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Encyclopedia > NetBSD
NetBSD
The NetBSD flag
"Of course it runs NetBSD"
Website: www.netbsd.org
Company/
developer:
The NetBSD Foundation
OS family: BSD
Source model: Open source
Latest stable release: 3.0 / December 23, 2005
Kernel type: Monolithic kernel
License: BSD
Working state: Current

NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. It was the second open source BSD variant to be formally released, after 386BSD, and continues to be actively developed. Noted for its portability and quality of design and implementation, it is often used in embedded systems and as a starting point for the porting of other operating systems to new architectures. Download high resolution version (1200x1200, 42 KB)New NetBSD logo by Grant Bisset. ... This page as shown in the aol 9. ... The term software company could be applied to; a) a company that produces software or b) a company that distributes software from a third party or c) a company that provides services for software. ... A software developer is a programmer who is concerned with one or more facets of the software development process, a somewhat broader scope of computer programming. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (358th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In computer science, the kernel is the core piece of most operating systems. ... Graphical overview of a monolithic kernel A monolithic kernel defines a high-level virtual interface over the hardware, with a set of primitives or system calls to implement operating system services such as process management, concurrency, and memory management in several modules that run in supervisor mode. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... The BSD license is a permissive license and is one of the most widely used free software licenses. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD, sometimes called Berkeley Unix) is the Unix derivative distributed by the University of California, Berkeley starting in the 1970s. ... An operating system (OS) is an essential software program that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer. ... 386BSD, also known as JOLIX, is a free operating system produced from the BSD derived UNIX operating systems for the Intel 80386. ... In computer science, porting is the adaptation of a piece of software so that it will function in a different computing environment to that for which it was originally written. ... An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system, which is completely encapsulated by the device it controls. ... In computer science, computer architecture is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. ...

Contents


History

NetBSD, like its sister project FreeBSD, was derived from the original University of California Berkeley's 4.3BSD release via the Networking/2 and 386BSD releases. The project began as a result of frustration within the 386BSD developer community with the pace and direction of the operating system's development. The four founders of the NetBSD project, Chris Demetriou, Theo de Raadt, Adam Glass and Charles Hannum, felt that a more open development model would be more beneficial to the project; one which was centred on portable, clean, correct code. Their aim was to produce a unified, multi-platform, production-quality, BSD-based operating system. FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through 386BSD and 4. ... 386BSD, also known as JOLIX, is a free operating system produced from the BSD derived UNIX operating systems for the Intel 80386. ... Theo de Raadt, pronounced de rot, (born May 19, 1968 in Pretoria, South Africa) is a software engineer who lives in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ...


Because of the importance of networks such as the Internet in the distributed, collaborative nature of its development, de Raadt suggested the name "NetBSD", which was readily accepted by the other founders.


The NetBSD source code repository was established on March 21, 1993 and the first official release, NetBSD 0.8, was made in April, 1993. This was derived from 386BSD 0.1 plus the version 0.2.2 unofficial patchkit, with several programs from the Net/2 release missing from 386BSD re-integrated, and various other improvements. March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...


In August the same year, NetBSD 0.9 was released, which contained many enhancements and bug fixes. This was still a PC-platform-only release, although by this time work was underway to add support for other architectures. 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... One of the first PCs from IBM - the IBM PC model 5150. ...


NetBSD 1.0 was released in October, 1994. This was the first multi-platform release, supporting the PC, HP 9000 Series 300, Amiga, 68k Macintosh, Sun-4c series and PC532. Also in this release, legally-encumbered Net/2-derived source code was replaced with equivalent code from 4.4BSD-lite, in accordance with the USL v BSDi lawsuit settlement. 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated like the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal. // Events January Bill Clinton January 1 : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect. ... One of the first PCs from IBM - the IBM PC model 5150. ... HP 9000 is the name for a line of computer systems produced by the Hewlett-Packard (HP) company. ... The original Amiga (1985) The Amiga is a family of home/personal computers originally developed by Amiga Corporation as an advanced game console. ... The Motorola 680x0/0x0/m68k/68k/68K family of CISC microprocessor CPU chips were 32-bit from the start, and were the primary competition for the Intel x86 family of chips. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh, or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... Sun-4 was the name given to a series of UNIX computer workstations and servers produced by Sun Microsystems, launched in 1987. ... The PC532 was a home-brew microcomputer design created by George Scolaro and Dave Rand in 1989-90, based around the National Semiconductor NS32532 microprocessor (a member of the NS320xx series). ... This article is in need of attention. ...


In 1994, for disputed reasons, one of the founders, Theo de Raadt, was forced out of the project. He later founded a new project, OpenBSD, from a forked version of NetBSD 1.0 near the end of 1995. OpenBSD is a freely available Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative created at the University of California, Berkeley. ...


NetBSD 1.x releases continued at roughly annual intervals, with minor "patch" releases in between. The pkgsrc packages collection was introduced with NetBSD 1.3 in 1998. By 1999, NetBSD 1.4 had been released, supporting 16 different platforms in its binary release, and several others in the source code. The NetBSD package system, pkgsrc (package source), is a framework for building third-party software on NetBSD and other UNIX-like operating systems, based on a system of makefiles. ...


In December, 2004, NetBSD 2.0 was released. The change in major version number signified the introduction of a native threads implementation for all platforms (based on the Scheduler Activations model) and support for SMP on several different CPU architectures. 48 platforms were supported in the 2.0 binary release, with another six in source code form only. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A thread in computer science is short for a thread of execution. ... Symmetric Multiprocessing, or SMP, is a multiprocessor computer architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single shared main memory. ...


From release 2.0 onwards, each major NetBSD release now increments the major version number, ie. the major releases following 2.0 are 3.0, 4.0 and so on. The previous minor releases are now divided into separate "stable" maintenance releases and "security/critical" fix releases.


The current release of NetBSD is version 3.0 (23 December 2005).


Portability

NetBSD has been ported to a large number of 32- and 64-bit architectures, from VAX minicomputers to Pocket PC PDAs; the NetBSD motto is "Of course it runs NetBSD." The kernel and userland for the 54+ currently-supported hardware platforms (comprising around 17 different processor architectures) are all built from a central unified source-code tree managed by CVS. 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... In computer science, computer architecture is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. ... VAX is a 32-bit computing architecture that supports an orthogonal instruction set (machine language) and virtual addressing (i. ... HP2114 minicomputer Minicomputer is a largely obsolete term for a class of multi-user computers which make up the middle range of the computing spectrum, in between the largest multi-user systems (mainframe computers) and the smallest single-user systems (microcomputers or personal computers). ... A Pocket PC A Pocket PC, abbreviated P/PC or PPC, is a handheld-sized computer that runs a specific version of the Windows CE operating system. ... palmOne Tungsten T5 Dell Axim X51v Pocket PC Personal digital assistants (also called PDAs) are handheld devices that were originally designed as personal organizers, but became much more versatile over the years. ... For information on the company called UserLand, see UserLand Software. ... The Concurrent Versions System (CVS), also known as the Concurrent Versioning System, implements a version control system: it keeps track of all work and all changes in a set of files, typically the implementation of a software project, and allows several (potentially widely separated) developers to collaborate. ...


Due to the centralized source code management, and highly portable design, feature additions (which are not hardware specific) benefit all platforms immediately, with no re-porting required. Device driver development is also often platform-independent, eg. the driver for a specific PCI card will work whether that card is in a PCI slot on an i386, Alpha, PowerPC, SPARC, or other architecture with PCI buses. Many NetBSD device drivers also have bus-specific code factored out into bus drivers, allowing a single driver for a specific device to operate via several different buses (eg. ISA, PCI, PCMCIA, etc). In computing, a platform describes some sort of framework, either in hardware or software, which allows software to run. ... 32-bit PCI expansion slots on a motherboard 64-bit PCI expansion slots inside a Power Macintosh G4 The Peripheral Component Interconnect standard (in practice almost always shortened to PCI) specifies a computer bus for attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard. ... The Intel 80386 is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 1994 and later. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor ARChitecture) is a pure big-endian RISC microprocessor architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... Industry Standard Architecture (in practice almost always shortened to ISA) is a computer bus standard for IBM compatible computers. ... The PCMCIA is the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, an industry trade association that creates standards for notebook computer peripheral devices. ...


This platform independence helps greatly in developing embedded systems, especially starting in NetBSD 1.6, with the entire toolchain of compilers, assemblers, linkers, and other tools fully supporting cross-compiling. A cross-platform (or platform independent) programming language, software application or hardware device works on more than one system platform (e. ... An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system, which is completely encapsulated by the device it controls. ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language compiler. ... An assembler is a computer program for translating assembly language — essentially, a mnemonic representation of machine language — into object code. ... Figure of the linking process, where object files and static libraries are assembled into a new library or executable. ... A cross compiler is a compiler capable of creating executable code for another platform than the one on which the cross compiler is run. ...


Licensing

All of the NetBSD kernel and most of the core userland source code is released under the terms of the BSD License (two, three, and four-clause variants). This essentially allows everyone to use, modify, redistribute or sell it as they wish, as long as they do not remove the copyright notice and license text (the four-clause variants also include terms relating to publicity material). Thus, the development of commercial products based on NetBSD is possible without the requirement to make modified source code public, as is almost always the case with the GPL license. The BSD license is a permissive license and is one of the most widely used free software licenses. ... The GNU logo Wikisource has original text related to this article: GNU General Public License The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a widely-used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. ...


NetBSD also includes the GNU development tools and other packages, which are covered by the GPL and other open source licenses. GNU (pronounced ) is a free software operating system consisting of a kernel, libraries, system tools, compilers and many end-user applications. ...


Compatibility with other operating systems

At the source code level, NetBSD is very nearly entirely compliant with POSIX.1 (IEEE 1003.1-1990) standard and mostly compliant with POSIX.2 (IEEE 1003.2-1992). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


NetBSD also provides system call-level binary compatibility (on the appropriate processor architectures) with several UNIX-derived and UNIX-like operating systems, including GNU/Linux, FreeBSD, Darwin, Solaris, HP-UX, SunOS 4 and SCO UNIX. This allows NetBSD users to run many applications that are only distributed in binary form for other operating systems, usually with no significant loss of performance. In computing, a system call is the mechanism used by an application program to request service from the operating system, or more specifically, the operating system kernel. ... Unix systems filiation. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through 386BSD and 4. ... Hexley, the mascot of Darwin Darwin is a free, open source, Unix-like operating system first released by Apple Computer in 2000. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... HP-UX (Hewlett Packard UniX) is Hewlett-Packards proprietary implementation of the Unix operating system. ... SunOS was the version of the UNIX operating system developed by Sun Microsystems for their workstations and server systems until the early 1990s. ... Tarantella, Inc. ...


A variety of "foreign" disk filesystem formats are also supported in NetBSD, including FAT, NTFS, Linux ext2fs, Mac OS X UFS, RISC OS FileCore and AmigaOS Fast File System. See Filing system for this term as it is used in libraries and offices In computing, a file system is a method for storing and organizing computer files and the data they contain to make it easy to find and access them. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and is the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... NTFS or New Technology File System is the standard file system of Windows NT and its descendants: Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. ... The ext2 or second extended file system is a file system for the Linux kernel. ... Mac OS X is a proprietary operating system developed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. ... RISC OS, which stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computing Operating System is a British Graphical user interface-based operating system for ARM-processor based computers or similar devices. ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. ... The Amiga Fast File System (FFS) is an advanced file system used on the Amiga personal computer. ...


The pkgsrc packages collection

NetBSD features its own collection of third-party application software packages that will install almost automagically, pkgsrc (short for "package source"), which consists of more than 6000 packages as of April 2006. Installing software such as KDE, GNOME, the Apache server or Perl is just a matter of changing into the right directory and typing make install. This will fetch source code, unpack, patch, configure, build and install the package such that it can be removed again later. An alternative to compiling from source is to use a precompiled binary package. Either way, any prerequisites/dependencies will be installed automatically by the packages system, with no need for manual intervention. The NetBSD package system, pkgsrc (package source), is a framework for building third-party software on NetBSD and other UNIX-like operating systems, based on a system of makefiles. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... KDE (K Desktop Environment) is a free desktop environment and development platform built with Trolltechs Qt toolkit. ... The GNOME project is an international effort to create an easy-to-use computer desktop environment built entirely from software considered free by the Free Software Foundation. ... Apache HTTP Server is an open source HTTP web server for Unix platforms (BSD, Linux, and UNIX systems), Microsoft Windows, and other platforms. ... Perl, also Practical Extraction and Report Language (a backronym, see below) is a dynamic procedural programming language designed by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. ...


Following its mantra of portability, pkgsrc has been made portable not only across all the hardware platforms that run NetBSD, but also — with the help of an autoconf-based bootstrap system—on many other operating systems, such as GNU/Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris, Darwin/Mac OS X, IRIX, Interix and others. pkgsrc has also been adopted as the official package system for DragonFly BSD (announcement). In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ... In computer science, porting is the adaptation of a piece of software so that it will function in a different computing environment to that for which it was originally written. ... The NetBSD package system, pkgsrc (package source), is a framework for building third-party software on NetBSD and other UNIX-like operating systems, based on a system of makefiles. ... Autoconf is a tool for producing shell scripts that automatically configure software source code packages to adapt to many kinds of UNIX-like systems. ... Unix systems filiation. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through 386BSD and 4. ... OpenBSD is a freely available Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative created at the University of California, Berkeley. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Hexley, the mascot of Darwin Darwin is a free, open source, Unix-like operating system first released by Apple Computer in 2000. ... Mac OS X is a proprietary operating system developed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. ... IRIX is the System V-based Unix Operating System with BSD extensions developed by Silicon Graphics (SGI) to run natively on their 32 and 64-bit MIPS architecture workstations and servers. ... Interix is the name of an optional, full-featured POSIX and Unix environment subsystem for Microsofts Windows NT-based operating systems. ... The NetBSD package system, pkgsrc (package source), is a framework for building third-party software on NetBSD and other UNIX-like operating systems, based on a system of makefiles. ... In computing, the DragonFly BSD operating system is a fork of FreeBSD. Matt Dillon, a long-time FreeBSD and Amiga developer, started work on DragonFly BSD in June 2003 and announced it on the FreeBSD mailing lists on 16 July 2003 [1]. Dillon started DragonFly in the belief that the...


Logo

The NetBSD "flag" logo, designed by Grant Bisset, was introduced in 2004 and is an abstraction of their older logo, designed by Shawn Mueller in 1994. This was based on the famous World War II photograph Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima, which some perceived as culturally insensitive and inappropriate for an international project[1]. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... (©Joe Rosenthal/Associated Press) Raising the U.S. flag on Iwo Jima. ...


"NETBSD" is a registered trademark of The NetBSD Foundation as of April 20, 2004.[2] April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


"PKGSRC" is a registered trademark of The NetBSD Foundation as of July 6, 2004. [3] July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Hosting

Hosting for the project is provided primarily by the Internet Systems Consortium Inc, the Helsinki University of Technology, and Columbia University. Mirrors for the project are spread around the world and provided by volunteers and supporters of the project. In January 2004 the projects, assets and staff of Internet Software Consortium were transferred to a new company, Internet Systems Consortium. ... Auditorium of the main building. ... Columbia University is a private university in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City and a member of the Ivy League. ...


See also

   
Free software Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... OpenBSD is a freely available Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative created at the University of California, Berkeley. ... In computing, the DragonFly BSD operating system is a fork of FreeBSD. Matt Dillon, a long-time FreeBSD and Amiga developer, started work on DragonFly BSD in June 2003 and announced it on the FreeBSD mailing lists on 16 July 2003 [1]. Dillon started DragonFly in the belief that the... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through 386BSD and 4. ... There are a number of Unix-like operating systems based on, or descended from, Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), the three most notable being FreeBSD, OpenBSD, and NetBSD. Other notable descendants include the FreeBSD-based DragonFly BSD and Apple Computers Mac OS X with its Darwin base and userland derived... The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of operating systems. ... Debian GNU/NetBSD is a distribution of GNU operating system with NetBSD kernel, unlike most other GNU variants that are shipped with the Linux kernel. ...

External links

  • BSD family tree

  Results from FactBites:
 
NetBSD: Information from Answers.com (1564 words)
NetBSD was ported to the AMD x86-64 architecture (now known as AMD64) in about a month; Linux took six months.
All of the NetBSD kernel and most of the core userland source code is released under the terms of the BSD License (two, three, and four-clause variants).
NetBSD also includes the GNU development tools and other packages, which are covered by the GPL and other open source licenses.
Technologic Systems TS-7200 SBC uses NetBSD OS to control Toaster (1095 words)
I was most worried about physical things such as fitting the hardware inside the case and the board being able to survive 60 seconds at a time a half centimeter away from an 800 watt burner element.
NetBSD's single no-frills high quality source tree is a great starting point for bringing up an embedded application.
The NetBSD LCD driver presents a standard VT100 text mode console that both the USB keyboard and 5-key front-panel are connected.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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