processed. ... Fragment-free switching is suitable for backbone applications in a congested network, or when connections are allocated to a number of users. ... For other users of the word/name byte, see byte (disambiguation). ... In telecommunications, a frame is a packet which has been encoded for transmission over a particular link. ... In computing, an address space defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which may correspond to a physical or virtual memory register, a network host, peripheral device, disk sector or other logical or physical entity. ... The Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model (OSI Reference Model or OSI Model for short) is a layered, abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design. ... This article is about a computer networking device. ...


Layer 3

Router is a marketing term for a Layer 3 switch, typically optimized for Ethernet interfaces. Like other switches, it connects devices to single ports for microsegmentation. The ports normally operate in full duplex. This article is about a computer networking device. ...


Switches, even primarily Layer 2 switches, can be aware of Layer 3 multicast and increase efficiency by delivering the traffic of a multicast group only to ports where the attached device has signaled that it wants to listen to that group. In a switch not aware of multicasting and broadcasting, frames are also forwarded on all ports of each broadcast domain, but in the case of IP multicast this causes inefficient use of bandwidth. To work around this problem some switches implement IGMP snooping.[6] Multicast is sometimes also (incorrectly) used to refer to a multiplexed broadcast. ... A broadcast domain is a logical network segment in which any computer or other device connected to the network can directly transmit to any other in the domain without having to go through a routing device, provided that they share the same subnet and gateway address and are in the...


Layer 4

While the exact meaning of the term Layer-4 switch is vendor dependent, it almost always starts with a capability for network address translation, but then adds some type of load distribution based on TCP sessions.[7] In computer networking, Network Address Translation (NAT, also known as Network Masquerading, Native Address Translation or IP Masquerading) is a technique of transceiving network traffic through a router that involves re-writing the source and/or destination IP addresses and usually also the TCP/UDP port numbers of IP packets... In computer networking, load balancing is a technique (usually performed by load balancers) to spread work between many computers, processes, hard disks or other resources in order to get optimal resource utilization and decrease computing time. ... The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ...


The device may include a stateful firewall, a VPN concentrator, or be an IPSec security gateway. Firewall may refer to: Firewall (construction), a physical barrier inside a building or vehicle, designed to limit the spread of fire, heat and structural collapse Firewall (networking), a logical barrier designed to prevent unauthorized or unwanted communications between sections of a computer network Firewall (film), a 2006 action film written... A Virtual Private Network, or VPN, is a private communications network usually used within a company, or by several different companies or organizations, communicating over a public network. ... IPsec (IP security) is a suite of protocols for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and/or encrypting each IP packet in a data stream. ...


Layer 7

As with the other types of switches, Layer 7 is a marketing term. They may distribute loads based on URL or by some installation-specific technique to recognize application-level transactions. A Layer-7 switch may include a web cache and participate in a content delivery network.[8] // Uniform Resource Locator (URL) formerly known as Universal Resource Locator, is a technical, Web-related term used in two distinct meanings: In popular usage and many technical documents, it is a synonym for Uniform Resource Identifier (URI); Strictly, the idea of a uniform syntax for global identifiers of network-retrievable... Web caching is the caching of web documents (e. ... A content delivery network or content distribution networks (CDNs) is a system of computers networked together across the Internet that cooperate transparently to deliver content (especially large media content) to end users. ...


Types of switches

Form factor

A rack-mounted switch with network cables
  • Rack mounted
  • Non-rack mounted, typically intended to be used in a home or office environment outside of the wiring closet
  • Chassis — with swappable "switch module" cards. e.g. Alcatel's OmniSwitch 7000 and some of Cisco's Catalyst switches, including the 4500 and 6500 series.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Rack-mounted redirects here. ... Look up Chassis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Cisco Catalyst 6500 series switches Catalyst is the brand name for a variety of network switches sold by Cisco Systems. ...

Configuration options

  • Unmanaged switches — These switches have no configuration interface or options. They are typically found in SOHO or home environments.
  • Managed switches — These are ones which allow access to one or more interfaces for the purpose of configuration or management of features such as Spanning Tree Protocol, port speed, VLANs, etc. High-end or "enterprise" switches may provide a serial console and command-line access via telnet and Secure Shell, as well as management via SNMP. More recent devices may also provide a web interface. Limited functions, such as a complete reset, by pushing buttons on the switch are usually also provided. Managed switches are found in medium or large "enterprise" networks and though more expensive are of higher quality. The task of managing usually requires understanding of Layer 2 networks (e.g. Ethernet).
    • Smart (or intelligent) switches — These are managed switches with a limited set of features. Likewise "web-managed" switches are switches which fall in a market niche between unmanaged and managed. For a price much lower than a fully managed switch they provide a web interface (and usually no CLI access) and allow configuration of basic settings, such as VLANs, port-speed and duplex.[9]

SOHO network is occasionally used to refer to a local area network as used in a Small office/home office business. ... Based on an algorithm invented by Radia Perlman while working for Digital Equipment Corporation[1][2], Spanning Tree Protocol Is an OSI layer-2 protocol which ensures a loop free topology for any bridged LAN. The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), is defined in the IEEE Standard 802. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with data signaling rate. ... A virtual LAN, commonly known as a VLAN, is a logically segmented network mapped over physical hardware. ... The console is the text output device for system administration messages, particularly those from the BIOS or boot loader, the kernel, from the init system and from the system logger. ... For the packet switched network, see Telenet. ... SSH redirects here. ... The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) forms part of the internet protocol suite as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force. ... The data link layer is layer two of the seven-layer OSI model as well as of the five-layer TCP/IP reference model. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... A virtual LAN, commonly known as a VLAN, is a logically segmented network mapped over physical hardware. ...

Traffic monitoring on a switched network

Unless port mirroring or other methods such as RMON[10] or SMON are implemented in a switch, it is difficult to monitor traffic that is bridged using a switch because all ports are isolated until one transmits data, and even then only the sending and receiving ports can see the traffic. These monitoring features rarely are present on consumer-grade switches. RMON stands for Remote Monitoring. ... A set of MIB extensions for RMON that allow the monitoring of switching equipment from a single management workstation in far greater detail than offered by RMON. ...


Two popular methods that are specifically designed to allow a network analyst to monitor traffic are:

  • Port mirroring — the switch sends a copy of network packets to a monitoring network connection.
  • SMON — "Switch Monitoring" is described by RFC 2613 and is a protocol for controlling facilities such as port mirroring.

Another method to monitor may be to connect a Layer-1 hub between the monitored device and its switch port. This will induce minor delay, but will provide multiple interfaces that can be used to monitor the individual switch port. Port mirroring is used on a network switch to send a copy of all network packets seen on one switch port to a network monitoring connection on another switch port. ... A set of MIB extensions for RMON that allow the monitoring of switching equipment from a single management workstation in far greater detail than offered by RMON. ...


after installation > type> cancel> ctrl s > enter


Typical switch management features

Linksys 48-port switch.
Linksys 48-port switch.

(In order of basic to advanced): Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A 802. ...

Link aggregation allows you to use multiple ports for the same connection achieving higher data transfer speeds. Creating VLANs can serve security and performance goals by reducing the size of the broadcast domain. A duplex communication system is a system composed of two connected parties or devices which can communicate with one another in both directions. ... In computer networking, MAC Filtering (or EUI filtering, or layer 2 address filtering) refers to a security access control methodology whereby the 48-bit address assigned to each network card is used to determine access to the network. ... In computer networking, MAC flooding is a technique employed to compromise the security of network switches. ... Based on an algorithm invented by Radia Perlman while working for Digital Equipment Corporation[1][2], Spanning Tree Protocol Is an OSI layer-2 protocol which ensures a loop free topology for any bridged LAN. The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), is defined in the IEEE Standard 802. ... The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) forms part of the internet protocol suite as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force. ... Port mirroring is used on a network switch to send a copy of all network packets seen on one switch port to a network monitoring connection on another switch port. ... Link aggregation, or IEEE 802. ... A virtual LAN, commonly known as a VLAN, is a logically segmented network mapped over physical hardware. ... IEEE 802. ... Network Access Control (NAC) is an approach to computer network security that attempts to unify endpoint security technology (such as antivirus, host intrusion prevention, and vulnerability assessment), user or system authentication[1] and network security enforcement[2]. // Network Access Control is a computer networking concept and set of protocols used... Link aggregation, or IEEE 802. ... A virtual LAN, commonly known as a vLAN or as a VLAN, is a method of creating independent logical networks within a physical network. ... A broadcast domain is a logical network segment in which any computer or other device connected to the network can directly transmit to any other in the domain without having to go through a routing device, provided that they share the same subnet and gateway address and are in the...


Managed or unmanaged switching


This option determines the level of control you can have over your network, including the degree of security that your business wants for its networked data and communications. Managed switches offer more control; they also usually require more technical expertise. If you have multiple LANs and switches, you may decide to manage some of them and not others.


Unmanaged switches are preconfigured to satisfy most small business needs and can be set up quickly, making them appropriate for simple LAN connections.


Managed switches provide control capabilities that can increase LAN security and performance, and let you segment traffic. For example, you could allow only certain employees access to your finance applications. You could also give certain applications more bandwidth, or ensure that video and voice communications take priority over other types of traffic.


See also

This article addresses packet switching in computer networks. ... The terms 10/100 switch, 10/100 hub and 10/100 card refer to Ethernet switches, hubs and network cards capable of connecting to 10Mbit/s (10BASE-T) and 100Mbit/s (100BASE-T) network devices on the same interface port, adjusting their speed automatically. ... LAN redirects here. ... A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. ... It has been suggested that layer 4 router be merged into this article or section. ... A console server (also console access server or console management server or serial console server) is a device or service that provides access to the system console of a computing device via networking technologies. ... This article is about a computer networking device. ... For other uses, see Switch (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ Robert J. Kohlhepp (2000-10-02). The 10 Most Important Products of the Decade. Network Computing. Retrieved on 2008-02-25.
  2. ^ Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Firewall Services Module,Cisco Systems,2007
  3. ^ Switch 8800 Firewall Module,3Com Corporation, 2006
  4. ^ Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Intrusion Detection System (IDSM-2) Module,Cisco Systems,2007
  5. ^ Getting Started with Check Point FireWall-1,Checkpoint Software Technologies Ltd., n.d.
  6. ^ Morten Jagd Christensen et.al IGMP Snooping
  7. ^ The Ins and Outs of Layer 4+ Switching,NANOG 15, S. Sathaye,January 1999
  8. ^ How worried is too worried? Plus, a Global Crossing Story.,NANOG mailing list archives, S. Gibbard,October 2001
  9. ^ Tech specs for a sample HP "web-managed" switch
  10. ^ Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base,RFC 2819, S. Waldbusser,May 2000

Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Network switch (1951 words)
A network switch is a data switching device that forwards data packets from a source network component or components to a destination network component or components.
A network switch input port may include a protocol processor for converting each incoming packet to a sequence of cells of uniform size, and a traffic manager within the input port for storing the cells in a cell memory until it can forward them through the switch fabric to one of the output ports.
Switches employing both media access control addresses (such as in bridges) or network addresses (such as in routers) provide temporal buffering both when the packets are received, in what are known as `receive queues`, and when they are assigned to transmit ports, in what are known as transmit queues.
Network switch - definition of Network switch in Encyclopedia (488 words)
A network switch is a computer networking device that connects network segments.
A switch can connect Ethernet, Token Ring, or other types of packet switched network segments together to form a heterogenous network operating at OSI Layer 2.
As a frame comes into a switch, the switch saves the originating MAC address and the originating port in the switch's MAC address table.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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