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Encyclopedia > Netbios

NetBIOS is an acronym for Network Basic Input/Output System. The NetBIOS API allows applications on separate computers to communicate over a local area network. In modern networks, it normally runs over TCP/IP (NBT), giving each computer in the network both a NetBIOS name and an IP address corresponding to a (possibly different) host name. Older operating systems ran NetBIOS over IPX/SPX or IEEE 802.2 (NBF). NetBIOS provides services related to the session layer of the OSI model. NetBIOS Frames or NBF protocol is an unrouted (non-routable) network- and transport-level data protocol most commonly used as one of the layers of Microsoft Windows networking. ... The software that provides the functionality described by an API is said to be an implementation of the API. The API itself is abstract, in that it specifies an interface and does not get involved with implementation details. ... Local area network scheme A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, or group of buildings. ... The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet runs. ... NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT, or sometimes NetBT) is a networking protocol that allows legacy computer applications relying on the NetBIOS API to be used on modern TCP/IP networks. ... IPX/SPX stands for Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange. ... IEEE 802. ... NetBIOS Frames or NBF protocol is an unrouted (non-routable) network- and transport-level data protocol most commonly used as one of the layers of Microsoft Windows networking. ... The session layer is level five of the seven level OSI model. ... The Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model (OSI Reference Model or OSI Model for short) is a layered, abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design, developed as part of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) initiative. ...

Contents

NetBIOS name vs host name

When NetBIOS is run over the TCP/IP protocol, each computer may have multiple "names" — names for the NetBIOS API and another (or others) for basic TCP/IP. In the field of telecommunications, a communications protocol is the set of standard rules for data representation, signalling, authentication and error detection required to send information over a communications channel. ...


NetBIOS name

The NetBIOS name is specified when Windows networking is installed/configured. In order to connect to a computer running TCP/IP via its NetBIOS name, the name must be resolved to a network address, usually today this is an IP address (the NetBIOS name-IP address resolution is often done by either broadcasts or a WINS Server — NetBIOS Name Server). A computer's NetBIOS name is often the same as that computer's host name (see below), but it doesn't have to be. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is Microsofts implementation of NetBIOS Name Server (NBNS) on Windows, a name server and service for NetBIOS computer names. ...


Host name

A Windows machine's NetBIOS name is not to be confused with the computer's host name. Generally a computer running TCP/IP (whether it's a Windows machine or not) has a host name (also sometimes called a machine name or a DNS name). Generally the host name of a Windows computer is based on the NetBIOS name plus the Primary DNS Suffix, which are both set in the System Control Panel.


There may also be "connection specific suffixes" which can be viewed or changed on the DNS tab in Control Panel → Network → TCP/IP → Advanced Properties. Host names are used by applications such as telnet, ftp, web browsers, etc. In order to connect to a computer running the TCP/IP protocol using its HOST name, the host name must be resolved into an IP Address. Host name- or Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN)-IP address resolution is typically done by a Domain Name System (DNS) server. A fully qualified domain name (or FQDN) is an unambiguous domain name that specifies the nodes position in the DNS tree hierarchy absolutely. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ...


History

NetBIOS was developed by Sytek Inc. for IBM's PC-Network in 1983. The interface was designed for small networks; PC-Network only supported up to 80 devices in its baseband form. Since its original publishing in a technical reference book from IBM, the protocol's API has become a de facto standard. IBM redirects here. ... PC-Network was a broadband LAN product consisting of network cards, cables, and a small device driver known as NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System). ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Baseband is an adjective that describes signals and systems whose range of frequencies is measured from 0 to a maximum bandwidth or highest signal frequency; it is sometimes used as a noun for a band of frequencies starting at 0. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


In 1985, IBM went forward with the token ring network scheme and a NetBIOS emulator was produced to allow PC-Network applications to work over this new design, using the NBF protocol to provide the NetBIOS services over the IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control layer. This emulator also expanded upon the base NetBIOS API and the new API was deemed NetBEUI or NetBIOS Extended User Interface. With Novell's release of Advanced Novell NetWare 2.0 in 1986, NetBIOS was reconfigured to be encapsulated in the IPX/SPX protocol. After the PS/2 computer hit the market in 1987 IBM was finally prompted to release the PC LAN Support Program, which included a driver for NetBIOS. At the same time, they also developed a method of encapsulating NetBIOS in a TCP packet (NetBIOS over TCP/IP) and released RFC 1001 — "Protocol Standard for a NetBIOS Service on a TCP/UDP Transport: Concepts and methods" and RFC 1002 - "Protocol standard for a NetBIOS service on a TCP/UDP transport: Detailed specifications". Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... Token-Ring local area network (LAN) technology was developed and promoted by IBM in the early 1980s and standardised as IEEE 802. ... DosBox emulates the familiar command line interface of DOS. An emulator duplicates (provide an emulation of) the functions of one system with a different system, so that the second system behaves like (and appears to be) the first system. ... NetBIOS Frames or NBF protocol is an unrouted (non-routable) network- and transport-level data protocol most commonly used as one of the layers of Microsoft Windows networking. ... IEEE 802. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Novell Inc. ... NetWare is a network operating system developed by Novell, Inc. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... IPX/SPX stands for Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange. ... The Personal System/2 or PS/2 was IBMs second generation of personal computers. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite, often simply referred to as TCP/IP. Using TCP, applications on networked hosts can create connections to one another, over which they can exchange streams of data using Stream Sockets. ... NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT, or sometimes NetBT) is a networking protocol that allows legacy computer applications relying on the NetBIOS API to be used on modern TCP/IP networks. ...


Services

NetBIOS provides three distinct services:

  • Name service for name registration and resolution.
  • Session service for connection-oriented communication.
  • Datagram distribution service for connectionless communication.

(Note: SMB, an upper layer, is a service that runs on top of the Session Service and the Datagram service, and is not to be confused as a necessary and integral part of NetBIOS itself. It can now run atop TCP with a small adaptation layer that adds a packet length to each SMB message; this is necessary because TCP only provides a byte-stream service with no notion of packet boundaries.) A packet is the fundamental unit of information carriage in all modern computer networks. ... Server Message Block (SMB) is an application-level network protocol mainly applied to shared access to files, printers, serial ports, and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network. ...


Name service

In order to start Sessions or distribute Datagrams, an application must register its NetBIOS name using the Name service. NetBIOS names are 16 bytes in length and vary based on the particular implementation. Frequently, the 16th byte is used to designate a "type" similar to the use of ports in TCP/IP. In NBT, the name service operates on UDP port 137 (TCP port 137 can also be used, but it is rarely if ever used). In computer science a byte (pronounced bite) is a unit of measurement of information storage, most often consisting of eight bits. ... NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT, or sometimes NetBT) is a networking protocol that allows legacy computer applications relying on the NetBIOS API to be used on modern TCP/IP networks. ...


The name service primitives offered by NetBIOS are:

  • Add Name — registers a NetBIOS name.
  • Add Group Name — registers a NetBIOS "group" name.
  • Delete Name — un-registers a NetBIOS name or group name.
  • Find Name — looks up a NetBIOS name on the network.

Session service

Session mode lets two computers establish a connection for a "conversation", allows larger messages to be handled, and provides error detection and recovery. In NBT, the session service runs on TCP port 139. NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT, or sometimes NetBT) is a networking protocol that allows legacy computer applications relying on the NetBIOS API to be used on modern TCP/IP networks. ...


The session service primitives offered by NetBIOS are:

  • Call — opens a session to a remote NetBIOS name.
  • Listen — listen for attempts to open a session to a NetBIOS name.
  • Hang Up — close a session.
  • Send — sends a packet to the computer on the other end of a session.
  • Send No Ack — like Send, but doesn't require an acknowledgment.
  • Receive — wait for a packet to arrive from a Send on the other end of a session.

In the original protocol used to implement NetBIOS services on PC-Network, to establish a session, the computer establishing the session sends an Open request which is responded to by an Open acknowledgment. The computer that started the session will then send a Session Request packet which will prompt either a Session Accept or Session Reject packet. Data is transmitted during an established session by data packets which are responded to with either acknowledgment packets (ACK) or negative acknowledgment packets (NACK). Since NetBIOS is handling the error recovery, NACK packets will prompt retransmission of the data packet. Sessions are closed by the non-initiating computer by sending a close request. The computer that started the session will reply with a close response which prompts the final session closed packet.


Datagram distribution service

Datagram mode is "connectionless". Since each message is sent independently, they must be smaller; the application becomes responsible for error detection and recovery. In NBT, the datagram service runs on UDP port 138. NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT, or sometimes NetBT) is a networking protocol that allows legacy computer applications relying on the NetBIOS API to be used on modern TCP/IP networks. ...


The datagram service primitives offered by NetBIOS are:

  • Send Datagram — send a datagram to a remote NetBIOS name.
  • Send Broadcast Datagram — send a datagram to all NetBIOS names on the network.
  • Receive Datagram — wait for a packet to arrive from a Send Datagram operation.
  • Receive Broadcast Datagram — wait for a packet to arrive from a Send Broadcast Datagram operation.

See also

NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT, or sometimes NetBT) is a networking protocol that allows legacy computer applications relying on the NetBIOS API to be used on modern TCP/IP networks. ... NetBIOS Frames or NBF protocol is an unrouted (non-routable) network- and transport-level data protocol most commonly used as one of the layers of Microsoft Windows networking. ...

External links

  • LAN Technical Reference: 802.2 and NetBIOS APIs
  • Implementing CIFS (from the Samba team, published under the Open Publication License)
  • NetBIOS specification
  • NetBIOS, NetBEUI, NBF, SMB, CIFS Networking
  • Computing-Dictionary: The Free Dictionary

Samba logo. ... Open Publication License is a license used for creating free and open publications created by the Open Content Project. ...

References

  • Haugdahl, J. Scott (1990). Inside NetBIOS. Architecture Technology Corp. ISBN 99914-57-34-8
  • Silberschatz, Abraham; Galvin, Peter Baer; Gagne, Greg (2004). Operating System Concepts. (7th Ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-69466-5

  Results from FactBites:
 
File and Printer Sharing (NetBIOS) Fact and Fiction (1915 words)
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Exposed NetBIOS shares are at risk not only from from malicious crackers, but also from supposedly legitimate entities.
This is because computers running NetBIOS over TCP/IP with Scope ID are invisible to other computers that do not have the same Scope ID.
NetBIOS - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (839 words)
NetBIOS was developed by Sytek Inc. for IBM 's PC-Network in 1983.
With Novell's release of Advanced Novell Netware 2.0 in 1986, NetBIOS was reconfigured to be encapsulated in the IPX/SPX protocol.
NetBIOS names are 16 bytes in length and vary based on the particular implementation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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