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Encyclopedia > Nesebar
Ancient City of Nessebar*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
View of Nesebar's Old Town with the wooden houses, ancient ruins and churches and one of the town's symbols, the wooden windmill (to the left)
State Party Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria
Type Cultural
Criteria iii, iv
Reference 217
Region Europe and North America
Inscription History
Inscription 1983  (7th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Nesebar (Bulgarian: Несебър, Nesebăr, though other transliterations are also used), previously known as Mesembria (Greek: Μεσημβρια, Mesimvria) and before that as Menebria, is an ancient city on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located in Nesebar municipality, Burgas Province. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1632x1224, 573 KB) Nesebar, Bulgaria. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The municipality (obshtina) of Nesebar comprises the northern part of the Black Sea coast of Burgas Province, Bulgaria. ... Burgas Province or oblast (Bulgarian: Област Бургас) is located in southeastern Bulgaria, on the southern Black Sea coast. ...

In modern times, Nesebar is a major tourist attraction in what has become a popular area with several large resorts—the largest, Sunny Beach, is situated immediately to the north of Nesebar. Image File history File links Nesebur_location_in_Bulgaria. ... Sunny Beach (Bulgarian: Слънчев Бряг, Slânchev Bryag) is a town on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located approximately 35 km north of Burgas in Obshtina Nessebar, Burgas Oblast. ...


Nesebar has on several occasions found itself on the frontier of a threatened empire, and as such it is a town with a rich history. The ancient part of the town is situated on a peninsula (previously an island) connected to the mainland by a narrow man-made isthmus, and it bears evidence of occupation by a variety of different civilisations over the course of its existence. Its abundance of historic buildings prompted UNESCO to include Nesebar in its list of World Heritage Sites in 1983. The Isthmus of Panama connects North and South America. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


As of September 2005 Nesebar has a population of 10,194GRBulgaria and the mayor is Nikolay Trifonov. The town lies at 42°39′N, 27°44′E. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

History

Wooden houses on Nesebar's peninsula
Wooden houses on Nesebar's peninsula

Originally a Thracian settlement known as Menebria founded in the 2nd millennium BC, the town became a Greek colony when settled by Dorians from Megara at the beginning of the 6th century BC, and was an important trading centre from then on and a rival of Apollonia (Sozopol). Remains from the Hellenistic period include the acropolis, a temple of Apollo, and an agora. A wall which formed part of the Greek fortifications can still be seen on the north side of the peninsula. Bronze and silver coins were minted in the city since the 5th century BC and gold coins since the 3rd century BC. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1418 KB) Eglise du Christ Pantocrator - Nessebar septembre 2004 Auteur : Gérard Janot - Licence GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Nesebar ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1418 KB) Eglise du Christ Pantocrator - Nessebar septembre 2004 Auteur : Gérard Janot - Licence GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Nesebar ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... Image File history File links Nesebar_-_Church_of_St_John_Aliturgetos. ... Image File history File links Nesebar_-_Church_of_St_John_Aliturgetos. ... Church of St John Aliturgetos (14th century) The Church of St Ioan Aliturgetos in Nessebar, Bulgaria is a cruciform dome church with three altar apses and a narthex. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1334 KB) (Eglise Saint-Jean Baptiste - Nessebar septembre 2004) Auteur : Gérard Janot - Licence GFDL File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nesebar Burgas Province Church of... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1334 KB) (Eglise Saint-Jean Baptiste - Nessebar septembre 2004) Auteur : Gérard Janot - Licence GFDL File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nesebar Burgas Province Church of... Church of St John the Baptist (11th century) The Church of St John the Baptist in Nessebar, Bulgaria is a domed cruciform church, built of undressed stone. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 3165 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nesebar Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 3165 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nesebar Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ... [[Im Category: ... Megara (Greek: Μέγαρα (Big Houses); see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient city in Attica, Greece. ... Sozopol (Bulgarian: Созопол, Greek: Σωζοπολης) is a small, ancient town located 30 km south of Burgas, Bulgaria. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Acropolis of Athens from the south-west with the Propylaea and the Temple of Nike (left centre) and the theatre of Herodes Atticus (below left) Acropolis (Gr. ... Lycian Apollo, early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth century Greek original (Louvre Museum) In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (Ancient Greek , Apóllōn; or , Apellōn), the ideal of the kouros (a beardless youth), was the archer-god of medicine and healing, light, truth, archery and also a... Stoa of the ancient agora de Thessaloniki An agora (αγορά), translatable as marketplace, was a public space and an essential part of an ancient Greek polis or city-state. ...


The town fell under Roman rule in 71 BC, yet continued to enjoy privileges such as the right to mint its own coinage. It was one of the most important strongholds of the Byzantine Empire from the 5th century AD onwards, and was fought over by Byzantines and Bulgarians, being captured in 812 by Khan Krum after a two week siege only to be ceded back to Byzantium by Knyaz Boris I in 864 and reconquered by his son Tsar Simeon the Great. During the time of the Second Bulgarian Empire it was also contested by Bulgarian and Byzantine forces and enjoyed particular prosperity under Bulgarian tsar Ivan Alexander (1331-1371) until it was conquered by Crusaders led by Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy in 1366 and handed back to Byzantium. The Slavic version of the name, Nesebar or Mesebar, has been attested since the 11th century. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Krum (died April 13, 814) was a Khan of Bulgaria, of the Dulo clan, from 802 to 814. ... Boris I Michail or Boris I Michael (Bulgarian Борис I Михаил, known also as Bogoris)(died May 2, 907) was the khan from 852 to 889 and first Christian ruler of Bulgaria. ... Simeon (also Symeon)[1] I the Great (Bulgarian: , transliterated Simeon I Veliki;[2] IPA: ) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,[3] during the First Bulgarian Empire. ... The Second Bulgarian Empire was a medieval Bulgarian state which existed between 1185 and 1396 (or 1422). ... Ivan Alexander (Bulgarian: , transliterated Ivan Aleksandǎr;[1] IPA: ), also known as John Alexander,[2] ruled as Emperor (Tsar) of Bulgaria from 1331 to 1371,[3] during the Second Bulgarian Empire. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Amadeus VI (January 4, 1334 - March 1, 1383), surnamed the Green Count was Count of Savoy from 1343 to 1383. ...


Monuments from the Middle Ages include the 5-6th century Stara Mitropoliya ("old bishopric"; also St Sophia), a basilica without a transept; the 10th century church of the Virgin; and the 11th century Nova Mitropoliya ("new bishopric"; also St Stephen) which continued to be embellished until the 18th century. In the 13th and 14th century a remarkable series of churches were built: St Theodore, St Paraskeva, St Michael and St Gabriel, and St John Aliturgetos. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Hagia Sophia or Saint Sophia ( or Αγία Σοφία in Greek, Sancta Sophia in Latin, Ayasofya in Turkish) can refer to: The Holy Wisdom of God especially in Eastern Orthodoxy: Hagia Sophia, the Church of the Holy Wisdom in Istanbul, Turkey (formerly Constantinople), now a museum Hagia Sophia, Trabzon, a former church and... St. ... Cathedral ground plan. ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ... Saint Stephen, the first Christian martyr, was one of the first seven deacons chosen by the early church, according to the Acts of the Apostles (vi. ... Saint Theodore can refer to a person, place, church, or school Theodore the Studite - a Christian monk born in Constantinople Saint-Théodore-dActon - Is a small parish (type of municipality), inside Acton Regional County Municipality, Quebec, Canada Category: Disambiguation ... Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Sta. ... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod. ...


The capture of the town by the Turks from the Byzantine Empire in 1453 marked the start of its decline, but its architectural heritage remained and was enriched in the 19th century by the construction of wooden houses in the Eastern Rumelian style typical for the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast during this period. After the Liberation of Bulgaria from Ottoman rule in 1878, Nesebar became part of the autonomous Ottoman province of Eastern Rumelia until it united with the Principality of Bulgaria in 1886. Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Proposed flag of Eastern Rumelia. ... The Bulgarian Black Sea Coast covers the whole eastern border of Bulgaria. ... In Bulgarian historiography, the term Liberation of Bulgaria is used to denote the events of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 that led to the establishment of a Bulgarian state with the Treaty of San Stefano of 3 March 1878. ... A map of the Principality of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia before the Unification. ...


Around the end of the 19th century Nesebar was a small town of greek fishermen and vinegrowers, but developed as a key Bulgarian seaside resort since the beginning of the 20th century. After the departure of the greeks in 1925 a new town part was built and the historic Old Town was restored.


Churches

Nesebar is sometimes said to be the town with the highest number of churches per capita.[1], [2] Although this might be wrong, their number and variety is still impressive. Some of the most famous include:

Whether built during the Byzantine, Bulgarian or Ottoman rule of the city, the churches of Nesebar represent the rich architectural heritage of the Eastern Orthodox world and illustrate the gradual development from Early Christian basilicas to medieval cross-domed churches. The Old Bishopric The Old Mitropolia is a three naved unvaulted basilica with a total length 19 m and width 13 m. ... Church of St John the Baptist (11th century) The Church of St John the Baptist in Nessebar, Bulgaria is a domed cruciform church, built of undressed stone. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Church of St Paraskeva in Nessebar, Bulgaria is an one-nave basilica with a characteristic nartex and altar apse. ... Wall of the church The Church of Archangels Michail and Gavrail in Nesebar, Bulgaria is a one nave church with a narthex. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... Church of St John Aliturgetos (14th century) The Church of St Ioan Aliturgetos in Nessebar, Bulgaria is a cruciform dome church with three altar apses and a narthex. ...

A panoramic view of the ancient part of Nesebar, seen from across the bay into which the city's peninsula protrudes
A panoramic view of the ancient part of Nesebar, seen from across the bay into which the city's peninsula protrudes

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1792x212, 41 KB)The ancient part of Nessebar, Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1792x212, 41 KB)The ancient part of Nessebar, Bulgaria. ...

Gallery

References

The International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) was founded in 1965 as a result of the Venice Charter of 1964 and offers advice to UNESCO on World Heritage Sites. ... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Nesebar


Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ...

edit Municipalities of Burgas Province Flag of Bulgaria

Aitos | Burgas | Kameno | Karnobat | Malko Tarnovo | Nesebar | Pomorie | Primorsko | Ruen | Sozopol | Sredets | Sungurlare | Tsarevo Burgas Province or oblast (Bulgarian: Област Бургас) is located in southeastern Bulgaria, on the southern Black Sea coast. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Ancient Rocks, Aitos Crafts Alley, Aitos Aitos municipality is located in the eastern part of the Republic of Bulgaria and belongs to the administrative boundaries of Burgas county. ... Burgas (also transliterated as Bourgas; Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. ... Karnobat, a city in the Bourgaska State, Karnobat Municipality of Bulgaria. ... Malko Tarnovo (Малко Търново; Little Tarnovo, as opposed to Veliko Tarnovo) is a town in southeastern Bulgaria 5 km from the Turkish border, part of Burgas Province. ... Coin of Roman Emperor Caracalla minted in Anchialos (Pomorie) Pomorie (Bulgarian: ; formerly known as Anchialos in Greek, Anchialus in Latin, Tuthom in Bulgar and Анхиало, Anhialo, a Bulgarianized Greek form) is a town in southeastern Bulgaria, located on a narrow rocky peninsula in Burgas Bay on the southern Bulgarian Black Sea... Primorsko (Приморско) is a town in southeastern Bulgaria, part of Burgas Province. ... Sozopol (Bulgarian: Созопол, Greek: Σωζοπολης) is a small, ancient town located 30 km south of Burgas, Bulgaria. ... Sredets (Bulgarian: ) is a town in southeastern Bulgaria, part of Burgas Province. ... A view over Tsarevo Tsarevo (formerly Vassiliko and Michurin) is a resort and fishing town on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, situated on three small coves 72 km southeast of Bourgas, at the eastern foot of the Strandzha Mountain. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nesebar - Travel Guide (440 words)
The Byzantines used Nesebar as a base from which to assail the First Bulgarian Kingdom during the eighth century, provoking Khan Krum to seize it in 812.
Nesebar passed from Byzantine to Bulgarian ownership several times throughout the Middle Ages, and was one of the last outposts remaining in the hands of the beleaguered Byzantine Empire in its dying days, but it continued to thrive regardless.
Nowadays Nesebar depends on tourism, its fishing fleet unable to employ enough of the 7000 inhabitants, of whom about 3000 live on the peninsula, the remainder on the mainland.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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