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Encyclopedia > Netherlands
Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
Kingdom of the Netherlands
Flag of the Netherlands Coat of arms of the Netherlands
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"Je maintiendrai"  (French)
"Ik zal handhaven"  (Dutch)
"I shall stand fast"1
Anthem"Het Wilhelmus"
Location of the Netherlands
Location of  Netherlands  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green)  —  [Legend] The Netherlands have been the name of different political and geographical entities in northwestern Europe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The national flag of the Netherlands, with its three equal horizontal bands coloured red (top), white and blue is the oldest tricolour still in use today. ... The Coat of Arms of The Netherlands (click for larger image) The Coat of Arms of The Netherlands (click for larger image) The Greater Coat of Arms of the Realm, (or “Grote Rijkswapen”), is the personal Coat of Arms of the Monarch (Queen Beatrix). ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... William the Silent (William I) leader and icon of the Dutch revolt Het Wilhelmus ( (help· info)) (English translation: The William, viz. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Amsterdam²
52°21′N, 04°52′E
Official languages Dutch³
Ethnic groups  80.9% Dutch
19.1% various others
Demonym Dutch
Government Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy
 -  Monarch Queen Beatrix
 -  Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende (CDA)
Independence through the Eighty Years' War from Philip II of Spain 
 -  Declared July 26, 1581 
 -  Recognised January 30, 16484 
EU accession March 25, 1957
Area
 -  Total 41,526 km² (134th)
16,033 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 18.41
Population
 -  2008 estimate 16,408,557 (61st)
 -  Density 395/km² (25th)
1,023/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total 670,929 Billion (16th)
 -  Per capita $35,078 (10th)
GDP (nominal) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $625.271 billion (16th)
 -  Per capita $38,618 (10th)
HDI (2005) 0.953 (high) (9th)
Currency Euro ()5 (EUR)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .nl6
Calling code +31
1 The literal translation of the motto is "I will maintain". Here "maintain" is taken to mean to stand fast or to hold ground.
2 While Amsterdam is the constitutional capital, The Hague is the seat of the government.
3 West Frisian is also an official language in the Netherlands, although only spoken in Friesland; Dutch Low Saxon and Limburgish are officially recognised as regional languages.
4 Peace of Westphalia.
5 Before 2002: Dutch guilder.
6 The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland , IPA: [ˈne:dərlɑnt]) is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands, the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba in the Caribbean. The Netherlands is a parliamentary democratic constitutional monarchy, located in Western Europe. It is bordered by the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east. Not to be confused with capitol. ... The population of the Netherlands is concentrated on a limited territory. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... The Netherlands have been an independent monarchy since 1815, and have been governed by members of the House of Orange-Nassau since. ... Beatrix (born January 31, 1938 as Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard, Princess of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld) has been the Queen regnant of the Kingdom of the Netherlands since April 30, 1980. ... The prime minister of the Netherlands is the head of the cabinet, and, as such, coordinates the policy of the government. ... Jan Peter Balkenende (pronounced IPA:  ) (born May 7, 1956) has been the Prime Minister of the Netherlands since July 22, 2002. ... The Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) (Dutch: Christen Democratisch Appèl) is a Dutch Christian-democratic political party. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .nl is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Netherlands. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... A telephone number in the Netherlands is a sequence of usually 10 decimal digits (0-9) that is used for identifying a destination telephone line in the Dutch telephone network. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Hague redirects here. ... The West Frisian language (Frysk) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Fryslân in the north of the Netherlands. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Limburgish, or Limburgian or Limburgic (Dutch: Limburgs, German: Limburgisch, French: Limbourgeois) is a group of Franconian varieties, spoken in the Limburg and Rhineland regions, near the common Dutch / Belgian / German border. ... // The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ... The gulden (sometimes guilder in English), represented by the symbol Æ’ or fl. ... Image File history File links Nl-Nederland. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A parliamentarian is a specialist in parliamentary procedure. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ...


The Netherlands is often called Holland. This is formally incorrect as North and South Holland in the western Netherlands are only two of the country's twelve provinces. As a matter of fact, many Dutch people colloquially use Holland as a synecdoche, being well aware of the widespread use of this name. For more on this and other naming issues see terminology of the Netherlands. This article is about a region in the Netherlands. ... North-Holland redirects here. ... South Holland (Dutch Zuid-Holland) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the west of the country on the North Sea coast. ... Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which: a term denoting a part of something is used to refer to the whole thing, or a term denoting a thing (a whole) is used to refer to part of it, or a term denoting a specific class of thing (a species... The Netherlands is known under various terms both in English and other languages. ...


The Netherlands is a geographically low-lying and densely populated country. It is popularly known for its traditional windmills, tulips, cheese, clogs (wooden shoes), delftware and gouda pottery, for its bicycles, its dikes and surge barriers, and, on the other hand, traditional values and civil virtues such as its classic social tolerance. But primarily, the Netherlands is a modern, advanced and open society. An old parliamentary democracy, the country is more recently known for its rather liberal policies toward recreational drugs, prostitution, homosexuality, abortion, and euthanasia. The Netherlands is also one of the most densely cabled countries in the world; its internet connection rate of 87.8% is the 2nd highest in the world.[1] Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This article is about machines that convert wind energy into mechanical energy. ... [[Media:Example. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... The word clog, as applied to footwear, has these meanings:- A type of shoe or sandal made predominantly out of wood. ... Delftware panel. ... A vase in the Chryso pattern, circa 1925, manufactured by Kunstaardewerkfabriek Regina of Gouda, Holland. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... Afsluitdijk, a 32 km dike in the Netherlands. ... “Tolerance” redirects here. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... The drug policy of the Netherlands is based on 3 principles: Drug use is a public health issue, not a criminal matter A distinction between hard drugs and soft drugs exists High drug related public expenditure, the highest drug related public expenditure per capita of all countries in EU (139... Prostitution in the Netherlands is legal and common. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      The Netherlands is known for its liberal-libertarian policies on personal matters such as sexual orientation. ... In 2002 Netherlands legalized euthanasia. ...


The Netherlands has an international outlook; among other affiliations the country is a founding member of the European Union (EU), NATO, the OECD, and has signed the Kyoto protocol. Along with Belgium and Luxembourg, the Netherlands is one of three member nations of the Benelux economic union. The country is host to five international(ised) courts: the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the International Court of Justice, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Court and the Special Tribunal for Lebanon. All of these courts (except the Special Tribunal for Lebanon), as well as the EU's criminal intelligence agency (Europol), are situated in The Hague, which has led to the city being referred to as "the world's legal capital."[2] This article is about the military alliance. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing greenhouse gases that cause climate change. ... Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ... The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), also known as the Hague Tribunal is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ... The Special Tribunal for Lebanon is an international criminal court that has been proposed and approved by the United Nations and the Director-General of the Ministry of Justice on behalf of the Lebanese Republic. ... Europol (the name is a contraction of European Police Office) is the European Unions criminal intelligence agency. ... Hague redirects here. ...


A remarkable aspect of the Netherlands is its flatness. Hilly landscapes can be found only in the south-eastern tip of the country on the foothills of the Ardennes, the central part and where the glaciers pushed up several hilly ridges such as the Hondsrug in Drenthe, the stuwwallen (push moraines) near Arnhem and Nijmegen, Salland, Twente and the Utrechtse Heuvelrug. The Ardennes (IPA pronunciation: ) (Dutch: Ardennen) is a volcanic region of extensive forests and rolling hill country, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région). ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... The Hoogstraatje in Groningen, the northernmost hill of the Hondsrug Cross-section The Hondsrug is a Dutch ridge of sand that is mainly located in the province Drenthe and partly in the province Groningen. ... This article is about the Dutch city and municipality. ... Country Netherlands Province Gelderland Area (2006)  - Municipality 57. ... The location of Salland (red) within Overijssel (dark grey) and the Netherlands (light grey), showing the area now generally considered to be part of Twente. ... Twente (or Twenthe) is a non-administrative region in the eastern Netherlands, containing the most urbanised and easterly part of the province of Overijssel. ... Utrechtse Heuvelrug is a municipality in the Netherlands, in the province of Utrecht. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of the Netherlands

Under Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and king of Spain, the region was part of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands, which also included most of present-day Belgium, Luxembourg, and some land of France and Germany. 1568 saw the start of the Eighty Years' War between the provinces and Spain. In 1579, the northern half of the Seventeen Provinces formed the Union of Utrecht, a treaty in which they promised to support each other in their defense against the Spanish army. The Union of Utrecht is seen as the foundation of the modern Netherlands. In 1581 the northern provinces adopted the Oath of Abjuration, the declaration of independence in which the provinces officially deposed Philip II. Philip II the son of Charles V, was not prepared to let them go easily and war continued until 1648 when Spain under King Philip IV finally recognised Dutch independence in the Treaty of Münster. The present-day territory of the Netherlands has been inhabited since the paleolithic. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Flag of the Seventeen Provinces The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 15th century and 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of the West of... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... The Union of Utrecht (Dutch: Unie van Utrecht) is a treaty signed on January 23, 1579 in Utrecht, the Netherlands, unifying the northern provinces of the Netherlands, until then under control of Spain. ... The Oath of Abjuration or Plakkaat van Verlatinghe of July 26, 1581, was the formal declaration of independence of the northern Low Countries from the Spanish king, Philip II. This point meant a climax in the Dutch Revolt, a point of no return, in which the Low Countries asserted they... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ... For other places with the same or similar names, and other uses of the word, see Munster (disambiguation) Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...


Dutch Republic 1581-1795

Main article: Dutch Republic
William the Silent, leader of the Netherlands during the Dutch Revolt.
William the Silent, leader of the Netherlands during the Dutch Revolt.

Since their independence from Phillip II in 1581 the provinces formed the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. The republic was a confederation of the provinces Holland, Zeeland, Groningen, Friesland, Utrecht, Overijssel and Gelre. All these provinces were autonomous and had their own government, the "States of the Province". The States-General, the confederal government, were seated in The Hague and consisted of representatives from each of the seven provinces. The very thinly populated region of Drenthe, mainly consisting of poor peatland, was part of the Republic too, although Drenthe was not considered one of the provinces. Drenthe had its own States but the landdrost of Drenthe was appointed by the States-General. Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Portrait of William of Orange by A.Th. ... Portrait of William of Orange by A.Th. ... William I (William the Silent). ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Dutch Revolt, Eighty Years War or The Revolt of the Netherlands (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Low Countries against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... This article is about a region in the Netherlands. ... Capital Middelburg Largest city Terneuzen Queens Commissioner Karla Peijs Religion (1999) Protestant 35% Catholic 23% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   1,788 km² (10th) 1,146 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 380,186 (11th) 213/km² (10th) Anthem Zeeuws volkslied ISO NL-ZE Official website www. ... Groningen can refer to: A province of the Netherlands. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... Utrecht refers to various cities and areas: Utrecht (province), of the Netherlands Utrecht (city), Netherlands, and capital of the province of the same name Utrecht (municipality), includes the city of Utrecht and two neighbouring villages (Vleuten / de Meern) Utrecht (agglomeration), in the Netherlands, includes the city of Utrecht Diocese of... Flag of Overijssel Overijssel is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country. ... For the present province also called Guelders in English, see Gelderland. ... The word States-General, or Estates-General, refers in English to : the Etats-Généraux of France before the French Revolution the Staten-Generaal of the Netherlands. ... Hague redirects here. ... For the Dutch footballer, see Royston Drenthe. ... Landdrost was the title of various officials with local jurisdiction. ...


The Republic occupied a number of so-called Generality Lands (Generaliteitslanden in Dutch). These territories were governed directly by the States-General, so they did not have a government of their own and they did not have representatives in the States-General. Most of these territories were occupied during the Eighty Years' War. They were mainly Roman Catholic and they were used as a buffer zone between the Republic and the Southern Netherlands. The Generality Lands (Dutch: Generaliteitslanden) were border territories of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, that were directly governed by the Estates-General of the Netherlands. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... The Southern Netherlands (Dutch: , Spanish: , French: ) were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain (Spanish Netherlands, 1579-1713), Austria (Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1794) and captured by France (1794-1815). ...


The Dutch grew to become one of the major seafaring and economic powers of the 17th century during the period of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. In the so-called Dutch Golden Age, colonies and trading posts were established all over the globe. (See Dutch colonial empire) This article is about the Dutch United Provinces. ... Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ... A trading post is a place where trading of goods takes place. ... A map showing the territory that the Netherlands held at various points in history. ...


Many economic historians regard the Netherlands as the first thoroughly capitalist country in the world. In early modern Europe it featured the wealthiest trading city (Amsterdam) and the first full-time stock exchange. The inventiveness of the traders led to insurance and retirement funds as well as such less benign phenomena as the boom-bust cycle, the world's first asset-inflation bubble, the tulip mania of 1636–1637, and according to Murray Sayle, the world's first bear raider - Isaac le Maire, who forced prices down by dumping stock and then buying it back at a discount.[3] The republic went into a state of general decline in the later 18th century, with economic competition from England and long standing rivalries between the two main factions in Dutch society, the Staatsgezinden (Republicans) and the Prinsgezinden (Royalists or Orangists) as main factors. For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... Pamphlet from the Dutch tulipomania, printed in 1637 The term tulip mania (alternatively tulipomania) is used metaphorically to refer to any large economic bubble. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Under French influence 1795-1815

Main article: Batavian Republic

On 19 January 1795, a day after stadtholder William V of Orange fled to England, the Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek in Dutch) was proclaimed. The proclamation of the Batavian Republic introduced the concept of the unitary state in the Netherlands. From 1795 to 1806, the Batavian Republic designated the Netherlands as a republic modelled after the French Republic. From 1795 to 1806, the Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek in Dutch) designated the Netherlands as a republic modeled after the French Republic, to which it was a vassal state. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A stadtholder (Dutch: stadhouder meaning place holder, a Germanic parallel to Latin locum tenens or French lieutenant), means an official who is appointed by the legal ruling Monarch to represent him in a country, and may have a mandate to govern it in his name, in the latter case roughly... William V, stadtholder of The Netherlands (March 8, 1748–April 9, 1806), also known as William V of Orange, was the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic. ... From 1795 to 1806, the Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek in Dutch) designated the Netherlands as a republic modeled after the French Republic, to which it was a vassal state. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Kingdom of Holland 1806 – 1810 (Dutch: Koninkrijk Holland, French: Royaume de Hollande) was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, in order to control the Netherlands more effectively. The name of the leading province, Holland, was now taken for the whole country. The kingdom of Holland covered the area of present day Netherlands, with the exception of Limburg, and parts of Zeeland, which were French territory. In 1807 Prussian East Frisia and Jever were added to the kingdom. In 1809 however, after an English invasion, Holland had to give over all territories south of the river Rhine to France. The Kingdom of Holland 1806 - 1810 (Koninkrijk Holland in Dutch, Royaume dHollande in French) was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... Louis I Napoleon Bonaparte, King of Holland, Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves, Count of Saint-Leu (Lodewijk Napoleon in Dutch) (September 2, 1778 – July 25, 1846) was the fifth surviving child and fourth surviving son of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino. ... This article is about a region in the Netherlands. ... The landscape to the north of Greetsiel, in East Frisia. ... Jever, earlier than 1930 Jever [ˈjeːfɐ] is the capital of the district Friesland in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ...


King Louis Napoleon did not meet Napoleon's expectations — he tried to serve Dutch interests instead of his brother's — and the King had to abdicate on 1 July 1810. He was succeeded by his five year old son Napoleon Louis Bonaparte. Napoleon Louis reigned as Louis II for just ten days as Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte ignored his young nephew’s accession to the throne. The Emperor sent in an army to invade the country and dissolved the Kingdom of Holland. The Netherlands then became part of the French Empire. is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Napoleon Louis Bonaparte (October 11, 1804 - March 17, 1831) was the middle son of Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland (aka Louis I of Holland), and Hortense de Beauharnais. ...


From 1810 to 1813, when Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated in the battle of Leipzig, the Netherlands were part of the French Empire. Belligerents French Empire Italy Naples Duchy of Warsaw Saxony[1] Russia Austria Prussia Sweden Saxony[1] Commanders Napoleon I Jozef Antoni Poniatowski â€  Frederick Augustus Prince of Schwarzenberg Gebhard von Blücher Carl Johan Barclay De Tolly Count Benningsen Strength 195,000[2] 365,000[2] Casualties and losses 38,000...


Kingdom of the Netherlands

In 1795 the last stadtholder William V of Orange fled to England. His son returned to the Netherlands in 1813 to become William I of the Netherlands, Sovereign Prince of the Netherlands. On 16 March 1815 the Sovereign Prince became King of the Netherlands. William V, stadtholder of The Netherlands (March 8, 1748–April 9, 1806), also known as William V of Orange, was the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic. ... For other men at some time in history called William I of Orange-Nassau, see William of Orange. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ...

Map of the Netherlands in 1843 after independence of Belgium.
Map of the Netherlands in 1843 after independence of Belgium.
See also: Kingdom of the Netherlands

In 1815 the Congress of Vienna formed the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, by expanding the Netherlands with Belgium in order to create a strong country on the northern border of France. In addition, William became hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg. The Congress of Vienna gave Luxembourg to William personally in exchange for his German possessions, Nassau-Dillenburg, Siegen, Hadamar and Diez. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 445 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,400 × 3,235 pixels, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 445 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,400 × 3,235 pixels, file size: 3. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Limburg in 1839 1, 2 and 3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (until 1830) 1 and 2 Kingdom of the Netherlands (after 1830) 2 Duchy of Limburg (In the German Confederacy after 1839 as compensation for Waals-Luxemburg) 3 and 4 Kingdom of Belgium (after... The Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg (House of Nassau-Weilburg, agnatically a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon) consists of the extended family of the sovereign Grand Duke. ... Nassau was a German state within the Holy Roman Empire. ... Siegen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Hadamar the site of a former insane asylum used by the Nazis as the site of their T-4 Euthanasia Program, which performed mass sterilizations and mass murder of undesirable members of Nazi society, specifically the physically and mentally handicapped. ... Diez refers to: German Diez(deets) Diez (Germany) Ernst Diez (1878-1961) Friedrich Christian Diez (1794-1876) Wilhelm von Diez (1839-1907) See also Dietz, Tietz Iberian Diez(dee ath) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Belgium rebelled and gained independence in 1830, while the personal union between Luxembourg and the Netherlands was severed in 1890, when King William III of the Netherlands died with no surviving male heirs. Ascendancy laws prevented his daughter Queen Wilhelmina from becoming the next Grand Duchess. Therefore the throne of Luxembourg passed over from the House of Orange-Nassau to the House of Nassau-Weilburg, another branch of the House of Nassau. It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... William III, King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg (William Alexander Paul Frederick Louis of Orange-Nassau) (Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk van Oranje-Nassau, Koning der Nederlanden en Groothertog van Luxemburg in Dutch) (February 19, 1817 – November 23, 1890) was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke... // The Salic law (Lat. ... For other uses, see Wilhelmina (disambiguation). ... The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands - and at times in Europe - since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of... Flag of Nassau-Weilburg Nassau-Weilburg were a state in the current Germany which had existed from 1344 to 1816. ... The royal House of Nassau is one of the most prominent dynasties in Europe. ...


Colonies

The largest Dutch settlement abroad was the Cape Colony. It was established by Jan van Riebeeck on behalf of the Dutch East India Company at Capetown (Dutch: Kaapstad) in 1652. The Prince of Orange acquiesced to British occupation and control of the Cape Colony in 1788. The Netherlands also possessed several other colonies, but Dutch settlement in these lands was limited. Most notable were the vast Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) and Suriname (the latter was traded with the British for New Amsterdam, now known as New York). These 'colonies' were first administered by the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, both collective private enterprises. Three centuries later these companies got into financial trouble and the territories in which they operated were taken over by the Dutch government (in 1815 and 1791 respectively). Only then did they become official colonies. Cape Town and the Cape of Good Hope Cape Town (Afrikaans, Dutch: Kaapstad; Xhosa: eKapa or SaseKapa), is one of South Africas three capital cities serving as the legislative capital (executive capital and Bloemfontein the judicial capital). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the settlement in present-day New York City. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the trading company. ... Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ...


Industrialisation

During the 19th century, the Netherlands was slow to industrialize compared to neighbouring countries, mainly due to the great complexity involved in the modernizing of the infrastructure consisting largely of waterways and the great reliance its industry had on windpower.


World War I

Many historians do not recognise the Dutch involvement during World War I. However, recently historians started to change their opinion on the role of the Dutch. Although the Netherlands remained neutral during the war, it was heavily involved in the war. [4] Von Schlieffen had originally planned to invade the Netherlands while advancing into France in the original Schlieffen Plan. This was changed by Helmuth von Moltke the Younger in order to maintain Dutch neutrality. Later during the war Dutch neutrality would prove essential to German survival up till the blockade integrated by the USA and Great Britain in 1916 when the import of goods through the Netherlands was no longer possible. However, the Dutch were able to remain neutral during the war using their diplomacy and their ability to trade. [5] Image:AlfredGrafVonSchlieffen. ...


World War II

Main article: History of the Netherlands (1939-1945)

The Netherlands remained neutral in World War I and intended to do so in World War II. However, Nazi Germany invaded the Netherlands in 1940 in the Western European campaign of the Second World War. The country was quickly overrun and the army main force surrendered on May 14 after the bombing of Rotterdam, although a Dutch and French allied force held the province of Zeeland for a short time after the Dutch surrender. The Kingdom as such continued the war from the colonial empire; the government in exile resided in London. The city of Rotterdam after the German terror bombing during the German invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The bombing of Rotterdam was a terror bombardment by German forces on 14 May 1940, in the initial phases of World War II, when they invaded the Netherlands. ... Capital Middelburg Largest city Terneuzen Queens Commissioner Karla Peijs Religion (1999) Protestant 35% Catholic 23% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   1,788 km² (10th) 1,146 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 380,186 (11th) 213/km² (10th) Anthem Zeeuws volkslied ISO NL-ZE Official website www. ... A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


During the occupation over 100,000 Dutch Jews [6] were rounded up to be transported to Nazi concentration camps in Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia. By the time these camps were liberated, only 876 Dutch Jews survived. Dutch workers were conscripted for forced labour in German factories, civilians were killed in reprisal for attacks on German soldiers, and the countryside was plundered for food for German soldiers in the Netherlands and for shipment to Germany. Although there are many stories of Dutch people risking their lives by hiding Jews from the Germans, like in the diary of Anne Frank, there were also Dutch people who collaborated with Nazi occupiers in hunting down and arresting hiding Jews, and some joined the Waffen-SS to form the 4th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Brigade Netherlands, fighting on the Eastern Front. Look up Occupation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Annelies Marie Anne Frank ( ) (June 12, 1929 – early March 1945) was a German-born Jewish girl from the city of Frankfurt, who wrote a diary while in hiding with her family, the Van Pels family and Fritz Pfeffer in Amsterdam during the German occupation of the Netherlands in World War... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... SS-Freiwilligen Standarte Nordwest SS-Freiwilligen Verband Niederlande SS-Freiwilligen Legion Niederlande SS-Freiwilligen-Panzergrenadier-Brigade Nederland 4. ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky...


The government-in-exile lost control of its major colonial stronghold, the Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia), to Japanese forces in March 1942. "American-British-Dutch-Australian" (ABDA) forces fought hard in some instances, but were overwhelmed. During the occupation, the Japanese interned Dutch civilians and used both them and Indonesian civilians as forced labour, both in the Netherlands East Indies and in neighbouring countries. This included forcing women to work as "comfort women" (sex slaves) for Japanese personnel. Some military personnel escaped to Australia and other Allied countries from where they carried on the fight against Japan. The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands Indië) was the name of the colonies colonised by the Dutch East India Company which came under administration of the Netherlands during the ninteenth century (see Indonesia). ... ABDACOM Area The American-British-Dutch-Australian (ABDA) Command, code name ABDACOM, was a short-lived, supreme command for all Allied forces in South East Asia, in early 1942, during the Pacific War. ... The Netherlands East Indies campaign was the shortlived defence of the Netherlands East Indies by Allied forces, against invasion by the Empire of Japan in 1941-42. ... The Japanese occupation of Indonesia refers to the period between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, when the Empire of Japan ruled Indonesia. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... Alternate Japanese name Chinese name Korean name Comfort women ) or military comfort women ) is a euphemism for the thousands of women who were forced into sexual slavery for Japanese military brothels during World War II.[1] There is still some disagreement about exactly how many women were victimized. ...


After a first liberation attempt by the Allied 21st Army Group stalled, much of the northern Netherlands was subject to the Dutch famine of 1944, caused by the disrupted transportation system, caused by German destruction of dikes to slow allied advances, and German confiscation of much food and livestock and above that all a very severe winter made the "Hunger Winter" of 1944-1945 one in which malnutrition and starvation were rife among the Dutch population. German forces held out until the surrender of May 5, 1945, in Wageningen at Hotel De Wereld. (Redirected from 21st Army Group) The British 21st Army Group was an important Allied force in the European Theatre of World War II. Commanded by Field Marshal Sir Bernard Montgomery it initially controlled all ground forces in Operation Overlord. ... After the landing of the Allied Forces on D-Day, conditions grew worse in the Nazi occupied Netherlands. ... Dyke (normal International spelling) or Dike (normal American spelling) can mean several things: A dyke / dike is a long wall built to keep out the sea or enclose land. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Wageningen is a municipality and a historical town in the central Netherlands, in the province of Gelderland. ...


After the war

After the war, the Dutch economy prospered by leaving behind an era of neutrality and gaining closer ties with neighbouring states. The Netherlands became a member of the Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) grouping. Furthermore, the Netherlands was among the twelve founding members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and among the six founding members of the European Coal and Steel Community, which would later evolve, via the EEC (Common Market), into the European Union. Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... Possible meanings: European Economic Community, the former name of the European Community European Energy Community Extended Error Correction, see RAM parity Energy Efficiency Centre Energy Efficiency in Construction Engineering Education Centre Eurocontrol Experimental Centre European Egg Consortium Ford Electronic Engine Control Eurasian Economic Community English Electric Computers English Electric Company... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


Geography

Floods

In years past, the Dutch coastline has changed considerably as a result of human intervention and natural disasters. Most notable in terms of land loss is the 1134 storm, which created the archipelago of Zeeland in the south west. The St. Elizabeth flood of 1421 and the mismanagement in its aftermath destroyed a newly reclaimed polder, replacing it with the 72 square kilometres (28 sq mi) Biesbosch tidal floodplains in the south-centre. The most recent parts of Zeeland were flooded during the North Sea Flood of 1953 when 1,836 people were killed, after which the Delta Plan was executed. The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... Capital Middelburg Largest city Terneuzen Queens Commissioner Karla Peijs Religion (1999) Protestant 35% Catholic 23% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   1,788 km² (10th) 1,146 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 380,186 (11th) 213/km² (10th) Anthem Zeeuws volkslied ISO NL-ZE Official website www. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the geographical feature. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Satellite image of the Rhine-Meuse delta, showing the Biesbosch (8) The Biesbosch (Reed Woods) is one of the largest natural parks of the Netherlands. ... The North Sea flood of 1953 and the associated storm combined to create a major natural disaster which affected the coastlines of the Netherlands and England on the night of 31 January 1953 – 1 February 1953. ... The Delta Works are a number of constructions that were built between 1950 and 1997 in the southwest of the Netherlands to protect a large area of land from the sea. ...

Map of the Netherlands.
Map of the Netherlands.
Satellite image of the Netherlands (ca. May 2000).
Satellite image of the Netherlands (ca. May 2000).

The disasters were partially increased in severity through human influence. People had drained relatively high lying swampland to use it as farmland. This drainage caused the fertile peat to compress and the ground level to drop, locking the land users in a vicious circle whereby they would lower the water level to compensate for the drop in ground level, causing the underlying peat to compress even more. The problem remains unsolvable to this day. Also, up until the 19th century peat was mined, dried, and used for fuel, further adding to the problem. Download high resolution version (1036x1178, 266 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1036x1178, 266 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1232x1602, 540 KB) Satellite image of the Netherlands in May 2000. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1232x1602, 540 KB) Satellite image of the Netherlands in May 2000. ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ...


To guard against floods, a series of defences against the water were contrived. In the first millennium AD, villages and farmhouses were built on man-made hills called terps. Later, these terps were connected by dykes. In the 12th century, local government agencies called "waterschappen" (English "water bodies") or "hoogheemraadschappen" ("high home councils") started to appear, whose job it was to maintain the water level and to protect a region from floods. (These agencies exist to this day, performing the same function.) As the ground level dropped, the dykes by necessity grew and merged into an integrated system. By the 13th century, windmills had come into use in order to pump water out of areas below sea level. The windmills were later used to drain lakes, creating the famous polders. In 1932, the Afsluitdijk (English "Closure Dyke") was completed, blocking the former Zuiderzee (Southern Sea) from the North Sea and thus creating the IJsselmeer (IJssel Lake). It became part of the larger Zuiderzee Works in which four polders totalling 2,500 km2 (965 mi2) were reclaimed from the sea.[7][8] A polder is a low-lying tract of land that forms an artificial hydrological entity, enclosed by embankments known as dikes and requiring drainage by pumps to prevent the water table within it from rising too high. ... Afsluitdijk The Afsluitdijk (Closure-dike) is a major dam in the Netherlands, constructed between 1927 and 1933 and running from Den Oever on Wieringen in North Holland province, to the village of Zurich (mun. ... Landsat photo The Zuider Zee (Dutch: Zuiderzee, pronounced ZIGH-der-zee) was a former shallow inlet of the North Sea in the northwest of the Netherlands, extending about 100 km inland and at most 50 km wide, with an overall depth of about 4 to 5 meters and a coastline... Traditional boat on the IJsselmeer Landsat photo The IJsselmeer (or Lake IJssel) is a shallow lake of some 1250 km² in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland, with an average depth of 5 to 6 m. ... Satellite image of the IJssel basin River IJssel, sometimes called Gelderse IJssel (Gelderland IJssel) to avoid confusion with its Holland counterpart, is a 120 km long branch of the Rhine in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel. ... The 32 km long Afsluitdijk separates the IJsselmeer from the North Sea, protecting thousands of km² of land. ...


Delta works

After the 1953 disaster, the Delta project, a vast construction effort designed to end the threat from the sea once and for all, was launched in 1958 and largely completed in 2002. The official goal of the Delta project was to reduce the risk of flooding in the province of Zeeland to once per 10,000 years. (For the rest of the country, the protection-level is once per 4,000 years.) This was achieved by raising 3,000 kilometres (1,864 miles) of outer sea-dykes and 10,000 kilometres (6,200 miles) of inner, canal, and river dikes to "delta" height, and by closing off the sea estuaries of the Zeeland province. New risk assessments occasionally show problems requiring additional Delta project dyke reinforcements. The Delta project is one of the largest construction efforts in human history and is considered by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of the seven wonders of the modern world. The North Sea flood of 1953 and the associated storm combined to create a major natural disaster which affected the coastlines of the Netherlands and England on the night of 31 January 1953 – 1 February 1953. ... The Delta Works are a number of constructions that were built between 1950 and 1997 in the southwest of the Netherlands to protect a large area of land from the sea. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... “ASCE” redirects here. ... “ASCE” redirects here. ...


Additionally, the Netherlands is one of the countries that may suffer most from climatic change. Not only is the rising sea a problem, but also erratic weather patterns may cause the rivers to overflow.[9][10][11] Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ...


Rivers

The country is divided into two main parts by three large rivers, the Rhine (Rijn) and its main distributary Waal, as well as the Meuse (Maas). These rivers function as a natural barrier between earlier fiefdoms, and hence created traditionally a cultural divide, as is evident in some phonetic traits that are recognisable north and south of these "Large Rivers" (de Grote Rivieren). In addition to this, there was, until quite recently, a clear religious dominance of Catholics in the south and of Protestants in the north. For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Waal. ... The Meuse (Maas) at Maastricht Meuse near Grave The Meuse (Dutch & German Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea. ...


The south-western part of the Netherlands is actually a massive river delta of these rivers and two tributaries of the Scheldt (Westerschelde and Oosterschelde). Only one significant branch of the Rhine flows northeastwards, the IJssel river, discharging into the IJsselmeer, the former Zuiderzee ('southern sea'). This river also happens to form a linguistic divide. People to the east of this river speak Low Saxon dialects (except for the province of Friesland that has its own language).[12] Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... The Scheldt (Dutch: Schelde, French Escaut) is a 350 km[1] long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands. ... Satellite image of the IJssel basin River IJssel, sometimes called Gelderse IJssel (Gelderland IJssel) to avoid confusion with its Holland counterpart, is a 120 km long branch of the Rhine in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel. ... Traditional boat on the IJsselmeer Landsat photo The IJsselmeer (or Lake IJssel) is a shallow lake of some 1250 km² in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland, with an average depth of 5 to 6 m. ... Landsat photo The Zuider Zee (Dutch: Zuiderzee, pronounced ZIGH-der-zee) was a former shallow inlet of the North Sea in the northwest of the Netherlands, extending about 100 km inland and at most 50 km wide, with an overall depth of about 4 to 5 meters and a coastline... Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Nedersaksisch, Neddersassisch, Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch) is any of a variety of Low German dialects spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ...


Climate

The predominant wind direction in the Netherlands is south-west, which causes a moderate maritime climate, with cool summers and mild winters. World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ...


Mean measurements by the KNMI weather station in De Bilt between 1971 and 2000: Short for Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut (Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute). ... De Bilt is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of Utrecht. ...

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Avg. highest temp. (°C) 5.2 6.1 9.6 12.9 17.6 19.8 22.1 22.3 18.7 14.2 9.1 6.4 13.7
Avg. lowest temp. (°C) 0.0 -0.1 2.0 3.5 7.5 10.2 12.5 12.0 9.6 6.5 3.2 1.3 5.7
Avg. temp. (°C) 2.8 3.0 5.8 8.3 12.7 15.2 17.4 17.2 14.2 10.3 6.2 4.0 9.8
Panoramic view of windmills at Kinderdijk.
Panoramic view of windmills at Kinderdijk.
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Avg. precipitation (mm) 67 48 65 45 62 72 70 58 72 77 81 77 793
Avg. hours sunshine 52 79 114 158 204 187 196 192 133 106 60 44 1524

The windmills of Kinderdijk Kinderdijk is a village in the Netherlands, partly in the municipality Nieuw-Lekkerland, partly in the municipality of Alblasserdam. ...

Nature

See also: List of national parks of the Netherlands and List of extinct animals of the Netherlands.

The Netherlands has 20 national parks and hundreds of other nature reserves. Most are owned by Staatsbosbeheer and Natuurmonumenten and include lakes, heathland, woods, dunes and other habitats. National parks in the Netherlands were defined in the 1960s as areas of at least 10 km², consisting of natural terrains, water and/or forests, with a special landscape and flora and fauna. ... This is a list of extinct animals of the Netherlands. ... Lake Clearwater, Ontario, Canada A lake is a large body of water, usually fresh water, surrounded by land. ... Heaths are anthropogenic habitats found primarily in northern and western Europe, where they have been created by thousands of years of human clearance of natural forest vegetation by grazing and burning on mainly infertile acidic soils. ... Limber Pine woodland, Toiyabe Range, central Nevada Biologically, a woodland is a treed area differentiated from a forest. ... This article is about the sand formations, for other meanings see Dune (disambiguation) Mesquite Flat Dunes in Death Valley National Park In physical geography, a dune is a hill of sand built by eolian (wind-related) processes. ...


In 1871 the last old original natural woods (Beekbergerwoud) were cut down and most woods today are planted monocultures of trees like Scots Pine and trees that are not native to the Netherlands. These woods were planted on anthropogenic heaths and sand-drifts (overgrazed heaths) (Veluwe). Binomial name L. Distribution The Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.; family Pinaceae) is a species of pine native to Europe and Asia, ranging from Great Britain and Spain east to eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains, and as far north as Lapland. ... Heaths are anthropogenic habitats found primarily in northern and western Europe, where they have been created by thousands of years of human clearance of natural forest vegetation by grazing and burning on mainly infertile acidic soils. ... A forest on the Veluwe The Veluwe is a forest-rich ridge of hills in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands. ...


Government and administration

Government

Thorbecke reformed the Dutch government to a parliamentary monarchy.
Thorbecke reformed the Dutch government to a parliamentary monarchy.

The Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy since 1815 and a parliamentary democracy since 1848; before that it had been a republic from 1581 to 1806 and a kingdom between 1806 and 1810 (it was part of France between 1810 and 1813). The Netherlands is described as a consociational state. Dutch politics and governance are characterised by an effort to achieve broad consensus on important issues, within both the political community and society as a whole. In 2007, The Economist ranked The Netherlands as the third most democratic country in the world. The Politics of the Netherlands take place within the framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, a constitutional monarchy and a decentralised unitary state. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Johan Rudolf Thorbecke (January 14, 1798 - June 4, 1872) was one of the most important Dutch politicians. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Political scientists define a consociational state as a state which has major internal divisions along ethnic, religious, or linguistic lines, yet nonetheless manages to remain stable, due to consultation among the elites of each of its major social groups. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Democracy index map. ...


The head of state is the monarch, at present Queen Beatrix. Constitutionally the monarch still has considerable powers, but in practice it has become a ceremonial function. The monarch can exert most influence during the formation of a new cabinet, where he/she serves as neutral arbiter between the political parties. For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The Netherlands have been an independent monarchy since March 16, 1815, and have been governed by members of the House of Orange-Nassau since. ... Her Majesty, Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard of Orange-Nassau (born January 31, 1938) is the Queen of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, having acceded to the throne in 1980. ... There are several terms used in Dutch politics which are not easily translated into English. ...


In practice the executive power is formed by de ministerraad Dutch cabinet. Because of the multi-party system no party has ever held a majority in parliament since the 19th century, therefore coalition cabinets have to be formed. The cabinet consists usually of around thirteen to sixteen ministers of which between one and three ministers without portfolio, and a varying number of state secretaries. The head of government is the Prime Minister of the Netherlands, who is often, but not always, the leader of the largest party in the coalition. In practice the Prime Minister has been the leader of the largest coalition party since 1973. He is a primus inter pares, meaning he has no explicit powers that go beyond those of the other ministers. In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ... The cabinet of the Netherlands or council of ministers plans and implements government policy. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues with the aim to participate in power, usually by participating in elections. ... A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a cabinet in parliamentary government in which several parties cooperate. ... A Minister without Portfolio is a government minister with no specific responsibilities. ... There are several terms used in Dutch politics which are not easily translated into English. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... The prime minister of the Netherlands is the head of the cabinet, and, as such, coordinates the policy of the government. ... First among equals redirects here. ...


The cabinet is responsible to the bicameral parliament, the States-General which also has legislative powers. The 150 members of the Second Chamber, the Lower House, are elected in direct elections, which are held every four years or after the fall of the cabinet (by example: when one of the chambers carries a motion of no-confidence, the cabinet offers her resignation to the monarch). The provincial assemblies are directly elected every four years as well. The members of the provincial assemblies elect the 75 members of the First Chamber, the upper house, which has less legislative powers, as it can merely reject laws, not propose or amend them. In the Westminster System ministerial responsibility is the notion that a cabinet minister bears the ultimate responsibility for the actions of their ministry. ... This article is about bicameralism in government. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... The States-General (Staten-Generaal) is the parliament of the Netherlands. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The Tweede Kamer (second chamber) is the lower house of the Staten-Generaal, the parliament in the Netherlands. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons or political party that they desire to see elected. ... There are several terms used in Dutch politics which are not easily translated into English. ... The Eerste Kamer (literally First Chamber in Dutch) is the Upper House or Senate of the Netherlands parliament, the States-General. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ...


Both trade unions and employers organisations are consulted beforehand in policymaking in the financial, economic and social areas. They meet regularly with government in the Social-Economic Council. This body advises government and its advice cannot be put aside easily. The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... An employers organization, employers association or employers federation is an association of employers. ... The Sociaal-Economische Raad (Social Economic Council; SER) is a major economic advisory council of the Dutch government. ...


While historically the Dutch foreign policy was characterised by neutrality, since the Second World War the Netherlands became a member of a large number of international organisations, most prominently the UN, NATO and the EU. The Dutch economy is very open and relies on international trade. The foreign policy of the Netherlands is based on four basic commitments: to the atlantic cooperation, to European integration, to international development and to international law. ... A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... UN redirects here. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ...


The Netherlands has a long tradition of social tolerance. In the 18th century, while the Dutch Reformed Church was the state religion, Catholicism and Judaism were tolerated. In the late 19th century this Dutch tradition of religious tolerance transformed into a system of pillarisation, in which religious groups coexisted separately and only interacted at the level of government. This tradition of tolerance is linked to the Dutch policies on recreational drugs, prostitution, LGBT rights, euthanasia, and abortion which are among the most liberal in the world. “Tolerance” redirects here. ... The Dutch Reformed village church of St. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... The Catholic Church in the Netherlands is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... The History of the Jews in the Netherlands was most relevant from the end of the 16th century until World War II, when approximately 75% of Dutch Jews were killed. ... Pillarisation (Verzuiling in Dutch, Pilarisation in French) is a term used to describe the way the Dutch and Belgians used to deal with their multicultural (but not multiethnic) societies. ... The drug policy of the Netherlands is based on 3 principles: Drug use is a public health issue, not a criminal matter A distinction between hard drugs and soft drugs exists High drug related public expenditure, the highest drug related public expenditure per capita of all countries in EU (139... Prostitution in the Netherlands is legal and common. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      The Netherlands is known for its liberal-libertarian policies on personal matters such as sexual orientation. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ...

The Binnenhof is the centre of Dutch politics.
The Binnenhof is the centre of Dutch politics.

Since suffrage became universal in 1919 the Dutch political system has been dominated by three families of political parties: the strongest family were the Christian democrats currently represented by the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), second were the social democrats, of which the Labour Party (PvdA) is currently the largest party and third were the liberals of which the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) is the main representative. These cooperated in coalition cabinets in which the Christian democrats had always been partner: so either a centre left coalition of the Christian democrats and social democrats or a centre right coalition of Christian democrats and liberals. In the 1970s the party system became more volatile: the Christian democratic parties lost seats, while new parties, like the radical democrat and progressive liberal D66, became successful. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... The Binnenhof (Dutch, lit. ... Christian democracy is a diverse political ideology and movement. ... The Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) (Dutch: Christen Democratisch Appèl) is a Dutch Christian-democratic political party. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... For the Belgian political party of the same name, see Partij van de Arbeid (Belgium). ... This article gives an overview of liberalism in the Netherlands. ... The Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) (Dutch: Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie) is a Dutch liberal political party. ... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) was used from the late 18th century for proponents of the Radical Movement and has since been used as a label in political science for those favouring or trying to produce thoroughgoing political reforms which can include changes to the social order to... For other uses, see Progressivism (disambiguation). ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Democraten 66 (D66), is a social liberal party in the Netherlands. ...


In the 1994 election the CDA lost its dominant position. A "purple" cabinet was formed by the VVD, D66 and PvdA. In 2002 elections this cabinet lost its majority, due to the rise of LPF, a new political party around the flamboyant populist Pim Fortuyn, who was shot to death a week before the elections took place. The elections also saw increased support for the CDA. A short lived cabinet was formed by CDA, VVD and LPF, led by the leader of the Christian democrats, Jan Peter Balkenende. After the 2003 elections in which the LPF lost almost all its seats, a cabinet was formed by the CDA, the VVD and D66. The cabinet initiated an ambitious program of reforming the welfare state, the health care system and immigration policies. Elections in the Netherlands for the Tweede Kamer of Parliament The 1994 elections led to a landslide loss for the governing coalition of PvdA and CDA. The two liberal parties, VVD and D66 profited from this. ... There are several terms used in Dutch politics which are not easily translated into English. ... Elections in the Netherlands for the Tweede Kamer of Parliament // The Dutch general election of 2002, held on May 15, 2002 was the most dramatic in Dutch history, not just in terms of the electoral results. ... Lijst Pim Fortuyn (List Pim Fortuyn) is a political party in the Netherlands. ... Wilhelmus Simon Petrus (Pim) Fortuyn (pronounced , (February 19, 1948 – May 6, 2002), was a controversial, openly gay, charismatic[1] populistic right-wing politician in the Netherlands who formed his own party Lijst Pim Fortuyn (List Pim Fortuyn or LPF). ... The first cabinet of Jan Peter Balkenende was in office in the Netherlands from July 22, 2002 until October 16 of the same year. ... Jan Peter Balkenende (pronounced IPA:  ) (born May 7, 1956) has been the Prime Minister of the Netherlands since July 22, 2002. ... Introduction The Dutch general election of 2003 held on January 22, 2003 was held after the fall of the first Balkenende cabinet on October 16, 2002. ... The second cabinet of Jan Peter Balkenende is in office in the Netherlands from May 27, 2003 It consists of three political parties: VVD, CDA and D66. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In June 2006 the cabinet fell, as D66 voted in favour of a motion of no confidence against minister of immigration and integration Rita Verdonk in the aftermath of the upheaval about the asylum procedure of Ayaan Hirsi Ali instigated by the Dutch immigration minister Verdonk. A care taker cabinet was formed by CDA and VVD, and the general elections were held on 22 November 2006. In these elections the Christian Democratic Appeal remained the largest party and the Socialist Party made the largest gains. The formation of a new cabinet started two days after the elections. Initial investigations toward a CDA-SP-PvdA coalition failed, after which a coalition of CDA, PvdA and ChristianUnion was formed. Drs. ... Ayaan Hirsi Ali, MA ( ; Somali: ; born Ayaan Hirsi Magan 13 November 1969[2] in Mogadishu, Somalia) is a Dutch feminist and political writer, daughter of the Somali scholar, politician, and revolutionary opposition leader Hirsi Magan Isse. ... Rita Verdonk Drs. ... The Third Balkenende cabinet is the current cabinet of the Netherlands. ... Dutch Tweede Kamer seats as of 2006 The 2006 Dutch general elections were held in the Netherlands on Wednesday, November 22, 2006, and followed the call for new elections after the fall of the Second Balkenende cabinet. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) (Dutch: Christen Democratisch Appèl) is a Dutch Christian-democratic political party. ... The Socialist Party (SP, Dutch: Socialistische Partij) is a Dutch socialist political party. ... After the 2006 general election, held on November 22, a process of cabinet formation has started. ...

Dutch Tweede Kamer seats as of 2006      PvdD (2)     D66 (3)     GL (7)     SP (25)     PvdA (33)      CU (6)     CDA (41)     VVD (22)     SGP (2)     PVV (9)
Dutch Tweede Kamer seats as of 2006
     PvdD (2)     D66 (3)     GL (7)     SP (25)     PvdA (33)      CU (6)     CDA (41)     VVD (22)     SGP (2)     PVV (9)

Summary of the 22 November 2006 Netherlands Second Chamber election results: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (874x469, 16 KB) Selfmade image showing the political parties and their seats in the second chamber of the Dutch parliament after the 2006 general election. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (874x469, 16 KB) Selfmade image showing the political parties and their seats in the second chamber of the Dutch parliament after the 2006 general election. ... The Tweede Kamer (second chamber) is the lower house of the Staten-Generaal, the parliament in the Netherlands. ... The Party for the Animals (Dutch: Partij voor de Dieren) is a political party in the Netherlands with two seats in parliament. ... Democrats 66 (in Dutch: Democraten 66, D66, official name: Politieke Partij Democraten 66) is a Dutch progressive-liberal and radical-democratic political party. ... GroenLinks (GL, English: GreenLeft) is a Dutch Green political party. ... The Socialist Party (SP, Dutch: Socialistische Partij) is a Dutch socialist political party. ... The Labour Party (in Dutch: Partij van de Arbeid, PvdA) is a Dutch social-democratic political party. ... The ChristianUnion (in Dutch: ChristenUnie, CU) is a relatively young Dutch orthodox Protestant political party. ... The Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) (Dutch: Christen Democratisch Appèl) is a Dutch Christian-democratic political party. ... The Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) (Dutch: Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie) is a Dutch liberal political party. ... The Political Reformed Party (in Dutch: Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij, SGP) is an orthodox protestant Dutch political party. ... This article is about the Party of Freedom previously known as Group Wilders. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term second chamber usually refers to the upper house in a bicameral legislature, such as the British House of Lords or the United States Senate. ...


Administrative divisions

The Netherlands is divided into twelve administrative regions, called provinces, each under a Governor, who is called Commissaris van de Koningin (Commissioner of the Queen), except for the province Limburg where the commissioner is called Gouverneur (Governor) which underlines the more "non-Dutch" mentality. All provinces are divided into municipalities (gemeenten), 458 in total (1 January 2006). The country is also subdivided in water districts, governed by a water board (waterschap or hoogheemraadschap), each having authority in matters concerning water management. As of 1 January 2005 there are 27. The creation of water boards actually pre-dates that of the nation itself, the first appearing in 1196. In fact, the Dutch water boards are one of the oldest democratic entities in the world still in existence. The modern day Netherlands are divided into twelve provinces (provincies in Dutch), listed below with their capital city: Map of the Netherlands, with provinces and capital cities See also the ranked list of Dutch provinces // Structure A Dutch province represents the administrative layer in between the national government and the... All provinces of the Netherlands are divided into municipalities (gemeenten), together 467 (2005); among these we can distinguish: those comprising one main city, town or village with the same name as the municipality, and possibly some additional villages; for example Utrecht, comprising the city Utrecht and the villages De Meern... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Capital Maastricht Queens Commissioner L.J.P.M. (Leon) Frissen (governor) Religion (1999) Roman Catholic 80% Protestant 3% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   2,153 km² (9th) 56 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 1,131,938 (6th) 526/km² (4th) Inclusion 1839 Anthem In t Bronsgroen Eikenhout ISO NL-LI Official... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... All provinces of the Netherlands are divided into municipalities (gemeenten), together 458 (2006); among these we can distinguish: those comprising one main city, town or village with the same name as the municipality, and possibly some additional villages; for example Utrecht, comprising the city Utrecht and the villages De Meern... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Amsterdam Almelo Almere Amersfoort Arnhem Assen Breda Den Haag Delft Delfzijl Den Bosch Den Helder Dordrecht Enchede Haarlem Hilversum Maastricht Middelburg Zwolle Lelystad Leiden Utrecht Katwijk Nijmegen Eindhoven Vlissingen Rotterdam Leeuwarden Heerenveen Groningen (city) Emmen Almelo Apeldoorn Alkmaar Zaanstad Tilburg Venlo Heerlen Drenthe Flevoland Friesland Gelderland Groningen Limburg North Brabant North Holland Overijssel South Holland Utrecht Zeeland

Map of the Netherlands, linking to the province pages; the red dots mark the capitals of the provinces and the black dots other notable cities or towns.
Map of the Netherlands, linking to the province pages; the red dots mark the capitals of the provinces and the black dots other notable cities or towns.
Flag Province Capital Largest city Area (km²) Population[14]
Drenthe Assen Assen 2,641 486,197
Flevoland Lelystad Almere 1,417 374,424
Friesland (Fryslân) Leeuwarden Leeuwarden 3,341 642,209
Gelderland Arnhem Nijmegen 4,971 1,979,059
Groningen Groningen Groningen 2,333 573,614
Limburg Maastricht Maastricht 2,150 1,127,805
North (Noord) Brabant Den Bosch Eindhoven 4,916 2,419,042
North (Noord) Holland Haarlem Amsterdam 2,671 2,613,070
Overijssel Zwolle Enschede 3,325 1,116,374
Utrecht Utrecht Utrecht 1,385 1,190,604
Zealand (Zeeland) Middelburg Middelburg 1,787 380,497
South (Zuid) Holland The Hague (Den Haag) Rotterdam 2,814 3,455,097

Download high resolution version (800x948, 116 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Netherlands Provinces of the Netherlands List of subnational entities List of islands of the Netherlands Ranked list of Dutch provinces Category:Maps of the Netherlands Categories: GFDL images ... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Image File history File links Flag_Drenthe. ... For the Dutch footballer, see Royston Drenthe. ... Assen railway station Assen ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the north eastern Netherlands, capital of the province of Drenthe. ... Assen railway station Assen ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the north eastern Netherlands, capital of the province of Drenthe. ... Image File history File links Flevolandflag. ... Flevoland is a province of the Netherlands. ... Lelystad ( â–¶ (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the centre of the Netherlands, and it is the capital of the province of Flevoland. ... For other uses, see Almere (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Frisian_flag. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... Leeuwarden ( (help· info), Frisian: Ljouwert) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Friesland. ... Leeuwarden ( (help· info), Frisian: Ljouwert) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Friesland. ... Image File history File links Gelderland-Flag. ... Capital Arnhem Queens Commissioner Clemens Cornielje Religion (1999) Protestant 31% Catholic 29% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   4,975 km² (1st) 161 km² Population (2005)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 1,970,865 (4th) 393/km² (6th) Inclusion {{{inclusion}}} Anthem Ons Gelderland ISO NL-GE Official website www. ... This article is about the Dutch city and municipality. ... Country Netherlands Province Gelderland Area (2006)  - Municipality 57. ... Image File history File links Flag_Groningen. ... Capital Groningen Queens Commissioner J.G.M. (Hans) Alders Religion (1999) Protestant 29% Catholic 7% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   2,336 km² (8th) 623 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 574,042 (9th) 246/km² (9th) Anthem Grunnens Laid ISO NL-GR Official website www. ... For the German town, see Gröningen. ... For the German town, see Gröningen. ... Image File history File links NL-LimburgVlag. ... Capital Maastricht Queens Commissioner L.J.P.M. (Leon) Frissen (governor) Religion (1999) Roman Catholic 80% Protestant 3% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   2,153 km² (9th) 56 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 1,131,938 (6th) 526/km² (4th) Inclusion 1839 Anthem In t Bronsgroen Eikenhout ISO NL-LI Official... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 60. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 60. ... Image File history File links North_Brabant-Flag. ... North Brabant (Dutch: Noord-Brabant) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the south of the country, bordered by Belgium in the south, the Meuse River (Maas) in the north, Limburg in the east and Zeeland in the west. ... s-Hertogenbosch ( ) (literally The Dukes Forest), colloquially known as Den Bosch ( (help· info)) — translated in French as Bois-le-Duc, in German as Herzogenbusch and in Spanish as Bolduque — is a municipality in the Netherlands, and also the capital of the province of North Brabant. ... Country Province Government  - Mayor G.Braks (CDA) Area (2006)  - Municipality 88. ... Image File history File links Flag_North-Holland,_Netherlands. ... North Holland: (Dutch: Noord-Holland) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the northwest part of the country. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 32. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_Overijssel. ... Flag of Overijssel Overijssel is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country. ... For other places with the same name, see Zwolle (disambiguation). ... Raadhuisstraat in Enschede, with the Grote Kerk in the background Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Enschede Enschede or Eanske in the local dialect (Twents) is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands, in the province of Overijssel, in the Twente region. ... Image File history File links Utrecht_(province)-Flag. ... Utrecht is the smallest province of the Netherlands, and is located in the center of the country. ... Utrecht ( (help· info)) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ... Utrecht ( (help· info)) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ... Image File history File links Zeelandflag. ... Capital Middelburg Largest city Terneuzen Queens Commissioner Karla Peijs Religion (1999) Protestant 35% Catholic 23% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   1,788 km² (10th) 1,146 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 380,186 (11th) 213/km² (10th) Anthem Zeeuws volkslied ISO NL-ZE Official website www. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 53. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 53. ... Image File history File links Flag_Zuid-Holland. ... South Holland (Dutch Zuid-Holland) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the west of the country on the North Sea coast. ... Hague redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ...

Demographics and urbanisation

Demographics

Population density in the Netherlands, 2006
Population density in the Netherlands, 2006
The Netherlands is the 25th most densely populated country in the world, with 395 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,023 sq mi)—or 484 people per square kilometre (1,254/sq mi) if only the land area is counted, since 18.4% is water.

Fertility rate The population of the Netherlands is concentrated on a limited territory. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ...


The fertility rate in the Netherlands is 1.72 children per woman, well below the 2.1 rate required for population replacement. The (total) fertility rate of a population is the average number of child births per woman. ...


Life expectancy


Life expectancy is high in the Netherlands: 82 years for newborn girls and 77 for boys (2007). This article is about the measure of remaining life. ...


Body length The people of the Netherlands are amongst the tallest in the world, with an average height of about 1.85 m (6 ft 0.8 in) for adult males and 1.68 m (5 ft 6 in) for adult females.[15] People in the south are on average about 2 cm shorter than those in the north.[16]


Ethnic origins


The ethnic origins of the citizens of the Netherlands are diverse. A majority of the population, however, still remains indigenous Dutch, although from a historic point of view, the latter notion is also to be relativised strongly. They were:[17] The word indigenous is an adjective derived from the Latin word indigena, meaning native, belonging to, aboriginal; and has several applications: Indigenous peoples, communities and cultures native or indigenous to a territory; Indigenous (band), a Native American blues-rock band; In biology, indigenous means native to a place or biota...

  1. 80.9% Dutch
  2. 2.4% Indonesian (Indo-Dutch, South Moluccan)
  3. 2.4% German
  4. 2.2% Turkish
  5. 2.0% Surinamese
  6. 1.9% Moroccan
  7. 0.8% Antillean and Aruban
  8. 6.0% other

However, this does not include the whole Kingdom of the Netherlands (such as the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba, which have a non-Dutch majority community), and only includes the population in the Netherlands itself. For other uses, see Indo. ... Flag of Republik Maluku Selatan, see also article at Flags of the World The South Moluccas, or Republik Maluku Selatan (RMS), was a self-proclaimed republic in the Maluku Islands, founded April 25, 1950. ... A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... Motto Libertate unanimus (Latin: Unified by freedom) Anthem Anthem without a title Capital (and largest city) Willemstad Official languages Dutch, English, Papiamento Government  -  Monarch Beatrix  -  Governor Frits Goedgedrag  -  Prime minister Emily de Jongh-Elhage constitutional monarchy part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands  Area  -  Total 960 km² (184th) 371 sq...


Urbanisation

The Netherlands is a very densely populated country, although the cities are modest in size compared to international standards. It is not the size of the biggest cities, but the very high number of middle sized cities and towns, that accounts for the high degree of urbanisation. The capital and largest city is Amsterdam, although the government is located in The Hague. While the word capital is usually defined as the city of the government seat, no Dutchman would ever call The Hague the capital of The Netherlands. Map of the Netherlands The Netherlands without dikes, or: above sea level The geography of the Netherlands is unusual in that much of its land was reclaimed from the sea and is below sea level, protected by dikes. ... For other uses, see Netherlands (disambiguation). ...

Schematic map of the Randstad.
Schematic map of the Randstad.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1053x1024, 96 KB) This is a schematic map of the Randstad, Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1053x1024, 96 KB) This is a schematic map of the Randstad, Netherlands. ...

The Randstad

Main article: Randstad

The Randstad (Edge City) is a conurbation in the western part of the Netherlands. It consists of the four largest Dutch cities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht), plus their surrounding areas. With its 7.5 million inhabitants (almost half of the population of the Netherlands; when other conurbations connected to this area are also taken into consideration, it would have a population a little over 10 million, almost two-thirds of the entire Dutch population) it is one of the largest conurbations in Europe. There is discussion to what extent the Randstad may form a single more integrated metropolis in the future. At this moment, urban structures between these cities are not yet developed to such a level that the Randstad could be considered a kind of distributed super-agglomeration. Schematic map of the Randstad. ... Schematic map of the Randstad. ...


Conurbation is not restricted to the Randstad alone, although the centre of gravity lies there. Quite typically, in the Netherlands there are many medium sized cities, but no truly large ones. Its largest city, Amsterdam with about 750,000 inhabitants in its own municipality, belongs to one of the smaller European capitals. Schematic map of the Randstad. ...


The 10 largest cities

Urbanisation in the Netherlands.

List of the largest cities, by population, within the borders of one municipality with their provinces in 2006: Sources are CBS based

  1. Amsterdam (North Holland) 744,740
  2. Rotterdam (South Holland) 581,615
  3. The Hague ('s-Gravenhage / Den Haag) (South Holland) 474,245
  4. Utrecht (Utrecht) 294,742
  5. Eindhoven (North Brabant) 209,601
  6. Tilburg (North Brabant) 200,975
  7. Almere (Flevoland) 183,738
  8. Groningen (Groningen) 180,824
  9. Breda (North Brabant) 170,451
  10. Nijmegen (Gelderland) 160,732

However, this picture has to be completed. Municipality sizes alone do not reflect the degree of urbanisation in the Netherlands comprehensively. Many of the larger Dutch cities are the cores of a significantly larger urban agglomeration. The largest ones are listed below: For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... Hague redirects here. ... Utrecht refers to various cities and areas: Utrecht (province), of the Netherlands Utrecht (city), Netherlands, and capital of the province of the same name Utrecht (municipality), includes the city of Utrecht and two neighbouring villages (Vleuten / de Meern) Utrecht (agglomeration), in the Netherlands, includes the city of Utrecht Diocese of... Country Province Government  - Mayor G.Braks (CDA) Area (2006)  - Municipality 88. ... Tilburg ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, located in the southern province of Noord-Brabant. ... For other uses, see Almere (disambiguation). ... Groningen can refer to: A province of the Netherlands. ... Grote Kerk (main church) or Onze Lieve Vrouwe Kerk (Church of Our Lady). ... Country Netherlands Province Gelderland Area (2006)  - Municipality 57. ...


The 15 largest agglomerations

Agglomerations consisting of only one municipality are not included. Sources are CBS based see [3] and[18]

  • Rotterdam (Rotterdam, Barendrecht, Ridderkerk, Capelle aan den IJssel, Krimpen aan den IJssel, Spijkenisse, Schiedam, Vlaardingen, Maasland, Maassluis, Rozenburg)
  • Amsterdam (Amsterdam, Amstelveen, Uithoorn, Diemen, Landsmeer, Oostzaan, Wormerland, Zaanstad)
The Keizersgracht in Amsterdam, which is the largest city and capital of the Netherlands.
The Keizersgracht in Amsterdam, which is the largest city and capital of the Netherlands.
  • The Hague ('s-Gravenhage, Rijswijk, Wateringen, Voorburg, Leidschendam, Wassenaar, Westland, Zoetermeer, Delft)
  • Utrecht (Utrecht, Nieuwegein, IJsselstein, Maarssen)
  • Eindhoven (Eindhoven, Veldhoven, Geldrop, Son en Breugel, Waalre)
  • Tilburg (Tilburg, Goirle)
  • Groningen (Groningen, Haren)
  • Haarlem (Haarlem, Heemstede, Bloemendaal)
  • Arnhem (Arnhem, Rozendaal)
  • Leiden (Leiden, Katwijk, Voorschoten, Leiderdorp, Oegstgeest, Rijnsburg, Valkenburg, Warmond)
  • Dordrecht (Dordrecht, 's-Gravendeel, Hardinxveld-Giessendam, Papendrecht, Sliedrecht, Zwijndrecht)
  • Heerlen (Heerlen, Kerkrade, Landgraaf, Brunssum)
  • 's-Hertogenbosch ('s-Hertogenbosch, Vught)
  • Sittard-Geleen (Sittard-Geleen, Beek, Stein)
  • Amersfoort (Amersfoort, Leusden, Hoogland, Hooglanderveen)

Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Bridge over the Keizersgracht The Keizersgracht (literal English translation: Emperors Canal) is a canal in Amsterdam. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Hague redirects here. ... Utrecht refers to various cities and areas: Utrecht (province), of the Netherlands Utrecht (city), Netherlands, and capital of the province of the same name Utrecht (municipality), includes the city of Utrecht and two neighbouring villages (Vleuten / de Meern) Utrecht (agglomeration), in the Netherlands, includes the city of Utrecht Diocese of... Country Province Government  - Mayor G.Braks (CDA) Area (2006)  - Municipality 88. ... Tilburg ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, located in the southern province of Noord-Brabant. ... Groningen can refer to: A province of the Netherlands. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 32. ... This article is about the Dutch city and municipality. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 23. ... Satellite image of part of the Rhine-Meuse delta, showing the Island of Dordrecht and the eponymous city (7) Dordrecht (population 119,649 (2004)), or in English: Dort, is a city in the Dutch province of South Holland, the third largest city of the province. ... Heerlen ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a town in the southeastern Netherlands and the fourth largest municipality in the province of Limburg. ... s-Hertogenbosch ( ) (literally The Dukes Forest), colloquially known as Den Bosch ( (help· info)) — translated in French as Bois-le-Duc, in German as Herzogenbusch and in Spanish as Bolduque — is a municipality in the Netherlands, and also the capital of the province of North Brabant. ... Sittard-Geleen is a municipality in the southeastern Netherlands. ... Amersfoort is a municipality and the second largest city of the province of Utrecht in central Netherlands. ...

Language, religion, and culture

Language

The official language is Dutch, which is spoken by a majority of the inhabitants, the exception being some groups of immigrants. Dutch ( ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ... Map illustrating the area in which Dutch is spoken. ...


Another official language is West Frisian, which is spoken in the northern province of Friesland, called Fryslân in that language.[19] West Frisian is co-official only in the province of Friesland, although with a few restrictions. Several dialects of Low Saxon (Nedersaksisch in Dutch) are spoken in much of the north and east, like the Twentse language in the Twente region, and are recognised by the Netherlands as regional languages according to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, as well as the Meuse-Rhenish Franconian varieties in the southeastern province of Limburg, here called Limburgish language.[20] The West Frisian language (Frysk) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Fryslân in the north of the Netherlands. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Twents (or Tweants; sometimes known as Twentsch) is a West Dutch Low Saxon dialect spoken in Twente, a Dutch region near the German border, although it is also spoken in the nearby German border regions. ... Twente (or Twenthe) is a non-administrative region in the eastern Netherlands, containing the most urbanised and easterly part of the province of Overijssel. ... // The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ... Meuse-Rhenish is a modern, superordinating term in the geography of the southeastern Low Franconian dialects spoken in the greater Meuse-Rhine area. ... Legend:  Dutch. ... Capital Maastricht Queens Commissioner L.J.P.M. (Leon) Frissen (governor) Religion (1999) Roman Catholic 80% Protestant 3% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   2,153 km² (9th) 56 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 1,131,938 (6th) 526/km² (4th) Inclusion 1839 Anthem In t Bronsgroen Eikenhout ISO NL-LI Official... Limburgish, or Limburgian or Limburgic (Dutch: Limburgs, German: Limburgisch, French: Limbourgeois) is a group of Franconian varieties, spoken in the Limburg and Rhineland regions, near the common Dutch / Belgian / German border. ...

Life in the Netherlands The Domtower of Utrecht File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Domtower of Utrecht File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Dom tower of Utrecht with the remaining part of the church in the back. ...

edit box

There is a tradition of learning foreign languages in the Netherlands: about 70% of the total population have good knowledge of English, 55– 59% of German and 19% of French.[21] Some Dutch secondary schools also teach Latin and Ancient Greek. Dutch Cuisine is shaped by the agricultural produce and history of the Netherlands. ... Dutch culture or culture of the Netherlands is diverse, reflecting regional differences as well as the foreign influences thanks to the merchant and exploring spirit of the Dutch and the influx of immigrants. ... The Dutch have a code of etiquette, the code that governs the expectations of social behaviour, and it is considered very important. ... The Netherlands has 9 main holidays. ... The Netherlands has multiple musical traditions, mostly related to nearby German and Belgian forms. ... < Netherlands // Telephone Telephones - main lines in use: 10. ... The population of the Netherlands is concentrated on a limited territory. ... The Dutch have a code of etiquette, the code that governs the expectations of social behaviour, and it is considered very important. ... The Netherlands is a civil law country. ... Logo of the Dutch police The Dutch police is a government agency charged with upholding the law and public order and providing aid. ... The Politics of the Netherlands take place within the framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, a constitutional monarchy and a decentralised unitary state. ... The drug policy of the Netherlands is based on 3 principles: Drug use is a public health issue, not a criminal matter A distinction between hard drugs and soft drugs exists High drug related public expenditure, the highest drug related public expenditure per capita of all countries in EU (139... In 2002 Netherlands legalized euthanasia. ... Pillarisation (Verzuiling in Dutch, Pilarisation in French) is a term used to describe the way the Dutch and Belgians used to deal with their multicultural (but not multiethnic) societies. ... Prostitution in the Netherlands is legal and common. ... The Netherlands has allowed same-sex marriage since April 1, 2001, the first country to do so. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ...


Religion

The Netherlands is one of the more secular countries in the Western Europe, with only 39% being religiously affiliated (31% for those aged under 35), although 62% are believers (but 40% of those not in the traditional sense). Fewer than 20% visit church regularly .[22] Historically the Netherlands is characterized by multitude of religions. ...


According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005,[23] 34% of Dutch citizens responded that "they believe there is a god", whereas 37% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 27% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force". Eurobarometer is a series of surveys regularly performed on behalf of the European Commission since 1973. ...


In 1950, before the secularisation of Europe, and the large settlement of non-Europeans in the Netherlands, most Dutch citizens identified themselves as Christians. In 1950, out of a total population of almost 13 million, a total of 7,261,000 belonged to Protestant denominations, 3,703,000 belonged to the Roman Catholic Church, and 1,641,000 had no acknowledged religion.


However, Christian schools are still funded by the government, but the same applies for schools founded on other religions, nowadays Islam in particular. While all schools must meet strict quality criteria, from 1917 the freedom of schools is a basic principle in the Netherlands.


Three political parties in the Dutch parliament (CDA, ChristianUnion and SGP) base their policy on the Christian belief system.


Culture

Erasmus (1466–1536).
Erasmus (1466–1536).

The Netherlands has had many well-known painters. The 17th century, when the Dutch republic was prosperous, was the age of the "Dutch Masters", such as Rembrandt van Rijn, Johannes Vermeer, Jan Steen, Jacob van Ruysdael and many others. Famous Dutch painters of the 19th and 20th century were Vincent van Gogh and Piet Mondriaan. M. C. Escher is a well-known graphics artist. Willem de Kooning was born and trained in Rotterdam, although he is considered to have reached acclaim as an American artist. Han van Meegeren was an infamous Dutch art forger. Dutch culture or culture of the Netherlands is diverse, reflecting regional differences as well as the foreign influences thanks to the merchant and exploring spirit of the Dutch and the influx of immigrants. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (809x1145, 122 KB) The Dutch philosopher Desiderius Erasmus. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (809x1145, 122 KB) The Dutch philosopher Desiderius Erasmus. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... This article is about the Dutch painter. ... Vermeer redirects here. ... // Steen was born in Leiden, where his well-to-do, Catholic family had run the tavern The Red Halbert for several generations. ... Bentheim Castle (1653) Jacob Izaaksoon van Ruysdael (or Ruisdaal) (c. ... The following list is a partial list of painters. ... van Gogh redirects here. ... Piet Mondrian, 1924 Pieter Cornelis (Piet) Mondriaan, after 1912 Mondrian, (pronounced: Dutch IPA: , later IPA: ), (March 7, 1872–February 1, 1944) was a Dutch painter. ... Maurits Cornelis Escher (June 17, 1898 – March 27, 1972), usually referred to as M. C. Escher, was a Dutch graphic artist. ... Willem de Koonings Woman V (1952-53), National Gallery of Australia Willem de Kooning (April 24, 1904 – March 19, 1997) was an abstract expressionist painter, born in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... Han van Meegeren (10 October 1889 in Deventer in the Netherlands province of Overijssel – 30 December 1947 in Amsterdam), born Henricus Antonius van Meegeren, was a Dutch painter, art-restorer, and art forger. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The Netherlands is the country of philosophers Erasmus of Rotterdam and Spinoza. All of Descartes' major work was done in the Netherlands. The Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens (1629–1695) discovered Saturn's moon Titan and invented the pendulum clock. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe and describe single-celled organisms with a microscope. Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Baruch de Spinoza (‎, Portuguese: , Latin: ) (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... Descartes redirects here. ... Christiaan Huygens (pronounced in English (IPA): ; in Dutch: ) (April 14, 1629 – July 8, 1698), was a Dutch mathematician, astronomer and physicist; born in The Hague as the son of Constantijn Huygens. ... A pendulum clock uses a pendulum as its time base. ... Anton von Leeuwenhoek Anton van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 _ August 26, 1723) was a tradesman and scientist from Delft, in the Netherlands. ...


In the Dutch Golden Age, literature flourished as well, with Joost van den Vondel and P.C. Hooft as the two most famous writers. In the 19th century, Multatuli wrote about the bad treatment of the natives in Dutch colonies. Important 20th century authors include Harry Mulisch, Jan Wolkers, Simon Vestdijk, Cees Nooteboom, Gerard (van het) Reve and Willem Frederik Hermans. Anne Frank's Diary of a Young Girl was published after she died in The Holocaust and translated from Dutch to all major languages. Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Joost van den Vondel (1587-1679) was born in the Große Witschgasse in Cologne. ... Sculpture of P.C. Hooft in the castle Muiderslot Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft (* March 16, 1581 - † May 21, 1647), was a Dutch historian, poet and playwright from the period known as the Dutch Golden Age. ... Eduard Douwes Dekker, also known as Multatuli Eduard Douwes Dekker (Amsterdam, 2 March 1820 - 19 February 1887), better known by his pen name Multatuli, was a Dutch writer famous for his satirical novel, Max Havelaar (1860) in which he denounced the abuses of colonialism in the colony of the Dutch... Harry Mulisch Harry Mulisch (born July 29, 1927) is a Dutch author. ... Jan Hendrik Wolkers (born Oegstgeest, 26 October 1925) is a Dutch author and artist. ... Simon Vestdijk (October 17, 1898-March 23, 1971) was a Dutch writer. ... Cees Nooteboom, born Cornelis Johannes Jacobus Maria Nooteboom, July 31, 1933, in the Hague, Netherlands is a Dutch author. ... Gerard Reve (December 14, 1923) is a Dutch writer. ... The Dutch writer Willem Frederik Hermans (September 1, 1921–April 27, 1995) is considered one of the three most important authors in the Netherlands in the postwar period, along with Harry Mulisch and Gerard Reve. ... Annelies Marie Anne Frank ( ) (June 12, 1929 – early March 1945) was a German-born Jewish girl from the city of Frankfurt, who wrote a diary while in hiding with her family, the Van Pels family and Fritz Pfeffer in Amsterdam during the German occupation of the Netherlands in World War... The Diary of Anne Frank redirects here. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ...


Replicas of Dutch buildings can be found in Huis ten Bosch, Nagasaki, Japan. A similar Holland Village is being built in Shenyang, China. Huis Ten Bosch is a theme park in Nagasaki Prefecture that recreates Holland by displaying real size copies of old Dutch buildings. ... Megane-bashi (Spectacles Bridge) Nagasaki   listen? (長崎市; -shi, literally long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. ... This article is about a city. ...


Windmills, tulips, wooden shoes, cheese and Delftware pottery are among the items associated with the Netherlands. This article is about machines that convert wind energy into mechanical energy. ... [[Media:Example. ... The word clog, as applied to footwear, has these meanings:- A type of shoe or sandal made predominantly out of wood. ... Delftware panel. ...


Military

Conscription in the Netherlands was suspended in 1996. All military specialities, except the Submarine service and Marine Corps(Korps Mariniers), are open to women. The Dutch Ministry of Defence employs almost over 70,000 personnel, including over 20,000 civilian and over 50,000 military personnel[24]. The military is composed of four branches, all of which carry the prefix Koninklijke (Royal): The military of the Netherlands is composed of four branches, all of which carry the prefix Koninklijke (Royal): Koninklijke Landmacht (KL), the Royal Netherlands Army. ...

The Royal Netherlands Army (Koninklijke Landmacht) is the land forces element of the military of the Netherlands. ... This article is about the Royal Navy of the Netherlands. ... Image:Flag of the Royal Netherlands Air Force. ... The Koninklijke Marechaussee (KMar) (Royal Constabulary in English) is one of the four military bodies of the Netherlands. ...

Economy

The Netherlands has a prosperous and open economy, which depends heavily on foreign trade. ... This is a list of companies from the Netherlands. ...

Economy

Aalsmeer Flower Auction. The largest commercial building in the world, and a centre of international flower trade.
Aalsmeer Flower Auction. The largest commercial building in the world, and a centre of international flower trade.

The Netherlands has a prosperous and open economy in which the government has reduced its role since the 1980s. Industrial activity is predominantly in food-processing (for example Unilever and Heineken International), chemicals (for example DSM), petroleum refining (for example Royal Dutch Shell), and electrical machinery (for example Philips). In the north of the Netherlands, near Slochteren, one of the largest natural gas fields in the world is situated. So far (2006) exploitation of this field resulted in a total revenue of €159 billion since the mid 1970s. N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie still is the largest public-private partnership P3 world-wide following the global energy-transition of 1963[25] from coal to gas, coupling oil and gas prices. With just over half of the reserves used up and an expected continued rise in oil prices, the revenues over the next few decades are expected to be at least that much.[26] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 434 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Flowerauction Aalsmeer Inside. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 434 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Flowerauction Aalsmeer Inside. ... Aalsmeer Flower Auction (Bloemenveiling Aalsmeer) is a flower auction, located in Aalsmeer, the Netherlands. ... An open economy is an economy in which people, including businesses, can trade in goods and services with other people and businesses in the international community at large. ... Unilever is a widely listed [2] [3] multi-national corporation, formed of Anglo-Dutch parentage, that owns many of the worlds consumer product brands in foods, beverages, cleaning agents and personal care products. ... Heineken International is an Australian beer, founded in 1864 by Gerard Adriaan Heineken in Bunbury. ... DSM (in full Koninklijke DSM N.V., or Royal DSM N.V.) is a multinational chemicals company. ... Petro redirects here. ... Royal Dutch Shell plc is a multinational oil company of British and Dutch origins. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Slochteren is a municipality in the northeastern Netherlands. ... Natural gas rig Oil and natural gas are produced by the same geological process: anaerobic decay of organic matter deep under the Earths surface. ... N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie (short form: Gasunie) is a Dutch natural gas infrastructure and transportation company. ... Public-private partnership (PPP) is a system in which a government service or private business venture is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies. ... Alfa Romeo P3 1930s Grand Prix racing car DR P3 (radio station) DR P3* Period 3 of the periodic table Intel 80386 3rd generation processor architecture P3 biological confinement level P3 club owned by Piper Halliwell on the television series Charmed P3 Fulfillment, provider of fulfillment services P3, one of...


The Netherlands has the 16th largest economy in the world, and ranks 10th in GDP (nominal) per capita. Between 1998 and 2000 annual economic growth (GDP) averaged nearly 4%, well above the European average. Growth slowed considerably in 2001-05 due to the global economic slowdown, but accelerated to 4.1% in the third quarter of 2007. Inflation is 1.3% and is expected to stay low at around 1.5% in the coming years. Unemployment is at 4.0% of the labour force. By Eurostat standards however, unemployment in the Netherlands is at only 2.9% - the lowest rate of all European Union member states.[27] The Netherlands also has a relatively low GINI coefficient of 0.326. Despite ranking only 10th in GDP per capita, UNICEF ranked the Netherlands 1st in child well-being.[28] World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... In economics the labor force is the group of people who have a potential for being employed. ... The Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) is the statistical arm of the European Commission, producing data for the European Union and promoting harmonisation of statistical methods across the member states. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ...


Agriculture and horticulture

Frisian Holstein cows originated in the Netherlands, where intensive dairy farming is an important part of agriculture.
Frisian Holstein cows originated in the Netherlands, where intensive dairy farming is an important part of agriculture.

A highly mechanised agricultural sector employs no more than 4% of the labour force but provides large surpluses for the food-processing industry and for exports. The Dutch rank third worldwide in value of agricultural exports, behind the United States and France, with exports earning $55 billion annually. A significant portion of Dutch agricultural exports are derived from fresh-cut plants, flowers, and bulbs, with the Netherlands exporting two-thirds of the world's total. The Netherlands also exports a quarter of all world tomatoes, and one-third of the world's exports of peppers and cucumbers.[29] The Netherlands' location gives it prime access to markets in the UK and Germany, with the port of Rotterdam being the largest port in Europe. Other important parts of the economy are international trade (Dutch colonialism started with cooperative private enterprises such as the VOC), banking and transport. The Netherlands successfully addressed the issue of public finances and stagnating job growth long before its European partners. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Holstein Cow The Holstein or Holstein-Friesian (the latter referring to a smaller, heavier breed) is a cattle breed used in dairy farming. ... Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs of capital or labour relative to land area. ... Dairy farm redirects here. ... Species C. annuum (incl. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... This article is about the trading company. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ...


Currency

As a founding member of the Euro, the Netherlands replaced (for accounting purposes) its former currency, the "Gulden" (Guilder), on January 1, 1999, along with the other adopters of the single European currency. Actual Euro coins and banknotes followed on January 1, 2002. One Euro is equivalent to 2.20371 Dutch guilders. For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The gulden (sometimes guilder in English), represented by the symbol ƒ or fl. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the currency of 13 European Union (EU) member states (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain), three European microstates which have currency agreements with the EU (Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City State), Andorra, Montenegro and the... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


References

Footnotes
  1. ^ Top 44 countries with the highest internet penetration rate. InternetWorldStats.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-24.
  2. ^ van Krieken, Peter J.; David McKay (2005). The Hague: Legal Capital of the World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9067041858. , specifically, "In the 1990s, during his term as United Nations Secretary-General, Boutros Boutros-Ghali started calling The Hague the world's legal capital"
  3. ^ "Japan Goes Dutch", London Review of Books (2001-04-01). 3-7.
  4. ^ Abbenhuis, Maartje M. The Art of Staying Neutral. Amsterdam: Amsterdam UP, 2006.
  5. ^ Abbenhuis, Maartje M. The Art of Staying Neutral. Amsterdam: Amsterdam UP, 2006.
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ Kerngegevens gemeente Wieringermeer. www.sdu.nl. Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  8. ^ Kerngegevens procincie Flevoland. www.sdu.nl. Retrieved on 2008-01-21.
  9. ^ Nickerson, Colin. "Netherlands relinquishes some of itself to the waters", Boston Globe, 2005-12-05. Retrieved on 2007-10-10. 
  10. ^ Olsthoorn, A.A.; Richard S.J Tol (February 2001). "Floods, flood management and climate change in The Netherlands". Institute for Environmental Studies. Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit. Retrieved on 2007-10-10. 
  11. ^ Tol, Richard S. J.; Nicolien van der Grijp, Alexander A. Olsthoorn, Peter E. van der Werff (2003). "Adapting to Climate: A Case Study on Riverine Flood Risks in the Netherlands". Risk Analysis 23 (3): 575–583. Blackwell-Synergy. doi:10.1111/1539-6924.00338. Retrieved on 2007-10-10. 
  12. ^ Welschen, Ad: Course Dutch Society and Culture, International School for Humanities and Social Studies ISHSS, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2000-2005.
  13. ^ Regionale Kerncijfers Nederland (Dutch). Statistics Netherlands (2007). Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  14. ^ Bevolking per regio naar leeftijd, geslacht en burgerlijke staat (Dutch). Statistics Netherlands (2007). Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  15. ^ Dataset 'Nederlandse volwassenen', Populatie 'DINED 2004 (20-30 jaar)' (Dutch). TU Delft. Retrieved on 2008-02-04.
  16. ^ Reported health and lifestyle. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Retrieved on 2007-08-28.
  17. ^ Garssen, Joop, Han Nicolaas and Arno Sprangers (2005). Demografie van de allochtonen in Nederland (Dutch). Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek.
  18. ^ {{2006bevolkingskerneninnederlandart.pdf
    • 2005grootstedelijkeagglomeratiesstadsgewestenafgebakendart.pdf
    • 2004k4v4p037art.pdf}}
  19. ^ CIA World Factbook: Official languages per country
  20. ^ Welschen, Ad: Course Dutch Society and Culture, International School for Humanities and Social Studies ISHSS, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2000-2005.
  21. ^ Ginsburgh, Victor; Ignacio Ortuño-Ortin, Shlomo Weber (February 2005). Why Do People Learn Foreign Languages? (pdf). Université libre de Bruxelles. Retrieved on 2007-10-10. - specifically, see Table 2.
  22. ^ Becker, Jos and Joep de Hart (2006). Godsdienstige veranderingen in Nederland (in Dutch). Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau. ISBN 9037702597. OCLC 84601762. 
  23. ^ Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 - page 11. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
  24. ^ [2]
  25. ^ xxell.com
  26. ^ "Aardgas als smeerolie". Andere Tijden. VPRO. 2006-01-15. Transcript.
  27. ^ Eurostat unemployment rates november 2007. Retrieved on 2008-01-07.
  28. ^ Child Poverty Report Study by UNICEF 2007.
  29. ^ Netherlands: Agricultural situation. USDA Foreign Agriculture Service. Retrieved on 2007-06-20.
Statistics
Articles
Books
  • Paul Arblaster. A History of the Low Countries. Palgrave Essential Histories Series New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. 298 pp. ISBN 1-4039-4828-3.
  • J. C. H. Blom and E. Lamberts, eds. History of the Low Countries (1998)
  • Jonathan Israel. The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall 1477-1806 (1995)
  • J. A. Kossmann-Putto and E. H. Kossmann. The Low Countries: History of the Northern and Southern Netherlands (1987)

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistics Netherlands is a Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistics Netherlands is a Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Founded in 1842, the Delft University of Technology, in Delft, the Netherlands, is one of the oldest, largest, and most comprehensive technical universities in the Netherlands, with over 13,000 students and 2,100 scientists (including 200 professors). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek is the Dutch national statistical agency. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Social and Cultural Planning Office (Dutch Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau), usually abbreviated as SCP, is a government agency of the Netherlands which conducts research into the social aspects of all areas of government policy. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The VPRO (originally an acronym for Vrijzinnig Protestantse Radio Omroep, or free-thinking protestant radio broadcasting company, but since long the acronym has been kept but its meaning dropped) was established in the Netherlands in 1926 as a religious broadcasting organization, linked to the protestant pillar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek is the Dutch national statistical agency. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Department of State redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Find more about Netherlands on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
  • Wikimedia Atlas of Netherlands
  • Overheid.nl - official Dutch government portal
  • Government.nl - official Dutch government web site
  • Provinces of Netherlands at statoids.com
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Netherlands
  • CBS - Key figures from the Dutch bureau of statistics
  • Netherlands travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Local news and features on the Netherlands,Expatica
  • Holland.com - English website of the Netherlands tourist office

  Of the emerging democracies in central and eastern Europe, Czechia has one of the most developed industrialized economies. ... Tourism, petroleum transshipment, and offshore finance are the mainstays of the Netherlands Antillean economy, which is closely tied to the outside world. ... The United Kingdom has the fifth largest economy in the world in terms of market exchange rates and the sixth largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). ... A Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the Peoples Republic of China is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The Unions member states Where Dutch is spoken The Nederlandse Taalunie or Dutch Language Union is an international institution for discussing issues relating to the Dutch language. ... the Flemish community has jurisdiction over Flanders and over the Dutch language institutions in Brussels. ...


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The Netherlands - Holland - Travel and Tourism Information (503 words)
The Netherlands has a legendary reputation for tolerance and free thinking, and the tiny, flat country is known for tulips, polders, canals, and very pretty countrside that is easily traveled.
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Netherlands or Holland is the world third most densely populated (after Monaco and Malta), is a BeNeLux country in Western Europe, facing onto the North Sea and the UK and bordered on land by Germany and Belgium.
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