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Encyclopedia > Nestor Makhno
Nestor Makhno
Born October 26, 1888
Hulyai Pole, Ukraine
Died July 25, 1934
Paris, France

Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (Ukrainian: Нестор Іванович Махно, October 26, 1888July 25, 1934) was an anarcho-communist Ukrainian revolutionary who refused to align with the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution. He is credited with organizing an enormous experiment in anarchist values and practice, one which was cut short by the consolidation of Bolshevik power. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Image File history File links Nestor. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Huliaipole (Ukrainian: ) is a city in Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Libertarian Communism redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Early life and Ukrainian Revolution

Nestor Makhno in 1909
Nestor Makhno in 1909
Part of the Politics series on

Anarchism Nestor Makhno (1909 photograph) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Nestor Makhno (1909 photograph) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Anarchist redirects here. ...

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Main article: Russian Civil War

Nestor Makhno was born into a poor peasant family in Hulyai Pole, Ukraine, the youngest of five children. Church files show a birthdate of October 27, 1888, but Nestor Makhno's parents registered his date of birth as 1889 (possibly in an attempt to postpone conscription, or a later attempt to avoid execution after his arrest in 1910 for belonging to the anarchist group and for robberies). He studied at a parochial school between ages of eight and twelve. Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... Huliaipole (Ukrainian: ) is a city in Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine. ...


Soon after the Russian Revolution of 1905 Makhno joined a group of anarchists and was engaged in property expropriations and killings of gendarmes.[citation needed] He was arrested in 1906, tried, and acquitted. He was again arrested in 1907, but Makhno could not be incriminated, and the charges were dropped. The third arrest came in 1908, when an infiltrator was able to testify against Makhno. In 1910 Makhno was sentenced to death by hanging, but the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment and he was sent to Butyrskaya prison in Moscow instead. There he spent 6 years until he was released after the February Revolution in 1917. The time spent in prison allowed him to improve his education, aided by intellectual cellmates (notably Piotr Arshinov). After his release Makhno joined the revolutionary movement in Ukraine and helped organize expropriation of property from wealthy landlords and capitalists in the eastern Ukraine. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Butyrka prison (Russian: Бутырка, a colloquial term for the official Бутырская тюрьма, Butyrskaya tyurma) was the central transit prison in pre-revolutionary Russia, located in Moscow. ... Peter Andreyevich Arshinov (Marin, Пётр Андреевич Аршинов in Russian) (1887 - c. ...


In early 1918, the new Bolshevik government in Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk making peace with the Central Powers, but ceding large amounts of territory, including Ukraine, to them. The populace of Ukraine did not want to be ruled by the Central Powers, and rebelled. Partisan units were formed that waged guerrilla war against the German and Austro-Hungarian armies. In Yekaterinoslav province, this rebellion soon took an anarchist political tone. Nestor Makhno (along with Arshinov and Volin) was one of the main organizers of these partisan groups, eventually united into the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine (RIAU), also called the Black Army (because they fought under the anarchist black flag). The RIAU also battled against the Whites (counter-revolutionaries), Ukrainian nationalists, and anti-semitic pogromists. The anarchist movement in Ukraine came to be referred to as "Makhnovism" or pejoratively "Makhnovshchina." The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... Kaiser Wilhelm II, Mehmed V, Franz Joseph: The three emperors of the Central Powers in World War I European military alliances in 1914. ... Anarchist intellectual Arshinov. ... Vsevolod Mikhailovich Eikhenbaum (August 11, 1882 - September 18, 1945), known in later life as Volin (Волин), was a leading Russian anarchist. ... Simon Karetnik, Batko Makhno, and Fedir Shchus (Fedor Shchus). ... The Black Guards flag, whit Nestor Makhno. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... This article discusses various anarchist symbols, including the circle-A and the black flag. ... White Army redirects here. ... A counterrevolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In areas where the RIAU drove out opposing armies, villagers (and workers) sought to abolish capitalism and the state by organizing themselves into village assemblies, communes and free councils. The land and factories were expropriated and put under nominal peasant/worker control, but mayors and many officials were drawn directly from the ranks of Makhno's military, rather than local toilers. It is debatable whether Makhno's government or the RSFSR was more democratic in this period. A deliberative assembly is an organization, comprised of members, that uses a parliamentary procedure for making decisions. ... A Commune is a kind of intentional community where most resources are shared and there is little or no personal property. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme...


The Makhnovshchina (Anarchist Ukraine)

Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky, head of a criticized Ukrainian State — considered by some as a puppet Republic, had difficulty trying to occupy Ukraine as he was confronted by Makhno's Insurrectional Army. Thus, he was finally called back to Germany after the collapse of the German western front. In March 1918, the RIAU succeeded in defeating the Germans, Austrians, Ukrainian Nationalists of Symon Petlura, and multiple regiments of the White Army. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hetman`s coat of arms Hetman StanisÅ‚aw Koniecpolski of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Hetman was the title of the second highest military commander (after the monarch) used in 15th to 18th century Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, known from 1569 to 1795 as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Pavlo Skoropadsky Pavlo Skoropadsky (Ukrainian: Павло Скоропадський, also spelled Pavel Skoropadsky or Skoropadski, born: May 3, 1873, in Wiesbaden, Germany, died: April 26, 1945, Metten monastery clinic, Bavaria, Germany) was a Ukrainian politician. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Head Otaman Symon Petlura Symon Petlura (Ukrainian: (Simon Petljura); in English, also occasionally spelled Simon Petliura or Petlyura; May 10, 1879 â€“ May 25, 1926) was a publicist, writer, journalist, Ukrainian politician and statesman, a leader of Ukraines unsuccessful fight for independence following the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... White Army redirects here. ...


At this point, the military role Makhno had adopted in his early years shifted to an organizing one. The first congress of the Confederation of Anarchists Groups, under the name of Nabat ("the Bell"), issued five main points: rejection of all political parties, of all forms of dictatorships (in particular the Marxist dogma of "Dictatorship by Proletariat"), negation of any State concept, rejection of any "transitional period" that may necessitate some dictatorship, self-management of all workers through free workers' councils (soviets). While the Bolsheviks argued that their concept of "Dictatorship by Proletariat" meant precisely "rule by workers' councils," the Makhnovist platform opposed the "temporary" Bolshevik measure of "Party dictatorship." The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a...


From November 1918 to June 1919, the Makhnovists created an anarchist society in Ukraine administered by the peasants' and workers' Counsils. "The agricultural most part of these villages was composed of peasants, someone understood at the same time peasants and workers. They were founded first of all on equality and solidarity of his members. All, men and women, worked together with a perfect conscience that they should work on fields or that they should be used in housework... Working program was established in meetings where all participated. They knew then exactly what they had to make." (Makhno, Russian Revolution in Ukraine).


New relationships and values were generated by this new social paradigm, which led Makhnovists to formalize the policy of free communities as the highest form of social justice. Education was organized on Francisco Ferrer's principles, and the economy was based upon free exchange between rural and urban communities, from crop and cattle to manufactured products, according to the science proposed by Peter Kropotkin.[citation needed] Francisco Ferrer Guardia Francisco Ferrer Guardia (January 10, 1849 - October 13, 1909), often simply Francisco Ferrer was a Spanish free-thinker. ... Prince Peter (Pyotr) Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Russian: ) (December 9, 1842–February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society free from central government. ...


Skeptics on the Bolshevik side argue that the above description of Makhnovist Ukraine is a myth. They find it unrealistic that a war-ravaged, economically isolated, agricultural region like Ukraine (though eastern Ukraine included the largest coal and iron mines in the former Russian Empire and was relatively industrialized)[1] could be turned into an anarchist paradise in a few days or even months, simply by using correct anarchist ideology. Trotsky, in a series of articles, charged that the "anarchist republic" was a military dictatorship with few or sham elections, and all the important ministers chosen by Makhno and his lieutenants, who frequently exercised the power to conduct summary executions. Trotsky was correct; Machnovists summarily executed Communists of any sort. The most infamous example is the charge that Makhno, during the course of a simple conversation in his tent, decided that one of his officers was a reactionary and shot him outright. There is no evidence that this shooting occurred, but neither is there that popular democracy ever existed in Makhnovist Ukraine. Donets Basin also known as Donbass or Donbas ( Russian: Донбасс from Donetskiy bassein) is a historical, economic and cultural region of Ukraine. ...


There were many claims of extreme atrocities committed by Makhno's Army. Makhno reserved a particular hatred of monarchists and aristocrats, and they were exterminated mercilessly whenever they fell into Makhnovists' hands, as were White Army officers. After the dissolution of Makhno's coalition with Bolsheviks, captured Red commanders and commissars were summarily executed. However, Makhno usually preferred to release the disarmed enlisted men that were captured, as "proletarian brothers", with a choice of joining his army or returning home, after all commanding officers were executed. This happened to an Estonian Red Army brigade that surrendered to Makhno in 1919, and several other German, Nationalist and Red Army units. This clemency which Makhno applied to all enlisted men except the Whites, formed a part of Makhno's strategy. It proved to be extremely useful, and greatly increased his army's manpower, as all preferred to join the anarchists.


Personal and domestic life

In 1919, Nestor Maknho married Agafya (aka Halyna) Kuzmenko, a former elementary schoolteacher (1892-1978), who became his aide. They had one daughter, Yelena.


Halyna Kuzmenko personally carried out a death sentence of ataman Nikifor Grigoriev, a subordinate commander who committed a series of anti-semitic pogroms (according to other versions, Grigoriev was killed by Chubenko, a member of Makhno's staff or Makhno himself). Anarchists are opposed to anti-semitism, or any sort of hate crime. It is arguable whether she did that out of love for her husband, or out of her own conviction. Bolshevik propaganda poster depicting the struggle against ataman Grigoriev Nikifor Grigoriev (commonly known as Ataman Grigoriev; also known as Matvey Grigoriev and Mykola Grigoriev, born Nichishyr Servetnik; circa 1885 – July 27, 1919) was a Ukrainian insurgent Green Army leader during the Russian Civil War. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ...


Two of Makhno's brothers were his active supporters and aides. They were captured in battle by the German occupation forces and executed by firing squad.


There are many legends alleging extreme sexual promiscuity of Makhno, his entourage and troops, but they have never been proven. One Makhnovist proclamation forbidding mistreatment of "coachmen, actors and whores, because all of them serve People" is taken as evidence of anarchist immorality[citation needed].


A White and Red counter-strike

Makhno had resisted the White Army's attempts to invade Ukraine from the South-West for three months before the Bolshevik Red Army units joined the war effort of the Makhnovshchina. But even after joining forces with the Red Army, the anarchists maintained their main political structures and refused to hold soviet elections or accept Bolshevik-appointed political commissars. The Red Army temporarily accepted these conditions, but soon Bolsheviks ceased to provide the Makhnovists with basic supplies, such as cereals and coal. The Nabat paper was banned and the Third Congress (specifically Pavel Dybenko) declared the Makhnovschina outlaw and counter-revolutionary, in response to which the Anarchist congress publicly questioned, "[M]ight laws exist as made by few persons so-called revolutionaries, allowing these to declare the outlawing of an entire people which is more revolutionary than them?" (Archinoff, The Makhnovist Movement). The justifications provided by the Bolshevik press for their break with the Anarchists were that Makhno's "anarchist state" was a warlord regime with civilian posts appointed (not elected) by Makhno and other military leaders, that Makhno himself had refused to provide food for Soviet railwaymen and telegraph operators, the "special section" of the anarchist constitution provided for secret executions and torture, that Makhno's forces had raided Red Army convoys for supplies, stolen an armored car from Briansk when asked to repair it, and that Nabat was responsible for deadly acts of terrorism in Russian cities. For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Nestor Makhno in 1909 Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (October 27, 1889–July 25, 1934) was an anarchist Ukrainian revolutionary who refused to align with the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution. ... Pavel Dybenko Pavel Yefimovich Dybenko (Russian: Павел Ефимович Дыбенко) (February 16, 1889 - July 29, 1938) was a Russian revolutionary and a leading Soviet officer. ... The Third Russian Revolution (also called the Russian Revolution of 1918, or the July Revolution 1918) is a term describing a series of anarchist rebellions and uprisings against both the Bolsheviks and the White movement, which started on 6 July 1918 and were most prominent for the remainder of that...


Lenin soon sent Lev Kamenev to Ukraine, who conducted a cordial interview with Makhno. After Kamenev's departure, Makhno intercepted two Bolshevik messages, the first an order to the Red Army to attack the Makhnovists, the second ordering Makhno's assassination. Soon after the Fourth Congress, Trotsky sent the clear order to arrest every congress member, then supposedly declared that "it's better to cede the entire Ukraine to Denikin (White Army) than to allow an expansion of Makhnovism" (quoted by Arshinov in his History of the The Makhnovist Movement).[citation needed] It is questionable that Trotsky would have preferred another White force to a non-aligned peasant army on the Ukrainian front, as the Reds were dealing with White and foreign invasions from all directions. Makhno's answer to the Red assault was to escape with his closest associates. Trotsky's forces were thereafter beaten by Denikin and so forced to withdraw from Ukraine. Makhno reformed his forces and pushed back Denikin's weakened White forces, saving the RIAU. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... Lev Borisovich Kamenev   (Russian: Лев Борисович Каменев, born Rosenfeld, Розенфельд) (July 18 [O.S. July 6] 1883 – August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician. ... Anton Denikin on the day of his resignation in 1920 Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (December 16, 1872 - August 8, 1947) was a Russian army officer before and during... White army may refer to: The military arm of the White movement, a loose coalition of anti-Bolshevik forces in the Russian Civil War The Saudi Arabian National Guard The National Guard of Kuwait This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise...

Makhno's group
Makhno's group

Having become powerful and popular, the Makhnovshchina turned again to the self-organization of the country, and pursued anarchist principles by destroying prisons and guardhouses and by granting freedom of speech, conscience, association, and the press.[citation needed] When nearly half[citation needed] of Makhno's troops were struck by a typhus epidemic, Trotsky resumed hostilities. Image File history File links Makhno_group. ... Image File history File links Makhno_group. ...


There was a new truce between Makhnovist forces and the Red Army in October 1920 when both forces came close to the territories held by Wrangel's White army. The Makhnovshchina still agreed to help the Red Army, but when the Whites were decisively eliminated in the Crimea, the communists turned on Makhno again. Makhno intercepted three messages from Lenin to Christian Rakovsky, the head of the Bolshevik government of Ukraine. Lenin's orders were to arrest all members of Makhno's organization and to try them as common criminals. Baron Wrangel Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel (Пётр Николаевич Врангель) (German: ) (August 15, 1878, Zarasai, Lithuania (then Imperial Russia) — April 25, 1928, Brussels, Belgium), was an officer in the Imperial Russian army and later commanding general of the pro-monarchist White Army in Southern Russia in the later stages of the Russian Civil War. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... Dr. Christian Georgievich Rakovsky (Кристиян Георгиевич Раковски; Кръстьо Раковски - Krastyo Rakovski in Bulgarian or, in Romanian spelling, Cristian Racovschi; August 13 (August 1, Old Style), 1873 - September 11, 1941) was a socialist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and a Soviet diplomat. ...


Exile

In August 1921, an exhausted Makhno was finally driven by the Bolsheviks into exile, fleeing to Romania, then Poland, Danzig, Berlin and finally to Paris. In 1926, joining other Russian exiles in Paris as part of the Group of Russian Anarchists Abroad (Группа Русских Анархистов Заграницей) who produced the monthly journal "Dielo Truda" (Дело Труда, The Сause of Labour), Makhno co-wrote and co-published the Organizational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists (often referred to as the Organizational Platform of the Libertarian Communists), which put forward ideas on how anarchists should organize, based on the experiences of revolutionary Ukraine and the defeat at the hand of the Bolsheviks. The document was initially rejected by many anarchists, but today has a wide following. It remains controversial to this day, continuing to inspire some anarchists because of the clarity and functionality of the structures it proposes, while drawing criticism from others (including, at the time of publication, Volin and Malatesta) who view its implications as too rigid and hierarchical. (See Platformism) Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... From 1925-1928, Dielo Truda (trans: Workers Cause), was an anarchist publication put out by the Group of Russian Anarchists Abroad, as well as the group itself, made up of anarchists exiled from Russia after the Russian Revolution. ... Anarchist Communism, also known as Anarcho-Communism, Communo-Anarchism or Libertarian Communism, is a political ideology related to Libertarian socialism. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... Vsevolod Mikhailovich Eikhenbaum (August 11, 1882 - September 18, 1945), known in later life as Volin (Волин), was a leading Russian anarchist. ... Errico Malatesta Errico Malatesta (December 14, 1853 – July 22, 1932) was an anarchist with an unshakable belief, which he shared with his friend Peter Kropotkin, that the anarchist revolution would occur soon. ... Platformism is a tendency within the wider anarchist movement which shares an affinity with organising in the tradition of Nestor Makhnos Organizational Platform of the Libertarian Communists. ...


At the end of his life Makhno lived in Paris and worked as a carpenter and stage-hand at the Paris Opera and film-studios, as well as at the Renault factory.


Makhno died in Paris in 1934 from tuberculosis. He was cremated three days after his death, with five hundred people attending his funeral at the famous cimetière du Père-Lachaise in Paris. Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Looking down the hill at Père Lachaise. ...


Makhno's widow and daughter, Yelena, were deported to Germany for forced labor at the end of the WW2. After the end of the war they were arrested by the NKVD and taken to Kiev for trial in 1946 and sentenced to eight years of hard labor. They lived in Kazakhstan after their release in 1953. The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


In Popular Culture

Makhno is featured as a fictional character in Michael Moorcock's Jerry Cornelius series of novels. For example, at the outset of The Entropy Tango, Makhno's 'insurgent army' takes over parts of Canada.[2] Michael John Moorcock (born December 18, 1939, in London, England) is a prolific English writer primarily of science fiction and fantasy who has also published a number of literary novels. ... Jerry Cornelius is a fictional secret agent and adventurer created by science fiction / fantasy author Michael Moorcock. ... The Entropy Tango is a novel by British fantasy and science fiction writer Michael Moorcock [1]. It is part of his long running Jerry Cornelius series. ...


Russian anarchist punk-rock band Mongol Shuudan (Монгол Шуудан) draws much of its inspiration from the events and the legend of Makhno's life.[3] Mongol Shuudan (Монгол Шуудан) is a rock band formed in the late Soviet Union, in 1988. ...



A 12-part miniseries was made in Russia about Nestor Makhno called "The 9 Lives of Nestor Makhno".


Russian national patriotic pop group Lyubeh (Любэ) has a song about Makhno called Bat'ka Makhno. Lubeh (Любэ) is a band from Russia, whose music harmoniously combines elements of Western rock and roll, traditional Russian folk music and military bard music. ...


See also

Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Buenaventura Durruti (July 14, 1896 in León—November 20, 1936, Madrid) was a central figure of Spanish anarchism during the period leading up to and during the Spanish Civil War. ... Rummu Jüri (Jüri Rummo; 2 August (21 July) 1856) is the archetypical Estonian folk hero, an outlaw who stole from the rich to give to the poor. ... For other uses, see Emiliano Zapata (disambiguation). ... The Black Guards flag, whit Nestor Makhno. ... Nestor Makhno in 1909 Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (October 27, 1889–July 25, 1934) was an anarchist Ukrainian revolutionary who refused to align with the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution. ... Simon Karetnik, Batko Makhno, and Fedir Shchus (Fedor Shchus). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Further reading

  • Nestor Makhno, The Struggle Against the State & Other Essays (AK Press).
  • Alexandre Skirda, Nestor Makhno—Anarchy's Cossack: The Struggle for Free Soviets in the Ukraine 1917-1921 (AK Press).
  • Peter Arshinov, History of the Makhnovist Movement (1918-1921), 1923.
  • G.A. Kuz'menko's Diary; Makhno's Memoir (ISBN 5-300-00585-1).
  • S.N. Semanov, Nestor Makhno: Vozhak Anarkhistov. Novoye prochteniye po novym materyalam; Nestor Makhno: Anarchist Chieftain. A New Reading Based on New Material (Veche, Moscow, 2005).
  • S.N. Semanov, Makhno. Podlinnaya Istoriya; Makhno. An Authentic History (AST-PRESS | 2001).

AK Press is a collectively owned and operated independent publisher and book distributor that specialises in radical and anarchist literature. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ Gatrell, Peter, Government, Industry, and Rearmament in Russia, 1900-1914, pp. 46-48 on iron and industry.
  2. ^ Benjamin S. Beck (2006). Anarchism and science fiction. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  3. ^ Mongol Shuudan (2005). News Archive, October 2005. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Nestor Makhno
Persondata
NAME Makhno, Nestor
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Махно, Нестор Іванович
SHORT DESCRIPTION Revolutionary, anarchist
DATE OF BIRTH October 26, 1888
PLACE OF BIRTH Hulyai Pole, Ukraine
DATE OF DEATH July 25, 1934
PLACE OF DEATH Paris, France

  Results from FactBites:
 
Berkman: Nestor Makhno (1859 words)
Makhno's fame spread; he became the avenging angel of the lowly, and presently he was looked upon as the great liberator whose coming had been prophesied by Pugatchev in his dying moments.
Makhno, however, assumed the fl flag of the Russian Anarchists as his emblem, and announced a definite program: autonomous communes of free peasants; the negation of all government, and complete self-determination based on the principle of labor.
It is Makhno's custom upon taking a city or town to call the people together and announce to them that henceforth they are free to organize their lives as they think best for themselves.
Makhno, Nestor, 1889-1934 | libcom.org (2789 words)
Nestor Ivanovich Makhno was born on the 27th of October, 1889 in Hulyai Pole, a town in the south east of the Ukraine of about 30,000 people with several factories and schools.
Makhno's most famous activity in exile was his association with, and defence of, the Organisational Platform of the Libertarian Communists (known as the "Platform").
Makhno died on the morning of July 25th and was cremated three days later and his ashes placed in an urn within Père Lachaise, the cemetery of the Paris Commune.
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