A nephrostomy is an artificial opening created between the kidney and the skin which allows for the drainage of urine directly from the upper part of the urinary system (renal pelvis). A nephrostomy is performed whenever a blockage keeps urine from passing from the kidneys, through the ureter and into the urinary bladder. Without another way for urine to drain, pressure would rise within the urinary system and the kidneys would be damaged. Nephrostomies are created by surgeons or interventional radiologists and typically consist of a catheter which pierces the skin and rests in the urinary tract. Urine is collected in an external bag which can be emptied as often as necessary. The most common cause of blockage necessitating a nephrostomy is cancer, especially ovarian cancer and colon cancer. Nephrostomies may also be required to treat pyonephrosis and kidney stones. Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Diagram of the layers of human skin In zootomy and dermatology, skin is an organ of the integumentary system composed of a layer of tissues that protect underlying muscles and organs. ... Urine is liquid waste excreted by the kidneys and is produced by the process of filtration. ... The renal pelvis represents the dilated proximal part of the ureter. ... Transverse section of ureter. ... The interior of bladder. ... Surgeon may refer to: a practitioner of surgery the moniker of British electronic music producer and DJ, Anthony Child; see Surgeon (musician) This is a disambiguation pageâa list of articles associated with the same title. ... Interventional Radiology (IR) is a subspecialty of Medical imaging (Radiology) in which minimally invasive procedures are performed using image guidance. ... Catheter disassembled In medicine, a catheter is a tube that a health professional may insert into part of the body. ... When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis. ... Ovarian cancer is a malignant ovarian neoplasm (an abnormal growth located on the ovaries). ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... Kidney stones are solid accretions (crystals) of dissolved minerals in urine found inside the kidneys or ureters. ...
A nephrostomy is a surgical procedure by which a tube, stent, or catheter is inserted through the skin and into the kidney.
The ureter is the fibromuscular tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.
Other diagnostic tests done before the procedure may vary, depending on why the nephrostomy is being done, but the patient may have a CT scan or ultrasound to help the treating physician locate the blockage.
The term nephrostomy refers to a passageway maintained by a tube, stent, or catheter that perforates the skin, passes through the body wall and renal parenchyma, and terminates in the renal pelvis or a calyx.
In 1976, a percutaneous nephrostomy was performed by Fernstroem and Johannson for the specific purpose of removing a kidney stone.
Bleeding during nephrostomy placement may be enough to terminate the procedure; however, clamping the tube for 30-40 minutes and administering intravenous diuretics stops most venous bleeding.
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