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Encyclopedia > Network analysis

Network analysis is the analysis of networks through network theory (or more generally graph theory). Network theory or diktyology is a branch of applied mathematics and physics, with the same general subject matter as graph theory. ... A pictorial representation of a graph In mathematics and computer science, graph theory is the study of graphs, mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects from a certain collection. ...


The networks may be social, transportation or virtual, such as the Internet. A social network is a social structure made of nodes (which are generally individuals or organizations) that are tied by one or more specific types of relations, such as values, visions, idea, financial exchange, friends, kinship, dislike, trade, web links, sexual relations, disease transmission (epidemiology), or airline routes. ...


Analysis includes descriptions of structure, such as small-world networks, social circles or scale-free networks, optimisation, such as Critical Path Analysis and PERT (Program Evaluation & Review Technique), and properties such as flow assignment. A small-world network is a specific kind of network (to be more precise a special kind of a complex network) in which the distribution of connectivity is not confined to a certain scale, and where every node can be reached from every other by a small number of hops... The generative model of feedback networks studied in mathematics and physics by White, Kejžar, Tsallis, Farmer, and White, or social-circles network model, defines a class of random graphs generated by simple processes that are common to edge formation and feedback loops in social circles. ... A scale-free network is a specific kind of complex network in which the distribution of connectivity is extremely uneven. ... In project management, path analysis (also known as critical path analysis) is a technique to analyse events. ... PERT network chart for a seven-month project with five milestones (10 through 50) and six activities (A through F). ...


Social network analysis maps relationships between individuals in social networks.[1] Such individuals are often persons, but but may be groups (including cliques), organizations, nation-states, web sites, or citations between scholarly publications (scientometrics). A social network is a social structure made of nodes (which are generally individuals or organizations) that are tied by one or more specific types of relations, such as values, visions, idea, financial exchange, friends, kinship, dislike, trade, web links, sexual relations, disease transmission (epidemiology), or airline routes. ... The term group can refer to several concepts: In music, a group is another term for band or other musical ensemble. ... For clique in graph theory, see Clique (graph theory) For clique in professional wrestling, see Clique (professional wrestling) For The Clique, the group of Victorian artists see The Clique A common feature in cliques is an Outcast, the party in which are shunned, ostracized and left out. ... Alternative meaning: Organisation (band). ... Max Barry set up Jennifer Government: NationStates, a game on the World Wide Web inspired by, and promoting, his novel Jennifer Government. ... A website, Web site or WWW site (often shortened to just site) is a collection of webpages, that is, HTML/XHTML documents accessible via HTTP on the Internet; all publicly accessible websites in existence comprise the World Wide Web. ... For the thoroughbred, see Citation (horse). ... Scientometrics is the science of measuring and analysing science. ...


Network analysis, and its close cousin traffic analysis, has significant use in intelligence. By monitoring the communication patterns between the network nodes, its structure can be established. This can be used for uncovering insurgent networks of both hierarchical and leaderless nature. Traffic analysis is the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication. ... Leaderless resistance (or phantom cell structure) is a political resistance strategy in which small, independent groups (covert cells) challenge an established adversary such as a government. ...


Link analysis is a subset of network analysis, exploring associations between objects. An example may be examining the addresses of suspects and victims, the telephone numbers they have dialed and financial transactions that they have partaken in during a given timeframe, and the familial relationships between these subjects as a part of police investigation. Link analysis here provides the crucial relationships and associations between very many objects of different types that are not apparent from isolated pieces of information. Computer-assisted or fully automatic computer-based link analysis is increasingly employed by banks and insurance agencies in fraud detection, by telecommunication operators in telecommunication network analysis, by medical sector in epidemiology and pharmacology, in law enforcement investigations, by search engines for relevance rating (and conversely by the spammers for spamdexing and by business owners for search engine optimization), and everywhere else where relationships between many objects have to be analyzed. “Banker” redirects here. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakos (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and logos (λόγος) meaning science) is the study of how substances interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... For the band, see The Police. ... A detective is an officer of the police who performs criminal or administrative investigations, in some police departments, the lowest rank among such investigators (above the lowest rank of officers and below sergeants), a civilian licensed to investigate information not readily available in public records (a private investigator, also called... Google search is the worlds most popular search engine. ... Relevance is a term used to describe how pertinent, connected, or applicable some information is to a given matter. ... A search engine spammer is a person who uses techniques that are deemed unfair in order to increase his/her web sites position within the search results of a search engine. ... Spamdexing or search engine spamming is the practice of deliberately creating web pages which will be indexed by search engines in order to increase the chance of a website or page being placed close to the beginning of search engine results, or to influence the category to which the page... Structure of a typical search results page Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the volume and quality of traffic to a web site from search engines via natural (organic or algorithmic) search results. ...

Contents

Centrality measures

Information about the relative importance of nodes and edges in a graph can be obtained through centrality measures, widely used in disciplines like sociology. For example, eigenvector centrality uses the eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix to determine nodes that tend to be frequently visited. Within graph theory, there are various measures of the centrality of a vertex within a graph. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Eigenvector centrality is a measure of the importance of a node in a network. ... In linear algebra, the eigenvectors (from the German eigen meaning inherent, characteristic) of a linear operator are non-zero vectors which, when operated on by the operator, result in a scalar multiple of themselves. ... In mathematics and computer science, the adjacency matrix of a finite directed or undirected graph G on n vertices is the n × n matrix where the nondiagonal entry is the number of edges from vertex i to vertex j, and the diagonal entry is either twice the number of loops...


Web link analysis

Several Web search ranking algorithms use link-based centrality metrics, including (in order of appearance) Marchiori's Hyper Search, Google's PageRank, Kleinberg's HITS algorithm, and the TrustRank algorithm. Link analysis is also conducted in information science and communication science in order to understand and extract information from the structure of collections of web pages. For example the analysis might be of the interlinking between politicians' web sites or blogs. The success of the Google search engine was mainly due to its powerful PageRank algorithm and its simple, easy-to-use interface. ... Look up Rank in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Generally, rank is a system of hierarchy used to classify like things. ... Massimo Marchiori is without doubt the Italian scientist who most contributed to the development of the World Wide Web. ... Hyper Search has been the first published technique to introduce link analysis for search engines, opening the way for the second-generation of search engines (notably, Google above all). ... Google Inc (NASDAQ: GOOG and LSE: GGEA) is an American public corporation, specializing in Internet searching and online advertising. ... How PageRank Works PageRank is a link analysis algorithm that assigns a numerical weighting to each element of a hyperlinked set of documents, such as the World Wide Web, with the purpose of measuring its relative importance within the set. ... The HITS (hypertext induced topic selection) algorithm is an algorithm for rating, and therefore also ranking, Web pages. ... TrustRank is a link analysis technique for semi-automatically separating useful webpages from spam. ...


References

  1. ^ Wasserman, Stanley and Katherine Faust. 1994. Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Social Network Analysis (1221 words)
Social network researchers measure network activity for a node by using the concept of degrees -- the number of direct connections a node has.
The good news is that she plays a powerful role in the network, the bad news is that she is a single point of failure.
Since individuals' networks overlap, peripheral nodes are connected to networks that are not currently mapped.
What is Social Network Analysis? (622 words)
Network analysis is the study of social relations among a set of actors.
Complete network analysis is where you try to obtain all the relationships among a set of respondents, such as all the friendships among employees of a given company.
A real problem with network analysis in the past has been the inability to test hypotheses statistically, because the data are by their very nature autocorrelated, violating assumptions of independence (random sampling) built-in to most classical statistical tests.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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