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Encyclopedia > Nero
Nero
Emperor of the Roman Empire

Nero at Glyptothek, Munich
Reign October 13, 54June 9, 68
(Proconsul from 51)
Full name Nero Claudius Caesar
Augustus Germanicus
Born December 15, 37(37-12-15)
Birthplace Antium
Died June 9, 68 (aged 30)
Place of death Rome
Predecessor Claudius
Successor Galba
Wives Claudia Octavia
Poppaea Sabina
Statilia Messalina
Issue Claudia Augusta
Dynasty Julio-Claudian
Father Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus
Mother Agrippina the Younger

Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37June 9, 68),[1] born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Caesar Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great uncle Claudius to become heir to the throne. As Nero Claudius Caesar, he succeeded to the throne on October 13, 54, following Claudius' death. Nero can refer to the following: Nero, a Roman emperor. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 440 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1604 × 2183 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Glyptothek is a museum in Munich, Germany, which was commissioned by the Bavarian King Ludwig I to house his collection of Greek and Roman sculptures (hence Glypto-, from the Greek root glyphein, to carve). ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 54. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 1st century BCE - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 63 64 65 66 67 - 68 - 69 70 71 72 73 Events June 9 - Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide. ... For the Miocene ape, see Proconsul (genus) Under the Roman Empire a proconsul was a promagistrate filling the office of a consul. ... This article is about the year 51. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 16 BC or 15 BC–October 10, 19). ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 37. ... // Anzio is a city and resort on the coast of the Lazio region of Italy, about 33 miles south of Rome. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 1st century BCE - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 63 64 65 66 67 - 68 - 69 70 71 72 73 Events June 9 - Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... Octavia was the name of three women of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty of ancient Rome: two were sisters of Augustus Caesar, and the younger was the daughter of Claudius and wife of Nero. ... Poppaea Poppaea Sabina (died 65) was the second wife of the Roman Emperor Nero. ... Statilia Messalina (?), third wife of Nero Statilia Messalina (c. ... Claudia Augusta was the only daughter of the Roman Emperor Nero by his second wife Poppaea Sabina. ... Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... Bust of Gn. ... Julia Agrippina; known as Agrippina Minor (Latin for the ‘younger’, Classical Latin: IVLIA•AGRIPPINA; from the year 50, called IVLIA•AVGVSTA•AGRIPPINA[1], Greek: η Ιουλία Αγριππίνη, November 6, 15 - between 19 March-23 March 59), was a Roman Empress. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 37. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 1st century BCE - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 63 64 65 66 67 - 68 - 69 70 71 72 73 Events June 9 - Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 54. ...


Nero ruled from 54 to 68, focusing much of his attention on diplomacy, trade, and increasing the cultural capital of the empire. He ordered the building of theatres and promoted athletic games. His reign included a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire (58–63), the suppression of the British revolt (60–61) and improving relations with Greece. In 68 a military coup drove Nero into hiding. Facing execution, he reportedly committed forced suicide.[2] Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... Boudicca (BOW-dicca [as in bow-and-arrow], mispronnounced by many as [bÅ«-dÄ­kÉ™]; her name means Victorous [Modern Gaelic Buaidheach]) (also written Boudica, Boadicea, Buduica, Bonduca) (d. ... Forced suicide is a method of execution where the victim is given the choice of committing suicide or facing an alternative they perceive as worse, such as suffering torture; having friends or family members imprisoned, tortured or killed; or losing honor, position or means. ...


Nero's rule is often associated with tyranny and extravagance.[3] He is known for a number of executions, including his mother[4] and adoptive brother, as the emperor who "fiddled while Rome burned"[5] and an early persecutor of Christians. This view is based upon the main surviving sources for Nero's reign—Tacitus, Suetonius and Cassius Dio. Few surviving sources paint Nero in a favorable light.[6] Some sources, though, portray him as an emperor who was popular with the Roman people, especially in the East.[7] This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ...


The study of Nero is problematic as some modern historians question the reliability of ancient sources when reporting on Nero's alleged tyrannical acts.[8] It may be impossible to completely separate fact from fiction concerning Nero's reign.

Contents

Early life

Roman imperial dynasties
Julio-Claudian dynasty
Augustus
Children
   Natural - Julia the Elder
   Adoptive - Gaius Caesar, Lucius Caesar, Agrippa Postumus, Tiberius
Tiberius
Children
   Natural - Julius Caesar Drusus
   Adoptive - Germanicus
Caligula
Children
   Natural - Julia Drusilla
   Adoptive - Tiberius Gemellus
Claudius
Children
   Natural - Claudia Antonia, Claudia Octavia, Britannicus
   Adoptive - Nero
Nero
Children
   Natural - Claudia Augusta

Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... For other Roman women named Julia Caesaris, see Julia Caesaris. ... Gaius Julius Caesar Vipsanianus (20 BC - AD 4), most commonly known as Gaius Caesar, was the oldest son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ... Lucius Julius Caesar (17 BC-2 AD), most commonly known as Lucius Caesar, was the second son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Postumus, (12 BC-14 AD) also known as Agrippa Postumus or Postumus Agrippa, was a son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... Nero Claudius Drusus, later Drusus Julius Caesar (his adoptive name) (13 BC-September 14, 23), was the only child of Roman Emperor Tiberius and his first wife, Vipsania Agrippina. ... Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 16 BC or 15 BC–October 10, 19). ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... For the identically named daughter of Germanicus, see Drusilla (sister of Caligula). ... Tiberius Gemellus, son of Drusus the Younger and Livilla Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero , known as Tiberius Gemellus, (10 October AD 19–AD 37 or 38) was the son of Drusus and Livilla, the grandson of Tiberius, and the cousin of Gaius Caligula. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Antonia (30–66 AD) was Claudius only child from his second marriage to Aelia Paetina. ... Octavia was the name of three women of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty of ancient Rome: two were sisters of Augustus Caesar, and the younger was the daughter of Claudius and wife of Nero. ... Britannicus (41 - 55 A.D.) was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Messalina. ... Claudia Augusta was the only daughter of the Roman Emperor Nero by his second wife Poppaea Sabina. ...

Family

Nero was born with the name Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus on December 15, AD 37, in Antium, near Rome.[9][10] He was the only son of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Agrippina the Younger, sister of emperor Caligula. is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 37. ... Anzio (2003 pop. ... Bust of Gn. ... Julia Agrippina; known as Agrippina Minor (Latin for the ‘younger’, Classical Latin: IVLIA•AGRIPPINA; from the year 50, called IVLIA•AVGVSTA•AGRIPPINA[1], Greek: η Ιουλία Αγριππίνη, November 6, 15 - between 19 March-23 March 59), was a Roman Empress. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ...


Lucius' father was the grandson of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Aemilia Lepida through their son Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus. Gnaeus was a grandson to Mark Antony and Octavia Minor through their daughter Antonia Major. Through Octavia, he was the grand-nephew of Caesar Augustus. Nero's father had been employed as a praetor and was a member of Caligula's staff when the future-emperor traveled to the East.[11] Nero's father was described by Suetonius as a murderer and a cheat who was charged by emperor Tiberius with treason, adultery, and incest.[11] Tiberius died allowing him to escape these charges.[11] Gnaeus died of edema (or "dropsy") in 39 when Lucius was three.[11] Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, a member of the noble Ahenobarbus family, accompanied his father at Corfinium and Pharsalus, and, having been pardoned by Julius Caesar, returned to Rome in 46 BC. After Caesars assassination he attached himself to Marcus Junius Brutus and Cassius, and in 43 BC was condemned by... Aemilia Lepida is the name of Roman women belonging to the gens Aemilia. ... Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus was the only child of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 32 BC) and Aemilia Lepida. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Octavia Minor (69 - 11 BC), also known as Octavia the Younger or simply Octavia, was the sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus, and half sister of Octavia Thurina Major. ... Julia Antonia Cretica Major (Latin for “the elder”) (b. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... This page is about the condition called edema. ... Events Roman Empire Tigellinus, minister and favorite of the later Roman emperor Nero, is banished for adultery with Caligulas sisters. ...


Lucius' mother was Agrippina the Younger, who was great-granddaughter to Caesar Augustus and his wife Scribonia through their daughter Julia the Elder and her husband Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. Agrippina's father, Germanicus, was grandson to Augustus's wife, Livia, on one side and to Mark Antony and Octavia on the other. Germanicus' mother Antonia Minor, was a daughter of Octavia Minor and Mark Antony. Octavia was Augustus' second elder sister. Germanicus was also the adoptive son of Tiberius. A number of ancient historians accuse Agrippina of murdering her third husband, emperor Claudius.[12] For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Scribonia (68 BC-16) was the daughter of Lucius Scribonius Libo and Cornelia Sulla, the granddaughter of Pompey the Great and Lucius Cornelius Sulla. ... For other Roman women named Julia Caesaris, see Julia Caesaris. ... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c. ... Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 16 BC or 15 BC–October 10, 19). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Livia Drusilla, after 14 AD called Livia Augusta (Classical Latin: LIVIA•DRVSILLA, later LIVIA•AVGVSTA[1]) (58 BC-AD 29) was the wife of Caesar Augustus (also known as Octavian) and the most powerful woman in the early Roman Empire, acting several times as regent and being Augustus faithful advisor. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Julia Antonia Cretica Minor (the younger) (31 January 36 BC - September/October 37 AD) or Antonia the Younger or simply known as Antonia. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ...


Physical appearance

In the book "The Lives of the Twelve Caesars" Roman historian Suetonius described Nero's appearance as follows: "He was about the average height, his body marked with spots and malodorous, his hair light blond, his features regular rather than attractive, his eyes blue and somewhat weak, his neck over thick, his belly prominent, and his legs very slender."[3] Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ...


Rise to power

Lucius was not expected ever to become emperor. His maternal uncle, Caligula, had begun his reign at the age of twenty-four with ample time to produce his own heir. Lucius' mother, Agrippina, lost favor with Caligula and was exiled in 39 after her husband's death.[13] Caligula seized Lucius's inheritance and sent him to be raised by his less wealthy aunt, Domitia Lepida.[10] This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Events Roman Empire Tigellinus, minister and favorite of the later Roman emperor Nero, is banished for adultery with Caligulas sisters. ... Bust of Domitia Lepida (?), mother of Messalina Domitia Lepida (PIR2 D 180), sometimes known simply as Lepida (c. ...


Caligula produced no heir. He, his wife Caesonia and their infant daughter Julia Drusilla were murdered in 41.[14] These events led Claudius, Caligula's uncle, to become emperor.[15] Claudius allowed Agrippina to return from exile.[10] Milonia Caesonia (PIR2 M 590) (6-41) was a Roman Empress. ... For the identically named daughter of Germanicus, see Drusilla (sister of Caligula). ... Events January 24 - Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar (Caligula), known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ...

Coin issued under Claudius celebrating young Nero as the future emperor, c. 50
Coin issued under Claudius celebrating young Nero as the future emperor, c. 50

Claudius had married twice before marrying Messalina.[16] His previous marriages produced three children including a son, Drusus, who died at a young age.[17] He had two children with Messalina - Claudia Octavia (b. 40) and Britannicus (b. 41).[17] Messalina was executed by Claudius in 48.[16] In 49, Claudius married a fourth time, to Agrippina.[17] To aid Claudius politically, Lucius was officially adopted in 50 and renamed Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus (see adoption in Rome).[18] Nero was older than his stepbrother, Britannicus, and became heir to the throne.[19] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Valeria Messalina (PIR1 V 161) , sometimes spelled Messallina ( 20-48) was a Roman Empress and third wife to Roman Emperor Claudius. ... Octavia was the name of three women of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty of ancient Rome: two were sisters of Augustus Caesar, and the younger was the daughter of Claudius and wife of Nero. ... Events Roman Empire Caligula embarks on a campaign to conquer Britain, and fails miserably. ... Britannicus (41 - 55 A.D.) was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Messalina. ... Events January 24 - Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar (Caligula), known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. ... Events Rome Roman Emperor Claudius invests Agrippa II with the office of superintendent of the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Events Rome Emperor Claudius marries his niece Agrippina the younger (approximate date). ... This article is about the year 50. ... Possibly the most famous Roman adoptee, Augustus Caesar In ancient Rome, adoption of boys was a fairly common procedure, particularly in the upper senatorial class. ...


Nero was proclaimed an adult in 51 at the age of fourteen.[20] He was appointed proconsul, entered and first addressed the Senate, made joint public appearances with Claudius, and was featured in coinage.[20] In 53, he married his stepsister Claudia Octavia.[21] This article is about the year 51. ... For the Miocene ape, see Proconsul (genus) Under the Roman Empire a proconsul was a promagistrate filling the office of a consul. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... This article is about the year 53. ... Octavia was the name of three women of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty of ancient Rome: two were sisters of Augustus Caesar, and the younger was the daughter of Claudius and wife of Nero. ...


Emperor

Early rule

Aureus of Nero and his mother, Agrippina, c. 54.
Aureus of Nero and his mother, Agrippina, c. 54.

Claudius died in 54 and Nero was established as emperor. Though accounts vary greatly, many ancient historians claim Agrippina poisoned Claudius.[12] It is not known how much Nero knew or was involved with the death of Claudius.[22] Aureus minted in 193 by Septimius Severus to celebrate XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix, the legion that proclamed him emperor. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year 54. ... Julia Agrippina; known as Agrippina Minor (Latin for the ‘younger’, Classical Latin: IVLIA•AGRIPPINA; from the year 50, called IVLIA•AVGVSTA•AGRIPPINA[1], Greek: η Ιουλία Αγριππίνη, November 6, 15 - between 19 March-23 March 59), was a Roman Empress. ...


Nero became emperor at sixteen, the youngest Emperor up until that time.[23] Ancient historians describe Nero's early reign as being strongly influenced by his mother Agrippina, his tutor Lucius Annaeus Seneca, and the Praetorian Prefect Sextus Afranius Burrus, especially in the first year.[24] The first few years of Nero's rule were known as examples of fine administration. The matters of the Empire were handled effectively and the Senate enjoyed a period of renewed influence in state affairs.[25] Julia Agrippina; known as Agrippina Minor (Latin for the ‘younger’, Classical Latin: IVLIA•AGRIPPINA; from the year 50, called IVLIA•AVGVSTA•AGRIPPINA[1], Greek: η Ιουλία Αγριππίνη, November 6, 15 - between 19 March-23 March 59), was a Roman Empress. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Sextus Afranius Burrus , Pretorian Prefect, was Neros tutor and later advisor. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...


Very early in Nero's rule, problems arose from competition for influence between Agrippina and Nero's two advisers, Seneca and Burrus. In 54, Agrippina tried to sit down next to Nero while he met with an Armenian envoy, but Seneca stopped her and prevented a scandalous scene.[25] Nero's personal friends also mistrusted Agrippina and told Nero to beware of his mother.[26] Nero was reportedly unsatisfied with his marriage to Octavia and entered an affair with Claudia Acte, a former slave.[27] In 55, Agrippina attempted to intervene in favor of Octavia and demanded that her son dismiss Acte. Nero, with the support of Seneca, resisted the intervention of his mother in his personal affairs.[28] This article is about the year 54. ... Octavia was the name of three women of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty of ancient Rome: two were sisters of Augustus Caesar, and the younger was the daughter of Claudius and wife of Nero. ... Claudia Acte was a freedwoman of ancient Rome who was the mistress of the emperor Nero. ... This article is about the year 55. ...


With Agrippina's influence over her son severed, she reportedly turned to a younger candidate for the throne.[29] Nearly fifteen-year-old Britannicus was still legally a minor, but was approaching legal adulthood.[29] According to Tacitus, Agrippina hoped that with her support, Britannicus, being the blood son of Claudius, would be seen as the true heir to the throne by the state over Nero.[29] However, the youth died suddenly and suspiciously on February 12, 55, the very day before his proclamation as an adult had been set.[30] Nero claimed that Britannicus died from an epileptic seizure, but ancient historians all claim Britannicus' death came from Nero's poisoning him.[31] After the death of Britannicus, Agrippina was accused of slandering Octavia and Nero ordered her out of the imperial residence.[32] is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 55. ...


Matricide and consolidation of power

Coin of Nero and Poppaea Sabina
Coin of Nero and Poppaea Sabina

Over time, Nero became progressively more powerful, freeing himself of his advisers and eliminating rivals to the throne. In 55, he removed Marcus Antonius Pallas, an ally of Agrippina, from his position in the treasury.[28] Pallas, along with Burrus, was accused of conspiring against the emperor to bring Faustus Sulla to the throne.[33] Seneca was accused of having relations with Agrippina and embezzlement.[34] Seneca was able to get himself, Pallas and Burrus acquitted.[34] According to Cassius Dio, at this time, Seneca and Burrus reduced their role in governing from careful management to mere moderation of Nero.[35] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the year 55. ... Marcus Antonius Pallas (c. ... Sextus Afranius Burrus, Pretorian Prefect, was Neros tutor and later advisor. ... Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix (22–62) was one of the lesser known figures of the Julio-Claudian dynasty of ancient Rome. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ...


In 58, Nero became romantically involved with Poppaea Sabina, the wife of his friend and future emperor Otho.[36] Reportedly because a marriage to Poppaea and a divorce from Octavia did not seem politically feasible with Agrippina alive, Nero ordered the murder of his mother in 59.[37] A number of modern historians find this an unlikely motive as Nero did not marry Poppaea until 62.[38] Additionally, according to Suetonius, Poppaea did not divorce her husband until after Agrippina's death, making it unlikely that the already married Poppaea would be pressing Nero for marriage.[39] Some modern historians theorize that Nero's execution of Agrippina was prompted by her plotting to set Rubellius Plautus on the throne.[40] According to Suetonius, Nero tried to kill his mother through a planned shipwreck, but when she survived, he had her executed and framed it as a suicide.[41] The incident is also recorded by Tacitus [42] Events The Ficus Ruminales begins to die (see Rumina) Start of Yongping era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Poppaea Poppaea Sabina (died 65) was the second wife of the Roman Emperor Nero. ... Emperor Otho. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 57 58 59 60 61 - 62 - 63 64 65 66 67 Events A great earthquake damages cities in Calabria including Pompeii. ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... Gaius Rubellius Plautus (33–62 AD), through his mother Claudia Julia, was a relative to the Julio-Claudian dynasty. ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ...

The Remorse of Nero after Killing his Mother, by John William Waterhouse, 1878.
The Remorse of Nero after Killing his Mother, by John William Waterhouse, 1878.

In 62 Nero's adviser, Burrus, died.[43] Additionally, Seneca was again faced with embezzlement charges.[44] Seneca asked Nero for permission to retire from public affairs.[45] Nero divorced and banished Octavia on grounds of infertility, leaving him free to marry the pregnant Poppaea.[46] After public protests, Nero was forced to allow Octavia to return from exile,[46] but she was executed shortly upon her return.[47] Image File history File links Remorse_of_Nero. ... Image File history File links Remorse_of_Nero. ... John William Waterhouse. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 57 58 59 60 61 - 62 - 63 64 65 66 67 Events A great earthquake damages cities in Calabria including Pompeii. ... Sextus Afranius Burrus, Pretorian Prefect, was Neros tutor and later advisor. ... Octavia was the name of three women of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty of ancient Rome: two were sisters of Augustus Caesar, and the younger was the daughter of Claudius and wife of Nero. ...


Accusations of treason against Nero and the Senate first appeared in 62.[48] The Senate ruled that Antistius, a praetor, should be put to death for speaking ill of Nero at a party. Later, Nero ordered the exile of Fabricius Veiento who slandered the Senate in a book.[49] Tacitus writes that the roots of the conspiracy led by Gaius Calpurnius Piso began in this year. To consolidate power, Nero executed a number of people in 62 and 63 including his rivals Pallas, Rubellius Plautus and Faustus Sulla.[50] According to Suetonius, Nero "showed neither discrimination nor moderation in putting to death whomsoever he pleased" during this period.[51] Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 57 58 59 60 61 - 62 - 63 64 65 66 67 Events A great earthquake damages cities in Calabria including Pompeii. ... Gauis Calpunicus Piso was a Roman senator in the 1st century. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 57 58 59 60 61 - 62 - 63 64 65 66 67 Events A great earthquake damages cities in Calabria including Pompeii. ... [edit] Events [edit] By place [edit] Roman Empire Vespasian becomes governor of Africa Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo was restored to command after the Roman debacle at the Battle of Rhandeia, he invaded Armenia and defeated Tiridates II, who accepted Roman sovereignty, Parthia withdrew from the war. ... Marcus Antonius Pallas (c. ... Gaius Rubellius Plautus (33–62 AD), through his mother Claudia Julia, was a relative to the Julio-Claudian dynasty. ... Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix (22–62) was one of the lesser known figures of the Julio-Claudian dynasty of ancient Rome. ...


Nero's consolidation of power also included a slow usurping of authority from the Senate. In 54, Nero promised to give the Senate powers equivalent to those under Republican rule.[52] By 65, senators complained that they had no power left and this led to the Pisonian conspiracy.[53] This article is about the year 54. ... Headline text Events By place Roman Empire Gaius Calpurnius Piso conspires against Roman emperor Nero. ... The conspiracy of Gaius Calpurnius Piso (65 CE) represented one of the major turning points in the reign of Nero (54-68 CE). ...


War and peace with Parthia

For more details on this topic, see Roman-Parthian War of 58–63.

Shortly after Nero's accession to the throne in 55, the Roman vassal kingdom of Armenia overthrew their prince Rhadamistus and he was replaced with the Parthian prince Tiridates.[54] This was seen as a Parthian invasion of Roman territory.[54] There was concern in Rome over how the young emperor would handle the situation.[55] Nero reacted by immediately sending the military to the region under the command of Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo.[56] The Parthians temporarily relinquished control of Armenia to Rome.[57] This article is about the year 55. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Not to be confused with Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia . ... Rhadamistus (also known as Ghadam or Radamisto) was an Iberian prince who reigned in Armenia from 51 to 53 and 54 to 55 CE. Considered to be an usurper and tyrant, he was overthrown in a rebellion supported by Parthia. ... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... Tiridates, was the youngest brother of the Parthian king Vologases I., who with interruptions from 53 to 68 or 72 was king of Armenia and founder of the Armenian line of the Arsacid Dynasty known as the Arshakuni Dynasty in Armenia. ... Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo (around AD 7 - AD 67) was a Roman general. ...


The peace did not last and full-scale war broke out in 58. The Parthian king Vologases I refused to remove his brother Tiridates from Armenia.[58] The Parthians began a full-scale invasion of the Armenian kingdom.[36] Commander Corbulo responded and repelled most of the Parthian army that same year.[59] Tiridates retreated and Rome again controlled most of Armenia.[59] Events The Ficus Ruminales begins to die (see Rumina) Start of Yongping era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Vologases I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire (a forerunner of todays Iran) from about 51 to 78. ... Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo (around AD 7 - AD 67) was a Roman general. ...


Nero was acclaimed in public for this initial victory.[60] Tigranes, a Cappadocian noble raised in Rome, was installed by Nero as the new ruler of Armenia.[61] Corbulo was appointed governor of Syria as a reward.[61] Tigranes VI was the King of Armenia from 58 to 63. ...

The Parthian Empire c. 60. Nero's peace deal with Parthia was a political victory at home and made him beloved in the east.
The Parthian Empire c. 60. Nero's peace deal with Parthia was a political victory at home and made him beloved in the east.

In 62, Tigranes invaded the Parthian province of Adiabene.[62] Again, Rome and Parthia were at war and this continued until 63. Parthia began building up for a strike against the Roman province of Syria.[63] Corbulo tried to convince Nero to continue the war, but Nero opted for a peace deal instead.[64] There was anxiety in Rome about eastern grain supplies and a budget deficit.[65] Image File history File links The location of ancient Parthia, an Iranian kingdom, c. ... Image File history File links The location of ancient Parthia, an Iranian kingdom, c. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 57 58 59 60 61 - 62 - 63 64 65 66 67 Events A great earthquake damages cities in Calabria including Pompeii. ... Map showing kingdoms of Corduene and Adiabene in the first centuries CE. The blue line shows the expedition and then retreat of the Ten Thousand through Corduene in 401 BC. Adiabene (from the Greek: , Adiabene, itself derived from Aramaic , or )[1] was an ancient Kurdish semi-independent kingdom in Mesopotamia... [edit] Events [edit] By place [edit] Roman Empire Vespasian becomes governor of Africa Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo was restored to command after the Roman debacle at the Battle of Rhandeia, he invaded Armenia and defeated Tiridates II, who accepted Roman sovereignty, Parthia withdrew from the war. ...


The result was a deal where Tiridates again became the Armenian king, but was crowned in Rome by emperor Nero.[63] In the future, the king of Armenia was to be a Parthian prince, but his appointment required approval from the Romans. Tiridates was forced to come to Rome and partake in ceremonies meant to display Roman dominance.[66] The Roman people were said to be overjoyed by lives saved through this peace deal.[66] Armenian king Tigranes the Great. ...


This peace deal of 63 was a considerable victory for Nero politically.[67] Nero became very popular in the eastern provinces of Rome and with the Parthians as well.[67] The peace between Parthia and Rome lasted 50 years until emperor Trajan of Rome invaded Armenia in 114. [edit] Events [edit] By place [edit] Roman Empire Vespasian becomes governor of Africa Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo was restored to command after the Roman debacle at the Battle of Rhandeia, he invaded Armenia and defeated Tiridates II, who accepted Roman sovereignty, Parthia withdrew from the war. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Events First year of Yuanchu era of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty. ...


Administrative policies

Marble bust of Nero, Antiquarium of the Palatine.
Marble bust of Nero, Antiquarium of the Palatine.

Over the course of his reign, Nero often made rulings that pleased the lower class. Nero was criticised as being obsessed with being popular.[68] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 447 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1715 × 2300 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 447 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1715 × 2300 pixel, file size: 2. ...


Nero began his reign in 54 by promising the Senate more autonomy.[52] In this first year, he forbade others to refer to him with regard to enactments, for which he was praised by the Senate.[69] Nero was known for being hands-off and spending his time visiting brothels and taverns during this period.[69] This article is about the year 54. ...


In 55, Nero began taking on a more active role as an administrator. He was consul four times between 55 and 60. During this period, some ancient historians speak fairly well of Nero and contrast it with his later rule.[70] This article is about the year 55. ... This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... This article is about the year 55. ... Events Boudicca sacks London (approximate date). ...


Under Nero, restrictions were put on the amount of bail and fines.[71] Also, fees for lawyers were limited.[72] There was a discussion in the Senate on the misconduct of the freedmen class, and a strong demand was made that patrons should have the right of revoking freedom.[73] Nero supported the freedmen and ruled that patrons had no such right.[74] The Senate tried to pass a law in which the crimes of one slave applied to all slaves within a household. Nero vetoed the measure.[75]


Nero transferred collection authority to lower commissioners of competency.[71] Nero banned any magistrate or procurator from exhibiting public entertainment for fear that the venue was being used as a method to sway the populace.[76] Additionally, there were many impeachments and removals of government officials along with arrests for extortion and corruption.[77]


Nero’s actions attempted to the help the poor’s economic situation. When further complaints arose that the poor were being overly taxed, Nero attempted to repeal all indirect taxes.[78] The Senate convinced him this action would be too extreme.[78] As a compromise, taxes were cut from 4.5% to 2.5%.[79] Additionally, secret government tax records were ordered to become public.[79] To lower the cost of food imports, merchant ships were declared tax-exempt.[79]


Nero was an avid lover of arts and entertainment. Nero built a number of gymnasiums and theaters and had performers dress in Greek clothing.[80] Enormous gladiatorial shows were held.[81] Nero also established the quinquennial Neronia.[81][80] The festival included games, poetry and theater. Historians indicate that there was a belief that theater was for the lower-class and led to immorality and laziness.[80] Others looked down upon Greek influence.[82] Some questioned the large public expenditure on entertainment.[82] The quinquennial Neronia was a massive Greek-style festival created by Nero. ...


In 63, fiscal crises began to emerge. The Parthian War and a lost shipment of grain threatened to increase the price of food in Rome.[83] Nero reassigned management of public funds, urged fiscal responsibility and gave a private donation to the treasury.[83] He then opted for a peace deal with the Parthians.[84] In 64, Rome burned.[66] Nero enacted a public relief effort[66] as well as reconstruction.[85] The provinces, where wealthy land-owners lived, were heavily taxed following the fire.[86] [edit] Events [edit] By place [edit] Roman Empire Vespasian becomes governor of Africa Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo was restored to command after the Roman debacle at the Battle of Rhandeia, he invaded Armenia and defeated Tiridates II, who accepted Roman sovereignty, Parthia withdrew from the war. ... According to the historian Tacitus, the Great Fire of Rome started on the night of 18 July in the year 64, among the shops clustered around the Circus Maximus. ...


A number of major construction projects occurred in Nero's late reign. To prevent malaria, Nero had the marshes of Ostia filled with rubble from the fire.[85] He erected the large Domus Aurea.[87] In 67 , Nero attempted to have a canal dug at the Isthmus of Corinth.[88] These projects and others exacerbated the drain on the State's budget.[89] The Domus Aurea (Latin for Golden House) was a large landscaped portico villa, designed to take advantage of artificially created landscapes, rather than a monumental palace,[1] built in the heart of Ancient Rome by the Roman emperor Nero after Great fire of Rome, which devastated Rome in 64 AD... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 62 63 64 65 66 - 67 - 68 69 70 71 72 Events Linus succeeds Saint Peter as pope. ... The Isthmus of Corinth is the narrow landbridge which connects the Peloponnesos peninsula with the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth. ...


Major rebellions and power struggles

Plaster bust of Nero, Pushkin Museum, Moscow.
Plaster bust of Nero, Pushkin Museum, Moscow.

Rome was relatively peaceful under Nero's reign. The war with Parthia was Nero's only major war and he was both criticized and praised for an aversion to battle.[90] Like many emperors, Nero faced a number of internal rebellions and power struggles. Ivan Vladimirovich Tsvetaev (1847-1913) The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts (Russian: Музей изобразительных искусств им. А.С. Пушкина) is the largest museum of European art in Moscow, located in the Volkhonka street, just opposite the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...

British Revolt (Boudica's Uprising)

In 60, a major rebellion broke out in the province of Britannia.[91] While the governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus and his troops were busy capturing Mona Island (Anglesey Island) from druids, the tribes of the south-east staged a revolt led by queen Boudica of the Iceni.[92] Boudica and her troops destroyed three cities before the army of Suetonius Paulinus was able to return, be reinforced and put down the rebellion in 61.[93] Fearing Suetonius Paulinus would provoke further rebellion, Nero replaced the governor with the more passive Publius Petronius Turpilianus.[94] Events Boudicca sacks London (approximate date). ... For other uses, see Britannia (disambiguation). ... Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, also spelled Paullinus, (flourished 1st century CE) was a Roman general. ... A sculpture depicting Boudica, the warrior queen of the Iceni who led the revolt against the Romans in AD 61, and her daughters, commissioned by Prince Albert and executed by Thomas Thornycroft, stands near Westminster Pier, London Boudica (also spelt Boudicca, formerly better known as Boadicea) (d. ... The Iceni or Eceni were a Brythonic tribe who inhabited an area of Britain corresponding roughly to the modern-day county of Norfolk between the 1st century BC and 1st century AD. The Cenimagni, who surrendered to Julius Caesar during his second expedition to Britain in 54 BC, may have... This article is about the year 61. ... Publius Petronius Turpilianus was a Roman politician and general. ...

The Pisonian Conspiracy
Main article: Pisonian conspiracy

In 65, Gaius Calpurnius Piso, a Roman statesman, organized a conspiracy against Nero with the help of Subrius Flavus, a praetorian tribune, and Sulpicius Asper, a centurion.[95] According to Tacitus, many conspirators wished to "rescue the State" from the emperor and restore the Republic.[96] The freedman Milichus discovered the conspiracy and reported it to Nero's secretary, Epaphroditos.[97] As a result, the conspiracy failed and its members were executed including Nero's former friend Lucan, the poet.[98] Nero's previous advisor, Seneca was ordered to commit suicide after admitting he discussed the plot with the conspirators.[99] The conspiracy of Gaius Calpurnius Piso (65 CE) represented one of the major turning points in the reign of Nero (54-68 CE). ... Headline text Events By place Roman Empire Gaius Calpurnius Piso conspires against Roman emperor Nero. ... Gauis Calpunicus Piso was a Roman senator in the 1st century. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... Epaphroditos was the scribe of Nero, who reportedly assisted in his suicide on June 9, 68. ... Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, AD 39-April 30, 65), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, and is one of the outstanding figures of the Silver Latin period. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ...

Jewish Revolt (The First Jewish-Roman War)

In 66, there was a Jewish revolt in Judea stemming from Greek and Jewish religious tension.[100] In 67, Nero dispatched Vespasian to restore order.[101] This revolt was eventually put down in 70, after Nero's death.[102] This revolt is famous for Romans breaching the walls of Jerusalem and destroying the Second Temple of Jerusalem.[103] This article is about the year 66. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) Jewish-Roman wars First War – Kitos War – Bar Kokhba revolt The first... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 62 63 64 65 66 - 67 - 68 69 70 71 72 Events Linus succeeds Saint Peter as pope. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... This article is about the year 70. ... The Jerusalem Temple (Hebrew: beit ha-mikdash) was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ...

Vindex's Rebellion

In late 67 or early 68, Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis in Gaul, rebelled against the tax policies of Nero.[104] Virginius Rufus, the governor of superior Germany, was sent to put down the rebellion.[105] To gain support, Vindex alled on Galba, the governor of Hispania Citerior in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, comprising modern Spain and Portugal), to become emperor.[106] Virginius Rufus defeated Vindex's forces and Vindex committed suicide.[105] Galba was declared a public enemy and his legion was confined in the city of Clunia.[106] Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 62 63 64 65 66 - 67 - 68 69 70 71 72 Events Linus succeeds Saint Peter as pope. ... Centuries: 1st century BCE - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 63 64 65 66 67 - 68 - 69 70 71 72 73 Events June 9 - Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide. ... Gaius Julius Vindex was a Roman governor in the province of Gallia Lugdunensis (modern Brittany, Normandy and the area around Paris) who rebelled against the Emperor Nero in 67 AD. Although he was defeated and killed by the loyal general Lucius Verginius Rufus in 68, Vindex rebellion was the start... The Roman Empire ca. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Lucius Virginius Rufus (15-97 CE), was a Roman patriot and soldier, three times consul (A.D. 63, 69, 97), born near Comum, the birthplace of the two Plinys. ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... During the Roman Republic, Hispania Citerior was a region of Hispania roughly located in the northeastern coast and in the Ebro valley of modern Spain. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...

The Rise of Galba

Nero had regained the control of the empire militarily, but this opportunity was used by his enemies in Rome. By June of 68 the senate voted Galba the emperor[107] and declared Nero a public enemy.[108] The Praetorian Guard was bribed to betray Nero by the praetorian prefect, Nymphidius Sabinus, who desired to become emperor himself.[109] The praetorian guard captured Nero and he reportedly committed suicide.[108] Centuries: 1st century BCE - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 63 64 65 66 67 - 68 - 69 70 71 72 73 Events June 9 - Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide. ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... Nymphidius Sabinus (d. ... Forced suicide is a method of execution where the victim is given the choice of committing suicide or facing an alternative they perceive as worse, such as suffering torture; having friends or family members imprisoned, tortured or killed; or losing honor, position or means. ...


After Nero's death, Rome descended into a period civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors.[110] Nero's successors fought among themselves for power. Galba, Otho and Vitellius were each briefly emperor until Nero's general Vespasian returned from Judea and restored order as emperor. The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, 69, in which four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession. ... Emperor Otho. ... Aulus Vitellius (September 24, 15 – December 22, 69), also called Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus, was Roman Emperor from April 17, 69 to December 22 of the same year, one of the emperors in the Year of the Four Emperors (the others being Galba, Otho, and Vespasian). ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ...


Great Fire of Rome

Main article: Great Fire of Rome

The Great Fire of Rome erupted on the night of July 18 to July 19, 64. The fire started at the southeastern end of the Circus Maximus in shops selling flammable goods.[111] According to the historian Tacitus, the Great Fire of Rome started on the night of 18 July in the year 64, among the shops clustered around the Circus Maximus. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... July 18 - Great fire of Rome: A fire began to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burned completely out of control while Emperor Nero allegedly played his lyre and sang while watching the blaze from a safe distance, although there is no hard evidence to support this...

Ancient graffiti portrait of Nero found at the Domus Tiberiana.
Ancient graffiti portrait of Nero found at the Domus Tiberiana.

The extent of the fire is uncertain. According to Tacitus, who was nine at the time of the fire, it spread quickly and burned for five days.[112] It completely destroyed four of fourteen Roman districts and severely damaged seven.[112] The only other historian who lived through the period and mentioned the fire is Pliny the Elder who wrote about it in passing.[113] Other historians who lived through the period (including Josephus, Dio Chrysostom, Plutarch, and Epictetus) make no mention of it. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (877 × 1319 pixel, file size: 241 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Scetch by user Hoshidoshi of Nero graffiti. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (877 × 1319 pixel, file size: 241 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Scetch by user Hoshidoshi of Nero graffiti. ... For other uses, see Graffiti (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Dio Chrysostom, Dion of Prusa or Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Epictetus (Greek: Επίκτητος; ca. ...


It is uncertain who or what actually caused the fire—whether accident or arson.[111] Suetonius and Cassius Dio favor Nero as the arsonist.[114] Tacitus mentions that Christians confessed to the crime, but it is not known whether these were confessions induced by torture.[115] However, accidentally started fires were common in ancient Rome.[116] In fact, Rome burned significantly again under Vitellius in 69[110] and under Titus in 80.[117] The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ...


It was said by Suetonius and Cassius Dio that Nero sang the "Sack of Ilium" in stage costume while the city burned.[118] Popular legend claims that Nero played the fiddle at the time of the fire, an anachronism based merely on the concept of the lyre, a stringed instrument associated with Nero and his performances. (There were no fiddles in 1st-century Rome.) However, Tacitus' account has Nero in Antium at the time of the fire.[119] Tacitus also said that Nero playing his lyre and singing while the city burned was only rumor.[119] Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... The Iliou persis (English: Sack of Ilion; Greek: Ἰλίου πέρσις; also known as Iliupersis, esp. ... “Fiddler” redirects here. ... “Lyres” redirects here. ...


According to Tacitus, upon hearing news of the fire, Nero rushed back to Rome to organize a relief effort, which he paid for from his own funds.[119] After the fire, Nero opened his palaces to provide shelter for the homeless, and arranged for food supplies to be delivered in order to prevent starvation among the survivors.[119] In the wake of the fire, he made a new urban development plan. Houses after the fire were spaced out, built in brick, and faced by porticos on wide roads.[120] Nero also built a new palace complex known as the Domus Aurea in an area cleared by the fire. This included lush artificial landscapes and a 30 meter statue of himself, the Colossus of Nero.[87] The size of this complex is debated (from 100 to 300 acres).[121][122][123] To find the necessary funds for the reconstruction, tributes were imposed on the provinces of the empire.[124] The Domus Aurea (Latin for Golden House) was a large landscaped portico villa, designed to take advantage of artificially created landscapes, rather than a monumental palace,[1] built in the heart of Ancient Rome by the Roman emperor Nero after Great fire of Rome, which devastated Rome in 64 AD... The Emperor Nero had a colossal statue of himself erected in the vestibule of the Domus Aurea. ...


According to Tacitus, the population searched for a scapegoat and rumors held Nero responsible.[115] To diffuse blame, Nero targeted a sect called the Christians.[115] He ordered Christians to be thrown to dogs, while others were crucified and burned.[115] This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ...


Tacitus described the event: For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ...

Consequently, to get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus, and a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judaea, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their centre and become popular. Accordingly, an arrest was first made of all who pleaded guilty; then, upon their information, an immense multitude was convicted, not so much of the crime of firing the city, as of hatred against mankind. Mockery of every sort was added to their deaths. Covered with the skins of beasts, they were torn by dogs and perished, or were nailed to crosses, or were doomed to the flames and burnt, to serve as a nightly illumination, when daylight had expired.[115]

Public performances

Nero coin, c. 66. Ara Pacis on the reverse.
Nero coin, c. 66. Ara Pacis on the reverse.

Nero enjoyed driving a one-horse chariot, singing to the harp and poetry.[125] He even composed songs that were performed by other entertainers throughout the empire.[126] At first, Nero only performed for a private audience.[127] Nero Æ As. ... Nero Æ As. ... Ara Pacis:Detail of the processional frieze showing members of the Julio-Claudian family (north face) The Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin, Altar of Majestic Peace; commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar to Peace, envisioned as a Roman goddess. ...


In 64, Nero began singing in public in Neapolis in order to improve his popularity.[127] He also sang at the second quinquennial Neronia in 65.[128] It was said that Nero craved the attention,[129] but historians also write that Nero was encouraged to sing and perform in public by the Senate, his inner circle and the people.[130] Ancient historians strongly criticize his choice to perform, calling it shameful.[131] July 18 - Great fire of Rome: A fire began to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burned completely out of control while Emperor Nero allegedly played his lyre and sang while watching the blaze from a safe distance, although there is no hard evidence to support this... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... The quinquennial Neronia was a massive Greek-style festival created by Nero. ... Headline text Events By place Roman Empire Gaius Calpurnius Piso conspires against Roman emperor Nero. ...


Nero was convinced to participate in the Olympic Games of 67 in order to improve relations with Greece and display Roman dominance.[132] As a competitor, Nero raced a ten-horse chariot and nearly died after being thrown from it.[133] He also performed as an actor and a singer.[134] Though Nero faltered in his racing (in one case, dropping out entirely before the end) and acting competitions,[133] he won these crowns nevertheless and paraded them when he returned to Rome.[133] The victories are attributed to Nero bribing the judges and his status as emperor.[135] Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia The Ancient Olympic Games, originally referred to as simply the Olympic Games (Greek: ; Olympiakoi Agones) were a series of athletic competitions held between various city-states of Ancient Greece. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 62 63 64 65 66 - 67 - 68 69 70 71 72 Events Linus succeeds Saint Peter as pope. ...


Death

In late 67 or early 68, Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis in Gaul, rebelled against the tax policies of Nero.[104] Virginius Rufus, the governor of superior Germany was sent to put down the rebellion.[105] To gain support, Vindex called on Galba, the governor of Hispania Citerior in Hispania, to become emperor.[106] Virginius Rufus defeated Vindex's forces and Vindex committed suicide.[105] Galba was declared a public enemy and his legion was confined in the city of Clunia.[106] The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, 69, in which four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession. ... Locus Castorum was a village that existed in the 1st century Roman Empire roughly 12 miles from Cremonia. ... The Battle of Bedriacum refers to two battles fought during the Year of the four emperors (69) near the village of Bedriacum (now Calvatone), about twenty miles from the town of Cremona in northern Italy. ... who sleeps in the bed room across from me? ... Xanten (IPA: ) is a town in the North Rhine-Westphalia state of Germany, located in the district of Wesel. ... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 62 63 64 65 66 - 67 - 68 69 70 71 72 Events Linus succeeds Saint Peter as pope. ... Centuries: 1st century BCE - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 63 64 65 66 67 - 68 - 69 70 71 72 73 Events June 9 - Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide. ... Gaius Julius Vindex was a Roman governor in the province of Gallia Lugdunensis (modern Brittany, Normandy and the area around Paris) who rebelled against the Emperor Nero in 67 AD. Although he was defeated and killed by the loyal general Lucius Verginius Rufus in 68, Vindex rebellion was the start... The Roman Empire ca. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Lucius Virginius Rufus (15-97 CE), was a Roman patriot and soldier, three times consul (A.D. 63, 69, 97), born near Comum, the birthplace of the two Plinys. ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... During the Roman Republic, Hispania Citerior was a region of Hispania roughly located in the northeastern coast and in the Ebro valley of modern Spain. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ...


Nero had regained the control of the empire militarily, but this opportunity was used by his enemies in Rome. By June of 68 the Senate voted Galba the emperor[107] and declared Nero a public enemy.[108] The Praetorian Guard was bribed to betray Nero by the praetorian prefect, Nymphidius Sabinus, who desired to become emperor himself.[109] Centuries: 1st century BCE - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 63 64 65 66 67 - 68 - 69 70 71 72 73 Events June 9 - Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... Nymphidius Sabinus (d. ...


According to Suetonius, Nero fled Rome on the Salaria road.[136] They urged him to flee, but he prepared himself for suicide.[108] Reportedly, the praetorian guard entered to capture Nero just as he stabbed himself with the help of his secretary, Epaphroditos.[137] Upon seeing the figure of a Roman soldier, he gasped, "This is fidelity."[108] It was said by Cassius Dio that he uttered the last words "Jupiter, what an artist perishes in me!"[138] Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... Forced suicide is a method of execution where the victim is given the choice of committing suicide or facing an alternative they perceive as worse, such as suffering torture; having friends or family members imprisoned, tortured or killed; or losing honor, position or means. ... Epaphroditos was the scribe of Nero, who reportedly assisted in his suicide on June 9, 68. ...


With his death, the Julio-Claudian dynasty came to an end. Chaos ensued in the Year of the Four Emperors.[110] Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, 69, in which four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession. ...


After death

See also: Nero Redivivus Legend and Pseudo-Nero

According to Suetonius and Cassius Dio, the people of Rome celebrated the death of Nero.[139][140] Tacitus, though, describes a more complicated political environment. Tacitus mentions that Nero's death was welcomed by Senators, nobility and the upper-class.[141] The lower-class, slaves, frequenters of the arena and the theater, and "those who were supported by the famous excesses of Nero", on the other hand, were upset with the news.[141] Members of the military were said to have mixed feelings, as they had allegiance to Nero, but were bribed to overthrow him.[109] Nero Redivivus Legend is a popular belief during the last half of the first century that Nero would return after his death in 68 AD. The legend was a common belief as late as the fifth century. ... After the emperor Nero commited suicide near the villa of his freedman Phaon in June of 68 AD, various Nero impostors sprang up between the autumn of 69 AD to the reign of the emperor Domitian. ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ...


Eastern sources, namely Philostratus II and Apollonius of Tyana, mention that Nero's death was mourned as he "restored the liberties of Hellas with a wisdom and moderation quite alien to his character"[142] and that he "held our liberties in his hand and respected them."[143] Apollonius of Tyana (Greek: ; 16—ca. ...


Modern scholarship generally holds that, while the Senate and more well-off individuals welcomed Nero's death, the general populace was "loyal to the end and beyond, for Otho and Vitellius both thought it worthwhile to appeal to their nostalgia."[144]


Nero's name was erased from some monuments, in what Edward Champlin regards as "outburst of private zeal".[145] Many portraits of Nero were reworked to represent other figures; according to Eric R. Varner, over fifty such images survive.[146] This reworking of images is often explained as part of the way in which the memory of disgraced emperors was condemned posthumously (see damnatio memoriae).[146] Champlin, however, doubts that the practice is necessarily negative and notes that some continued to create images of Nero long after his death.[147] Tondo of the Severan family, with portraits of Septimius Severus, Julia Domna, Caracalla, and Geta. ...

Apotheosis of Nero, c. after 68. Artwork portraying Nero rising to divine status after his death.
Apotheosis of Nero, c. after 68. Artwork portraying Nero rising to divine status after his death.

The civil war during the Year of the Four Emperors was described by ancient historians as a troubling period.[110] According to Tacitus, this instability was rooted in the fact that emperors could no longer rely on the perceived legitimacy of the imperial bloodline, as Nero and those before him could.[141] Galba began his short reign with the execution of many allies of Nero and possible future enemies.[148] One notable enemy included Nymphidius Sabinus, who claimed to be the son of emperor Caligula.[149] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 457 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (654 × 858 pixel, file size: 416 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Description: Unknown artist, Apotheosis of Nero, after C.E. 68, from the Bibliotheque Municipale de Nancy, France. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 457 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (654 × 858 pixel, file size: 416 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Description: Unknown artist, Apotheosis of Nero, after C.E. 68, from the Bibliotheque Municipale de Nancy, France. ... The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, 69, in which four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession. ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... Nymphidius Sabinus (d. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ...


Otho overthrew Galba. Otho was said to be liked by many soldiers because he resembled Nero.[150] It was said that the common Roman hailed Otho as Nero himself.[151] Otho used "Nero" as a surname and reerected many statues to Nero.[151] Vitellius overthrew Otho. Vitellius began his reign with a large funeral for Nero complete with songs written by Nero.[152] Emperor Otho. ... Aulus Vitellius (September 24, 15 – December 22, 69), also called Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus, was Roman Emperor from April 17, 69 to December 22 of the same year, one of the emperors in the Year of the Four Emperors (the others being Galba, Otho, and Vespasian). ...


After Nero's suicide in 68, there was a widespread belief, especially in the eastern provinces, that he was not dead and somehow would return.[153] This belief came to be known as the Nero Redivivus Legend. Nero Redivivus Legend is a popular belief during the last half of the first century that Nero would return after his death in 68 AD. The legend was a common belief as late as the fifth century. ...


At least three Nero imposters emerged leading rebellions. The first, who sang and played the cithara or lyre and whose face was similar to that of the dead emperor, appeared in 69 during the reign of Vitellius.[154] After persuading some to recognize him, he was captured and executed.[154] Sometime during the reign of Titus (79-81) there was another impostor who appeared in Asia and also sang to the accompaniment of the lyre and looked like Nero but he, too, was killed.[155] Twenty years after Nero's death, during the reign of Domitian, there was a third pretender. Supported by the Parthians, they hardly could be persuaded to give him up[156] and the matter almost came to war.[110] After the emperor Nero commited suicide near the villa of his freedman Phaon in June of 68 AD, various Nero impostors appeared between the autumn of 69 AD and the reign of the emperor Domitian. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ...


The legend of Nero's return lasted for hundreds of years after Nero's death. Augustine of Hippo wrote of the legend as a popular belief in 422[157] Augustinus redirects here. ...


Historiography

The history of Nero’s reign is problematic in that no historical sources survived that were contemporary with Nero. These first histories at one time did exist and were described as biased and fantastical, either overly critical or praising of Nero.[158] The original sources were also said to contradict on a number of events.[159] Nonetheless, these lost primary sources were the basis of surviving secondary and tertiary histories on Nero written by the next generations of historians.[160] A few of the contemporary historians are known by name. Fabius Rusticus, Cluvius Rufus and Pliny the Elder all wrote condemning histories on Nero that are now lost.[161] There were also pro-Nero histories, but it is unknown who wrote them or on what deeds Nero was praised.[162] Fabius Rusticus was a Roman historian who was quoted on several occasions by Tacitus. ... Cluvius Rufus was a Roman senator, governor and historian who was mentioned on several occasions by Tacitus, Suetonius, Josephus and Plutarch. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...


The bulk of what is known of Nero comes from Tacitus, Suetonius and Cassius Dio, who were all of the Patrician class. Tacitus and Suetonius wrote their histories on Nero over fifty years after his death, while Cassius Dio wrote his history over 150 years after Nero’s death. These sources contradict on a number of events in Nero’s life including the death of Claudius, the death of Agrippina and the Roman fire of 64, but they are consistent in their condemnation of Nero. For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Julia Agrippina; known as Agrippina Minor (Latin for the ‘younger’, Classical Latin: IVLIA•AGRIPPINA; from the year 50, called IVLIA•AVGVSTA•AGRIPPINA[1], Greek: η Ιουλία Αγριππίνη, November 6, 15 - between 19 March-23 March 59), was a Roman Empress. ... July 18 - Great fire of Rome: A fire began to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burned completely out of control while Emperor Nero allegedly played his lyre and sang while watching the blaze from a safe distance, although there is no hard evidence to support this...


A handful of other sources also add a limited and varying perspective on Nero. Few surviving sources paint Nero in a favorable light. Some sources, though, portray him as a competent emperor who was popular with the Roman people, especially in the east.

Cassius Dio Cocceianus

Cassius Dio (c. 155- 229) was the son of Cassius Apronianus, a Roman senator. He passed the greater part of his life in public service. He was a senator under Commodus and governor of Smyrna after the death of Septimius Severus; and afterwards suffect consul around 205, as also proconsul in Africa and Pannonia. Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... Events Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius starts a new war against the Parthians Pope Anicetus succeeds Pope Pius I First year of Yongshou era of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Dio Cassius, Roman historian Cao Cao, future ruler of the Kingdom of Wei Deaths July 11 - Pope Pius I Saint Polycarp... Events Foundation of Jiankang (Nanjing) Sun Quan formally declares himself Emperor of Wu Births Deaths Dio Cassius (approximate date) Categories: 229 ... Cassius Apronianus or Apronianus (died 180) was a Roman who lived in the 2nd century. ... Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus (August 31, 161 – December 31, 192) was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 180 to 192 (also with Marcus Aurelius from 177 until 180). ... Lucius Septimius Severus (or rarely Severus I) (b. ... Events Births Plotinus, according to his student Porphyry. ...


Books 61–63 of Dio's Roman History describe the reign of Nero. Only fragments of these books remain and what does remain was abridged and altered by John Xiphilinus, an 11th century monk. Joannes Xiphilinus, epitomator of Dio Cassius, lived at Constantinople during the latter half of the 11th century AD. He was a monk and the nephew of Patriarch John VIII of Constatinople, a well-known preacher (Migne, Patrologia Graeca, cxx. ...

Dio Chrysostom

Dio Chrysostom (c. 40120), a Greek philosopher and historian, wrote the Roman people were very happy with Nero and would have allowed him to rule indefinitely. They longed for his rule once he was gone and embraced imposters when they appeared: Dio Chrysostom, Dion of Prusa or Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... Events Roman Empire Caligula embarks on a campaign to conquer Britain, and fails miserably. ... For other uses, see number 120. ...

Indeed the truth about this has not come out even yet; for so far as the rest of his subjects were concerned, there was nothing to prevent his continuing to be Emperor for all time, seeing that even now everybody wishes he were still alive. And the great majority do believe that he still is, although in a certain sense he has died not once but often along with those who had been firmly convinced that he was still alive.[163]
Epictetus

Epictetus (c. 55- 135) was the slave to Nero's scribe Epaphroditos. He makes a few passing negative comments on Nero's character in his work, but makes no remarks on the nature of his rule. He describes Nero as a spoiled, angry and unhappy man. Epictetus (Greek: Επίκτητος; ca. ... This article is about the year 55. ... For other uses, see number 135. ... Epaphroditos was the scribe of Nero, who reportedly assisted in his suicide on June 9, 68. ...

Josephus
The historian Josephus (c. 37-100) accused other historians of slandering Nero.
The historian Josephus (c. 37-100) accused other historians of slandering Nero.

The historian Josephus (c. 37- 100), while calling Nero a tyrant, was also the first to mention bias against Nero. Of other historians, he said: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (717x1000, 1128 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Josephus Nero Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (717x1000, 1128 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Josephus Nero Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... This article is about the year 37. ... Pliny the Younger advances to consulship. ...

But I omit any further discourse about these affairs; for there have been a great many who have composed the history of Nero; some of which have departed from the truth of facts out of favor, as having received benefits from him; while others, out of hatred to him, and the great ill-will which they bare him, have so impudently raved against him with their lies, that they justly deserve to be condemned. Nor do I wonder at such as have told lies of Nero, since they have not in their writings preserved the truth of history as to those facts that were earlier than his time, even when the actors could have no way incurred their hatred, since those writers lived a long time after them.[164]
Marcus Annaeus Lucanus

Though more of a poet than historian, Lucanus (c. 39- 65) has one of the kindest accounts of Nero's rule. He writes of peace and prosperity under Nero in contrast to previous war and strife. Ironically, he was later involved in a conspiracy to overthrow Nero and was executed.[165] Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, AD 39-April 30, 65), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, and is one of the outstanding figures of the Silver Latin period. ... Events Roman Empire Tigellinus, minister and favorite of the later Roman emperor Nero, is banished for adultery with Caligulas sisters. ... Headline text Events By place Roman Empire Gaius Calpurnius Piso conspires against Roman emperor Nero. ...

Philostratus

Philostratus II "the Athenian" (c. 172- 250) spoke of Nero in the Life of Apollonius Tyana (Books 4–5). Though he has a generally a bad or dim view of Nero, he speaks of others' positive reception of Nero in the East. Philostratus, was the name of several, three (or four), Greek sophists of the Roman imperial period: Philostratus the Athenian (c. ... Events Last (5th) year of Jianning era and start of Xiping era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Events Diophantus writes Arithmetica the first systematic treatise on algebra. ... Life of Apollonius Tyana is the story of Apollonius of Tyana (170-247 CE), a sophist teacher of the school of Pythagoras, written by Philostratus. ...

Pliny the Elder

The history of Nero by Pliny the Elder (c. 24- 79) did not survive. Still, there are several references to Nero in Pliny's Natural Histories. Pliny has one of the worst opinions of Nero and calls him an "enemy of mankind."[166] Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the year 79. ...

Plutarch

Plutarch (c. 46- 127) mentions Nero indirectly in his account of the Life of Galba and the Life of Otho. Nero is portrayed as a tyrant, but those that replace him are not described as better. Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Events Rome The settlement at Celje gets municipal rights and is named municipium Claudia Celeia. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 127 ...

Seneca the Younger

It is not surprising that Seneca (c. 4 BC- 65), Nero's teacher and advisor, writes very well of Nero.[167] Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 Events Archelaus becomes... Headline text Events By place Roman Empire Gaius Calpurnius Piso conspires against Roman emperor Nero. ...

Suetonius Tranquillus

Suetonius (c. 69- 130) was a member of the equestrian order and head of the department of the imperial correspondence. Removed by Hadrianus in 121, he started writing biographies of the emperors, accentuating the anecdotal and sensational aspects. The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... For other uses, see 69 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see number 130. ...


Portions of his biography of Nero appear sensational and modern scholarship questions the full accuracy of his writings. For example:

He castrated the boy Sporus and actually tried to make a woman of him; and he married him with all the usual ceremonies, including a dowry and a bridal veil, took him to his home attended by a great throng, and treated him as his wife. And the witty jest that someone made is still current, that it would have been well for the world if Nero's father Domitius had that kind of wife. This Sporus, decked out with the finery of the empresses and riding in a litter, he took with him to the courts and marts of Greece, and later at Rome through the Street of the Images, fondly kissing him from time to time.[168]
Tacitus Publius Cornelius
Main article: Annals (Tacitus)

The Annals by Tacitus (c. 56- 117) is the most detailed and comprehesive history on the rule of Nero, despite being incomplete after the year 66. He is unkind to Nero, but unlike other historians, he minimizes the use of sensational stories. Tacitus described the rule of the Julio-Claudian emperors as generally unjust. He also thought that existing writing on them was unbalanced: The Annals, or, in Latin, Annales, is a history book by Tacitus covering the reign of the 4 Roman Emperors succeeding to Caesar Augustus. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... // Events By place Roman Empire War between Rome and Parthia broke out due to the invasion of Armenia by Vologases, who replaced the Roman supported ruler with his brother Tiridates of Parthia Publius Clodius Thrasea Paetus becomes a consul in Rome. ... This article is about the year 117. ... This article is about the year 66. ...

The histories of Tiberius, Caius, Claudius, and Nero, while they were in power, were falsified through terror, and after their death were written under the irritation of a recent hatred.[169]

Tacitus was the son of a procurator, who married into the elite family of Agricola. He entered his political life as a senator after Nero's death and, by Tacitus' own admission, owed much to Nero's rivals. Realizing that this bias may be apparent to others, Tacitus protests that his writing is true.[170] A procurator is the incumbent of any of several current and historical political or legal offices. ...


Nero and religion

Jewish tradition

At the end of 66, conflict broke out between Greeks and Jews in Jerusalem and Caesarea. According to a Jewish tradition in the Talmud (tractate Gitin 56a-b) [4], Nero came to Jerusalem and told his men to shoot arrows in all four directions. All the arrows landed in the city. He then asked a passing child to repeat the verse he had learned that day. "I will lay my vengeance upon Edom by the hand of my people Israel," (Ez. 25,14) said the child. Nero became terrified, realizing that God wanted the Temple in Jerusalem to be destroyed, but would punish him if it were. Nero said, "He desires to lay waste his House and to lay the blame on me." Nero fled to Rome and converted to Judaism to avoid such retribution. Vespasian was then dispatched to put down the rebellion. The Talmud adds that the sage Reb Meir Baal HaNess, a prominent supporter of Bar Kokhba's rebellion against Roman rule, is a descendant of Nero. The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... The lost key [The story from Middle East] One night a neighbor strolling by Nasrudins house found him outside under th street lamp brushing through the dust. ... Nashim (Women) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... Ezekiel, , IPA: , God will strengthen, from , chazaq, [ xazaq ], literally to fasten upon, figuratively strong, and , el, [ el ], literally strength, figuratively Almighty. He is a prophet and priest in the Bible who prophesied for 22 years sometime in the 500s BCE while in the form of visions exiled in... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew:  ; The Holy House), refers to a series of structures located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... Rabbi Meir or Reb Meir Baal Ha-Nes (lit. ... Simon bar Kokhba was a Jewish military leader who led a revolt against the Romans in AD 132. ...


Christian tradition

A Christian Dirce, by Henryk Siemiradzki. A Christian woman is martyred in this re-enactment of the myth of Dirce.
A Christian Dirce, by Henryk Siemiradzki. A Christian woman is martyred in this re-enactment of the myth of Dirce.

Early Christian tradition often holds Nero as the first persecuter of Christians and as the killer of Apostles Peter and Paul. There was also a belief among some early Christians that Nero was the Antichrist. Image File history File links Dirce. ... Image File history File links Dirce. ... Pochodnie Nerona Henryk Siemiradzki (1843-1902) was a Polish painter. ... Dirce (double or cleft) was the wife of Lycus in Greek mythology, and sister in law to Antiope whom Zeus impregnated. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the world. ... St Peter redirects here. ... St. ... In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist or anti-Christ means a person, office, or group recognized as fulfilling the Biblical prophecies about one who will oppose Christ and substitute himself in Christs place. ...

First Persecutor

The non-Christian historian Tacitus describes Nero extensively torturing and executing Christians after the fire of 64.[115] Suetonius also mentions Nero punishing Christians, though he does so as a praise and does not connect it with the fire.[171] For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... July 18 - Great fire of Rome: A fire began to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burned completely out of control while Emperor Nero allegedly played his lyre and sang while watching the blaze from a safe distance, although there is no hard evidence to support this... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ...


The Christian writer Tertullian (c. 155- 230) was the first to call Nero the first persecutor of Christians. He wrote Examine your records. There you will find that Nero was the first that persecuted this doctrine.[172] Lactantius (c. 240- 320) also said Nero first persecuted the servants of God[173] as does Sulpicius Severus.[174] However, some sources speak of earlier Christian persecution, namely Claudius' expulsion of Christians from Rome.[175] Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (c. ... Saint Sulpicius Severus (born around 360, died between 420 and 425), wrote the earliest biography of Saint Martin of Tours. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ...

Killer of Peter and Paul

The first text to suggest that Nero killed an apostle is the apocryphal Ascension of Isaiah, a Christian writing from the 2nd century. It says the slayer of his mother, who himself this king, will persecute the plant which the Twelve Apostles of the Beloved have planted. Of the Twelve one will be delivered into his hands.[176] The book Ascension of Isaiah is one of the Pseudepigrapha,[1] dating from the 2nd century AD and compiled by an unknown Christian scholar. ...


The Bishop Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 275- 339) was the first to write that Paul was beheaded in Rome during the reign of Nero.[177] He states that Nero's persecution led to Peter and Paul's deaths, but that Nero did not give any specific orders. Several other accounts have Paul surviving his two years in Rome and traveling to Hispania.[178] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... Caesarea is the name of several Roman cities and towns, including: Caesarea Antiochia, properly Antioch in Pisidia, near modern Yalvaç, Turkey Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, modern Kayseri, Turkey Caesarea Palaestina: modern Caesarea, in Israel Caesarea Philippi in the Golan Heights Iol Caesarea: modern Cherchell, in Algeria Caesarea Magna or Caesara... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ...


Peter is first said to have been crucified upside down in Rome during Nero's reign (but not by Nero) in the apocryphal Acts of Peter (c. 200).[179] The account ends with Paul still alive and Nero abiding by God's command not to persecute any more Christians. In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ... One of the earliest of the apocryphal acts of the apostles, the Acts of Peter is one of the books in the New Testament Apocrypha. ...


By the 4th century, a number of writers were stating that Nero killed Peter and Paul.[180]

The Antichrist
Main article: The Beast (Bible)
Main article: Number of the Beast

The Ascension of Isaiah is the first text to suggest that Nero was the Antichrist. It claims a lawless king, the slayer of his mother,...will come and there will come with him all the powers of this world, and they will hearken unto him in all that he desires.[176] Beast. ... -1... The book Ascension of Isaiah is one of the Pseudepigrapha,[1] dating from the 2nd century AD and compiled by an unknown Christian scholar. ... In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist or anti-Christ means a person, office, or group recognized as fulfilling the Biblical prophecies about one who will oppose Christ and substitute himself in Christs place. ...


The Sibylline Oracles, Book 5 and 8, written in the 2nd century, speaks of Nero returning and bringing destruction.[181] Within Christian communities, these writings, along with others,[182] fueled the belief that Nero would return as the Antichrist. In 310, Lactantius wrote that Nero suddenly disappeared, and even the burial-place of that noxious wild beast was nowhere to be seen. This has led some persons of extravagant imagination to suppose that, having been conveyed to a distant region, he is still reserved alive; and to him they apply the Sibylline verses.[173] The surviving Sibylline Oracles are not the famous Sibylline Books of Roman history, which were lost not once, but twice, and thus there is very little knowledge of the actual contents. ... Events While Constantine was campaigning against the Bructeri, Maximian attempted to make himself emperor at Arles. ... Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (c. ...


In 422, Augustine of Hippo wrote about 2 Thessalonians 2:1–11, where he believed Paul mentioned the coming of the Antichrist. Though he rejects the theory, Augustine mentions that many Christians believed that Nero was the Antichrist or would return as the Antichrist. He wrote, so that in saying, "For the mystery of iniquity doth already work," he alluded to Nero, whose deeds already seemed to be as the deeds of Antichrist.[157]; Augustinus redirects here. ...


Some scholars, such as Delbert Hillers (Johns Hopkins University) of the American Schools of Oriental Research and the editors of the Oxford & Harper Collins study Bibles, contend that the number 666 in the Book of Revelation is a code for Nero,[183] a view that is also supported in Roman Catholic Biblical commentaries.[184][185] When treated as Hebrew numbers, the letters of Nero's name add up either to 616 or 666, representing the two numbers of the beast given in ancient versions of Revelations and the two ways of spelling his name in Hebrew (NERO and NERON). The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... The American Schools of Oriental Research, (commonly abbreviated as ASOR) founded in 1900, supports and encourages the study of the peoples and cultures of the Near East, from the earliest times to the present. ... -1... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


The concept of Nero as the Antichrist is often a central belief of Preterist eschatology. Preterism is a variant of Christian eschatology which holds that some or all of the biblical prophecies concerning the Last Days (or End Times) refer to events which actually happened in the first century after Christs birth. ... For the eschatological beliefs of various religions, see End Times. ...


Nero in post-ancient culture

Nero in medieval and Renaissance literature

Usually as a stock exemplar of vice or a bad ruler

For the Arthur Sullivan oratorio, see The Golden Legend (oratorio). ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Chaucer redirects here. ... Canterbury Tales Woodcut 1484 The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century (two of them in prose, the rest in verse). ... The Monks Tale is one of The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer. ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ...

Nero in modern culture

Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (37 – 68), was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (54–68). ...

Nero in music

Nero is the main character of some musical works, as the operas:

Monteverdi redirects here. ... Lincoronazione di Poppea (The Coronation of Poppea) is an opera seria in three acts by Claudio Monteverdi to an Italian libretto by Giovanni Francesco Busenello, based on historical incidents described in the Annals of Tacitus. ... Anton Rubinstein. ... Arrigo Boito (February 24, 1842 – June 10, 1918) was an Italian poet, journalist, novelist and composer, best known today for his opera libretti and his own opera, Mefistofele. ... Pietro Mascagni (Livorno December 7, 1863 – Rome August 2, 1945) is one of the most important Italian opera composers of the turn of the 20th century. ... Nerone (Nero) is an opera in three acts by Pietro Mascagni, 1935 , from a libretto by Giovanni Targioni-Tozzetti, based on the play Nerone by Pietro Cossa. ...

Ancestry

 
 
 
 
8. Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus
 
 
4. Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Aemilia Lepida
 
 
2. Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Mark Antony
 
 
5. Antonia Major
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Octavia Minor
 
1.Nero
 
 
 
 
 
12. Nero Claudius Drusus
 
 
6. Germanicus
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Antonia Minor
 
 
3. Agrippina the Younger
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
 
 
7. Agrippina the Elder
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Julia the Elder
 

Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, a member of the noble Ahenobarbus family, accompanied his father at Corfinium and Pharsalus, and, having been pardoned by Julius Caesar, returned to Rome in 46 BC. After Caesars assassination he attached himself to Marcus Junius Brutus and Cassius, and in 43 BC was condemned by... Ahenobarbus (brazen-bearded or red-haired) is the name of a plebeian Roman family of the gens Domitia. ... Aemilia Lepida is the name of Roman women belonging to the gens Aemilia. ... Bust of Gn. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Julia Antonia Cretica Major (Latin for “the elder”) (b. ... Octavia Minor (69 - 11 BC), also known as Octavia the Younger or simply Octavia, was the sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus, and half sister of Octavia Thurina Major. ... Bust of Nero Claudius Drusus, in the Musée du Cinquantinaire, Brussels Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus and variously called Drusus, Drusus I, Drusus Claudius Nero, or Drusus the Elder (14 January 38 - 9 BC) was the youngest son of Livia, wife of Augustus, and her first... Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 16 BC or 15 BC–October 10, 19). ... Julia Antonia Cretica Minor (the younger) (31 January 36 BC - September/October 37 AD) or Antonia the Younger or simply known as Antonia. ... Julia Agrippina; known as Agrippina Minor (Latin for the ‘younger’, Classical Latin: IVLIA•AGRIPPINA; from the year 50, called IVLIA•AVGVSTA•AGRIPPINA[1], Greek: η Ιουλία Αγριππίνη, November 6, 15 - between 19 March-23 March 59), was a Roman Empress. ... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c. ... (Vipsania) Agrippina (PIR1 V 463) (14 BC – 18 October 33), most commonly known as Agrippina Major or Agrippina the Elder, was one of the most prominent women in the Roman Empire in the early 1st century AD. She was the daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa by his third wife Julia... For other Roman women named Julia Caesaris, see Julia Caesaris. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Nero's birth day is listed in Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 6. His death day is uncertain, though, perhaps because Galba was declared emperor before Nero lived. A June 9th death day comes from Jerome, Chronicle, which lists Nero's rule as 13 years, 7 months and 28 days. Cassius Dio, Roman History LXII.3 and Josephus, War of the Jews IV, say Nero's rule was 13 years, 8 months which would be June 11th
  2. ^ Suetonius claims that Nero committed suicide in Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 49; Sulpicius Severus, who possibly used Tacitus' lost fragments as a source, reports that is was uncertain whether Nero committed suicide, Sulpicius Severus, Chronica II.29, also see T.D. Barnes, "The Fragments of Tacitus' Histories", Classical Philology (1977), p.228
  3. ^ Galba criticized Nero's luxuria, both his public and private excessive spending, during rebellion, Tacitus, Annals I.16; Kragelund, Patrick, "Nero's Luxuria, in Tacitus and in the Octavia", The Classical Quarterly, 2000, p. 494-515
  4. ^ References to Nero's matricide appear in the Sibylline Oracles 5.490-520, Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales The Monk's Tale, and William Shakespeare's Hamlet 3.ii
  5. ^ Nero was not a fiddle player, but a lyre player. Suetonius claims Nero played the lyre while Rome burned, see Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 38; For a detailed explanation of this transition see M.F. Gyles "Nero Fiddled while Rome Burned", The Classical Journal (1948), p. 211-217 [1]
  6. ^ These include Lucan's Civil War, Seneca the Younger's On Mercy and Dio Chrysostom's Discourses along with various Roman coins and inscriptions
  7. ^ Tacitus, Histories I.4, I.5, I.13, II.8; Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 57, Life of Otho 7, Life of Vitellius 11; Philostratus II, The Life of Apollonius 5.41; Dio Chrysostom, Discourse XXI, On Beauty
  8. ^ On fire and Christian persecution, see F.W. Clayton, "Tacitus and Christian Persecution", The Classical Quarterly, p. 81-85; B.W. Henderson, Life and Principate of the Emperor Nero, p. 437; On general bias against Nero, see Edward Champlin, Nero, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003, p. 36-52 (ISBN 0-674-01192-9)
  9. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 1
  10. ^ a b c Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 6
  11. ^ a b c d Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 5
  12. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XII.66; Cassius Dio, Roman History LXI.34; Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Claudius 44; Josephus is less sure, Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XX.8.1
  13. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula 29
  14. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.14, XIX.2.4
  15. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.3.2
  16. ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Claudius 26
  17. ^ a b c Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Claudius 27
  18. ^ Tacitus, Annals XII.25
  19. ^ Tacitus, Annals XII.26
  20. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XII.41
  21. ^ Tacitus, Annals XII.58
  22. ^ Cassius Dio's and Suetonius' accounts claim Nero knew of the murder, Cassius Dio, Roman History LXI.35, Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 33; Tacitus' and Josephus' accounts only mention Agrippina, Tacitus, Annals XII.65, Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XX.8.1
  23. ^ Augustus was 35, Tiberius was 56, Caligula was 25 and Cladius was 50
  24. ^ Cassius Dio claims "At first Agrippina managed for him all the business of the empire", then Seneca and Burrus "took the rule entirely into their own hands,", but "after the death of Britannicus, Seneca and Burrus no longer gave any careful attention to the public business" in 55, Cassius Dio, Roman History LXI.3-7
  25. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XIII.5
  26. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.13
  27. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.12
  28. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XIII.14
  29. ^ a b c Tacitus, Annals XIII.15
  30. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.16
  31. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.16; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, XX.8.2; Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 33; Cassius Dio, Roman History LXI.7
  32. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.18-21
  33. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.23
  34. ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History LXI.10
  35. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LXI.7
  36. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XIII.46
  37. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIV.1
  38. ^ Dawson, Alexis, "Whatever Happened to Lady Agrippina?", The Classical Journal, 1969, p. 254
  39. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Otho 3
  40. ^ Rogers, Robert, Heirs and Rivals to Nero, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, Vol. 86. (1955), p. 202. Silana accuses Agrippina of plotting to bring up Plautus in 55, Tacitus, Annals XIII.19; Silana is recalled from exile after Agrippina's power waned, Tacitus, Annals XIV.12; Plautus is exiled in 60, Tacitus, Annals XIV.22
  41. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 34
  42. ^ Tacitus, "The Annals"
  43. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIV.51
  44. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIV.52
  45. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIV.53
  46. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XIV.60
  47. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIV.64
  48. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIV.48
  49. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIV.49
  50. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIV.65
  51. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 37
  52. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XIII.4
  53. ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.51
  54. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XIII.7
  55. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.8
  56. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.9
  57. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.10
  58. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.42
  59. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XIII.55
  60. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.56
  61. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XIV.36
  62. ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.1
  63. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XV.4
  64. ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.19
  65. ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.21
  66. ^ a b c d Tacitus, Annals XV.38
  67. ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History LXII.23
  68. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 53; Gibbon, Edward, The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Vol. I, Chap. VI
  69. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XIII.25
  70. ^ Aurelius Victor mentions Trajan's praise of Nero's first five or so years. Aurelius Victor The Style of Life and the Manners of the Imperitors 5; The unknown author of Epitome de Caesaribus also mentions Trajan's praise of the first five or so years of Nero Auctor incertus Epitome De Caesarbius 5
  71. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XIII.28
  72. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 17
  73. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.26
  74. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.27
  75. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIV.45
  76. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.31
  77. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.30, XIV.18, XIV.40, XIV.46
  78. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XIII.50
  79. ^ a b c Tacitus, Annals XIII.51
  80. ^ a b c Tacitus, Annals XIV.20
  81. ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 12
  82. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XIV.21
  83. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XV.18
  84. ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.29
  85. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XV.43
  86. ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.45
  87. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XV.42
  88. ^ Josephus, War of the Jews III.10.10
  89. ^ Tacitus, Annals XVI.3
  90. ^ Suetonius Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 18; Marcus Annaeus Lucanus Pharsalia (Civil War) (c. 65)[2]
  91. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIV.29
  92. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIV.31
  93. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIV.31-38
  94. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIV.39
  95. ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.49
  96. ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.50
  97. ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.55
  98. ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.70
  99. ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.60-62
  100. ^ Josephus, War of the Jews II.13.7
  101. ^ Josephus, War of the Jews III.1.3
  102. ^ Josephus, War of the Jews VI.10.1
  103. ^ Josephus, War of the Jews VII.1.1
  104. ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History LXIII.22
  105. ^ a b c d Cassius Dio, Roman History LXIII.24
  106. ^ a b c d Plutarch, The Parallel Lives, Life of Galba 5
  107. ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History LXIII.49
  108. ^ a b c d e Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 49
  109. ^ a b c Tacitus, Histories I.5
  110. ^ a b c d e Tacitus, Histories I.2
  111. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XV.38
  112. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XV.40; Suetonius says the fire raged for six days and seven nights, Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 38; A pillar set by Domitius states the fire burned for nine days
  113. ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural Histories, XVII.1.5, Pliny mentions trees that lasted "down to the Emperor Nero’s conflagration"
  114. ^ Suetonius, Life of Nero 38; Cassius Dio, Roman History LXII.16
  115. ^ a b c d e f Tacitus Annals XV.44
  116. ^ Juvenal writes that Rome suffered from perpetual fires and falling houses Juvenal, Satires 3.7, 3.195, 3.214
  117. ^ Suetonius, Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Titus 8
  118. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero, 38; Cassius Dio, Roman History LXII.16
  119. ^ a b c d Tacitus, Annals XV.39
  120. ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.43
  121. ^ Roth, Leland M. (1993). Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History and Meaning, First, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 227-8. ISBN 0-06-430158-3
  122. ^ Ball, Larry F. (2003). The Domus Aurea and the Roman architectural revolution. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521822513
  123. ^ Warden reduces its size to under 100 acres. Warden, P.G., "The Domus Aurea Reconsidered," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 40 (1981) 271-278
  124. ^ Tacitus, Annals XV.45
  125. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIV.14, XIV.16
  126. ^ Philostratus II, Life of Apollonius 4.39; Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Vitellius 11
  127. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals XV.33
  128. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars Life of Nero 21
  129. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 33
  130. ^ Tacitus, Annals XVI.4; Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Vitellius 11; Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 10, 21
  131. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIV.15; Cassius Dio, Roman History LXI.19
  132. ^ Philostratus II, Life of Apollonius 5.7
  133. ^ a b c Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 24
  134. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 25
  135. ^ Suetonius The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 23, 24
  136. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 48
  137. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 49
  138. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LXIII.29
  139. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History 63
  140. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 57
  141. ^ a b c Tacitus, Histories I.4
  142. ^ Philostratus II, The Life of Apollonius 5.41
  143. ^ Letter from Apollonius to Emperor Vespasian, Philostratus II, The Life of Apollonius 5.41
  144. ^ M. T. Griffin, Nero (1984), p. 186; Gibbon, Edward, The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Vol. I, Chap. III
  145. ^ Champlin (2003), p. 29.
  146. ^ a b John Pollini, Review of Mutilation and Transformation: Damnatio Memoriae and Roman Imperial Portraiture by Eric R. Varner, The Art Bulletin (September 2006).
  147. ^ Champlin (2003), pp. 29–31.
  148. ^ Tacitus, Histories I.6
  149. ^ Plutarch, The Parallel Lives, The Life of Galba 9
  150. ^ Tacitus, Histories I.13
  151. ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Otho 7
  152. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Vitellius 11
  153. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 57; Tacitus, Histories II.8; Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.19
  154. ^ a b Tacitus, Histories II.8
  155. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LXVI.19
  156. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caears, Life of Nero 57.
  157. ^ a b Augustine of Hippo, City of God XX.19.3
  158. ^ Tacitus, Annals I.1; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XX.8.3; Tacitus, Life of Gnaeus Julius Agricola 10; Tacitus, Annals XIII.20
  159. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.20; Tacitus, Annals XIV.2
  160. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.20; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIX.1.13
  161. ^ Tacitus, Annals XIII.20
  162. ^ Tacitus, Annals I.1; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XX.8.3
  163. ^ Dio Chrysostom, Discourse XXI, On Beauty
  164. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XX.8.3
  165. ^ Marcus Annaeus Lucanus, Pharsalia (Civil War) (c. 65)
  166. ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural Histories VII.8.46
  167. ^ Seneca the Younger, Apocolocyntosis 4
  168. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 28
  169. ^ Tacitus, Annals I.1
  170. ^ Tacitus, History I.1
  171. ^ Suetonius The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero, chapter 16
  172. ^ Tertullian Apologeticum, lost text quoted in Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History II.25.4
  173. ^ a b Lactantius, Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died II
  174. ^ Sulpicius Severus, Chronica II.28
  175. ^ Suetonius The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Claudius 25
  176. ^ a b Ascension of Isaiah Chapter 4.2
  177. ^ Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History II.25.5
  178. ^ In the apocryphal Acts of Paul, in the apocryphal Acts of Peter, in the First Epistle of Clement 5:6, and in The Muratorian Fragment
  179. ^ Apocryphal Acts of Peter
  180. ^ Lactantius wrote that Nero crucified Peter, and slew Paul., Lactantius, Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died II; John Chrysostom wrote Nero knew Paul personally and had him killed, John Chrysostom, Concerning Lowliness of Mind 4; Sulpicius Severus says Nero killed Peter and Paul, Sulpicius Severus, Chronica II.28-29
  181. ^ Sibylline Oracles 5.361-376, 8.68-72, 8.531-157
  182. ^ Sulpicius Severus and Victorinus of Pettau also say Nero is the Antichrist, Sulpicius Severus, Chronica II.28-29; Victorinus of Pettau, Commentary on the Apocalypse 17
  183. ^ Hillers, Delbert, “Rev. 13, 18 and a scroll from Murabba’at”, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 170 (1963) 65.
  184. ^ The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. Ed. Raymond E. Brown, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland E. Murphy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1990. 1009
  185. ^ Just, S.J., Ph.D., Prof. Felix. The Book of Revelation, Apocalyptic Literature, and Millennial Movements, University of San Francisco, USF Jesuit Community. Retrieved on 2007-05-18.
  186. ^ Gwinn, Matthew. Nero. Retrieved on 2007-05-19.

Sextus Aurelius Victor (ca. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (c. ... This article refers to the Christian saint. ... Saint Sulpicius Severus (born around 360, died between 420 and 425), wrote the earliest biography of Saint Martin of Tours. ... Saint Sulpicius Severus (born around 360, died between 420 and 425), wrote the earliest biography of Saint Martin of Tours. ... Saint Victorinus of Pettau, also called Victorinus Petravionensis or Victorinus Pictaviensis (born 3rd century in Greece; died 303 or 304) was a Catholic martyr. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

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Primary sources

  • Tacitus, Histories, I-IV (c. 105)
  • Tacitus, Annals, XIII–XVI (c. 117)
  • Josephus, War of the Jews, Books II-VI (c. 94)
  • Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XX (c. 94)
  • Cassius Dio, Roman History, Books 61–63 (c. 229)
  • Plutarch, The Parallel Lives, The Life of Galba (c. 110)
  • Philostratus II, Life of Apollonius Tyana, Books 4–5, (c. 220)
  • Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, the Life of Nero (c. 121)

Secondary material

  • Nero Nero:The Actor-Emperor
  • Nero entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith
  • Nero basic data & select quotes posted by Romans On Line
  • Nero Caesar biographical sketch archived in Bible History Online
  • Nero biography by Herbert W. Benario in De Imperatoribus Romanis
  • Grant, Michael. Nero. New York: Dorset Press, 1989 (ISBN 0-88029-311-X).
  • Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus entry in the Illustrated History of the Roman Empire
  • Griffin, Miriam T. Nero: The End of a Dynasty. New Heaven, CT; London: Yale University Press, 1985 (hardcover, ISBN 0-300-03285-4); London; New York: Routledge, 1987 (paperback, ISBN 0-7134-4465-7).
  • Warmington, Brian Herbert. Nero: Reality and Legend (Ancient Culture and Society). London, Chatto & Windus, 1969 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7011-1438-X); New York: W.W Norton & Company, 1970 (paperback, ISBN 0-393-00542-9); New York: Vintage, 1981 (paperback, ISBN 0-7011-1454-1).
Preceded by
Claudius
Roman Emperor
5468
Succeeded by
Galba
Julio-Claudian dynast
54 – 68
Succeeded by
(none)
Preceded by
Marcus Acilius Aviola and Marcus Asinius Marcellus
Consul of the Roman Empire together with Lucius Antistius Vetus
55
Succeeded by
Quintus Volusius Saturninus and Publius Cornelius Lentulus Scipio
Preceded by
Quintus Volusius Saturninus and Publius Cornelius Lentulus Scipio
Consul of the Roman Empire
57-58
Succeeded by
Gaius Vipstanus Apronianus and Gaius Fonteius Capito
Preceded by
Gaius Vipstanus Apronianus and Gaius Fonteius Capito
Consul of the Roman Empire with Cossus Cornelius Lentulus
60
Succeeded by
Publius Petronius Turpilianus and Lucius Iunius Caesennius Paetus
Persondata
NAME Nero
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus; Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus
SHORT DESCRIPTION Fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty; reigned 13 October 54 – 9 June 68
DATE OF BIRTH December 15, 37
PLACE OF BIRTH Anzio, Italy
DATE OF DEATH June 9, 68
PLACE OF DEATH Rome, Italy

Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 37. ... // Anzio is a city and resort on the coast of the Lazio region of Italy, about 33 miles south of Rome. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 1st century BCE - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 63 64 65 66 67 - 68 - 69 70 71 72 73 Events June 9 - Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


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NERO LARP live action role playing (RPG). Live RPG, LARP List, NERO Rule Book, NERO LARP Chapter List, NERO Member ... (358 words)
At NERO events, you use skills that your character has earned, as well as the skills that you as the player bring to the game.
Preface: NERO®, is a live action role playing game based in a medieval fantasy genre.
NERO® is the Registered Trademark of NERO International Holding Co., Inc. USPTO registration number 2,270,409
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Nero (1686 words)
Nero, the last Roman emperor (reigned 54-68) of the Julian-Claudian line, was the son of Domitius Ahenobarbus and Julia Agrippina, niece of Emperor Claudius.
Nero's mother had a mind to commit any crime to put him on the throne, and to prepare him for this station she had L. Annaeus Seneca appointed his tutor, and caused the freedman Afranius Burrus, a rough but experienced soldier, to be made commander of the Praetorian guard.
Nero was in Antium when he heard that Rome was in flames, he hastened thither, and is said to have ascended the tower of Maecenas, and looking upon the sea of flame in which Rome lay engulfed, to have sung on his lyre the song of the ruin of Ilium.
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