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Encyclopedia > Nephrology
A drawing of the human kidney from Gray's Anatomy.

Nephrology is the branch of internal medicine dealing with the study of the function and diseases of the kidney. The word nephrology is derived from the Greek word nephros, which means "kidney," and the suffix -ology, signifying "study of." The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Section of kidney, from Grays Anatomy 1918, public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Section of kidney, from Grays Anatomy 1918, public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body (or Grays Anatomy as it has more commonly become known) is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ... Doctors of internal medicine (internists) are medical specialists who focus on adult medicine and have had special study and training focusing on the prevention and treatment of adult diseases. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ...

Contents

Scope of the specialty

Nephrology concerns itself with the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases including electrolyte disturbances and hypertension, and the care of those requiring renal replacement therapy, including dialysis and renal transplant patients. Many diseases affecting the kidney are not limited to the organ itself, but are systemic disorders, and may require not only a whole patient approach, but also special treatment, such as systemic vasculitides or other autoimmune diseases, such as lupus. Electrolyte disturbance refers to an abnormal change in the levels of electrolytes in the body. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... Renal replacement therapy is a term used to encompass treatments for renal disease. ... In medicine, dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy which is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. ... Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney in a patient with chronic renal failure. ... Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a chronic autoimmune disease that can be fatal, though with recent medical advances this is becoming increasingly rare. ...


Who sees a nephrologist?

Patients are referred to nephrology specialists for various reasons, such as:

Urologists are surgical specialists of the urinary tract - see Urology. They are involved in renal diseases that might be amenable to surgery: In medicine (nephrology) renal function is an indication of the state of the kidney and its role in physiology. ... Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass). ... In medicine, hematuria (or haematuria) is the presence of blood in the urine. ... Proteinuria (from protein and urine) means the presence of an excess of serum proteins in the urine. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into serum albumin. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... “Bladder stone” redirects here. ... Medicine In medicine, a persistent and lasting condition is said to be chronic (from Greek chronos). ... A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The urinary system is a system of organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry, urine. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ...

  • Diseases of the Bladder and prostate such as malignancy, stones, or obstruction of the urinary tract.

In anatomy, the urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ that sits on the pelvic floor in mammals. ... The prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male mammalian reproductive system. ...

Diagnosis

As with the rest of medicine, important clues as to the cause of any symptom are gained in the history and physical examination. For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ...


Laboratory tests are almost always aimed at: urea, creatinine, electrolytes, and urinalysis-- which is frequently the key test in suggesting a diagnosis. Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass). ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... A urinalysis (or UA) is an array of tests performed on urine and one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis. ...


More specialized tests can be ordered to discover or link certain systemic diseases to kidney failure such as hepatitis b or hepatitis c, lupus serologies, paraproteinemias such as amyloidosis or multiple myeloma or various other systemic diseases that lead to kidney failure. Collection of a 24-hour sample of urine can give valuable information on the filtering capacity of the kidney and the amount of protein loss in some forms of kidney disease. However, 24-hour urine samples have recently, in the setting of chronic renal disease, been replaced by spot urine ratio of protein and creatinine. “HBV” redirects here. ... This page is for the disease. ... // Lupus may refer to: Wolf (latin). ... Multiple myeloma (also known as MM, myeloma, plasma cell myeloma, or as Kahlers disease after Otto Kahler) is a type of cancer of plasma cells which are immune system cells in bone marrow that produce antibodies. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...


Other tests often performed by nephrologists are:

Brain biopsy A biopsy (in Greek: bios = life and opsy = look/appearance) is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. ... Medical ultrasonography (sonography) is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique used to visualize muscles and internal organs, their size, structures and possible pathologies or lesions. ... CT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around... Kidney stones are solid accretions (crystals) of dissolved minerals in urine found inside the kidneys or ureters. ... Nuclear medicine is the branch of medicine that uses unsealed radioactive substances in diagnosis and therapy. ... Shown above is the bone scintigraphy of a young woman. ... Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique in which an X-ray picture is taken to visualize the inner opening of blood filled structures, including arteries, veins and the heart chambers. ... “MRI” redirects here. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ...

Therapy

Many kidney diseases are treated with medication, such as steroids, DMARDs (disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs), antihypertensives (many kidney diseases feature hypertension). Often erythropoietin and vitamin D treatment is required to replace these two hormones, the production of which stagnates in chronic renal disease. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs is a category of drugs used in many autoimmune diseases to slow down disease progression. ... Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used in medicine and pharmacology to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ...


When symptoms of renal failure become too severe, dialysis might be required. Please refer to dialysis for a comprehensive account of this treatment. Renal failure is the condition in which the kidneys fail to function properly. ... In medicine, dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy which is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. ... In medicine, dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy which is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. ...


If patients proceed to renal transplant, nephrologists often monitor the immunosuppressive regimen and the infections that can occur at this stage. Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney in a patient with chronic renal failure. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ...


Notable nephrologist

  • Dr. Joseph W. Eschbach, nephrologist whose research lead to the treatment of anemia.
  • Dr. Georg Haas, preformed the first human hemodialysis treatment.
  • Dr. Willem Johan Kolff, is a pioneer in the development of the hemodialysis machine as well as in the field of other artificial organs.
  • Dr. Arthur Arnold Osman, was the first doctor to call himself a nephrologist.

Dr. Joseph W. Eschbach Joseph Wetherill Eschbach, MD (January 21, 1933 - September 7, 2007) was an American doctor and kidney specialist whose twenty years of research starting in the 1960’s led to an improvement in the treatment of anemia. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... George Haas (April 4, 1886 - December 6, 1971) a German medical doctor was born in Nürnberg, Germany. ... It has been suggested that Artificial kidney be merged into this article or section. ... Dr. Willem Johan (Pim) Kolff (born 14 February 1911, Leiden, the Netherlands) is the inventor of the hemodialysis as well as pioneer in the field of other artificial organs. ... It has been suggested that Artificial kidney be merged into this article or section. ... Arthur Arnold Osman (24th May 1893 - 20th April 1972) The forgotten pioneer of Nephrology. ... A nephrologist is a physician who has been trained in the diagnosis and management of kidney disease, by regulating blood pressure, regulating electrolytes, balancing fluids in the body, and administering dialysis. ... Belding Hibbard Scribner, MD. (* January 18,1921 in Chicago; † June 19, 2003 in Seattle) was a U.S. physician and a pioneer in kidney dialysis. ... This article is about clinical dialysis; for the laboratory technique, see Dialysis (biochemistry) In medicine, dialysis is a method for removing waste such as urea from the blood when the kidneys are incapable of this, i. ...

External links

  • On-line Nephrology Journal Club (via JournalReview.org)
  • British Journal of Renal Medicine
  • Nature Clinical Practice Nephrology

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nephrology Now - A Nephrology Meta-Journal (252 words)
Keeping up to date in Nephrology can be difficult - in fact, it has recently been shown that half of all evidence is published in non-renal journals.
The focus will be on articles in clinical Nephrology that have the potential to affect diagnosis, prognosis or treatment.
Blackwell Publishing has agreed to provide Nephrology Now readers with free full text access to selected articles from 'American Journal of Transplantation', 'Nephrology', 'Hemodialysis International','Seminars in Dialysis'.
Nephrology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (705 words)
Nephrology is the branch of internal medicine dealing with the study of the function and diseases of the kidney.
The word nephrology is derived from the Greek word nephros, which means "kidney", and the suffix -ology, or "study of".
Nephrology concerns itself with the diagnosis of kidney disease and its treatment (medication, dialysis), and follow-up of renal transplant patients.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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