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Encyclopedia > Nephritic syndrome
Nephritic syndrome
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ICD-10 N00, N01, N03, N05
ICD-9
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Nephritic syndrome is a collection of signs (known as a syndrome) associated with disorders affecting the kidneys, more specifically glomerular disorders. The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Diseases Database is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... In medicine, the term syndrome is the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs, symptoms, phenomena or characteristics which often occur together, so that the presence of one feature alerts the physician to the presence of the others. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The glomerulus is a capillary bed found surrounded by the Bowmans capsule of the nephron in the vertebrate kidney. ...

Contents


Signs and symptoms

Nephritic syndrome is characterized by proteinuria (protein in the urine), hematuria (blood in the urine), azotemia (elevated blood nitrogen), red blood cell (RBC) casts, oliguria (low urine output <400 mL/day) and hypertension (high blood pressure). The main features are hypertension and RBC casts. The proteinuria in nephritic syndrome is not severe, if it is severe the patient likely has a mix of nephritic syndrome and nephrotic syndrome. Proteinuria (from protein and urine) means the presence of an excess of serum proteins in the urine. ... In medicine, hematuria is the presence of blood in the urine. ... Azotemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormal levels of urea, creatinine, various body waste compounds, and other nitrogen-rich compounds in the blood as a result of insufficient filtering of the blood by the kidneys. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen from the lungs or gills to body tissues via the blood. ... Renal failure is when the kidneys fail to function properly. ... For other forms of hypertension see hypertension (disambiguation) Hypertension or high blood pressure is a medical condition wherein the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ...


Mnemonic: PHAROH = Proteinuria, Hematuria, Azotemia, RBC casts, Oliguria, Hypertension This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Diagnosis

Nephritic syndrome is not a specific diagnosis. It is a clinical syndrome and characterized by the above signs.


An anti-streptolysin O titre (or ASOT) is typically done to test for exposure to streptococci. ASOT is abbreviation for: Antistreptolysin O titre A State Of Trance, a former radio show in Netherlands by Armin Van Buuren ... Species S. pneumoniae S. pyogenes S. viridans Streptococcus is a genus of spherical, Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. ...


Pathophysiology

The exact pathophysiology is dependent on the specific diagnosis. However, the common features are an inflammation of the glomeruli, leading to salt and water retention and a reduction in the kidney function. Pathophysiology is the study of the disturbance of normal mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions that a disease causes. ... Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... Glomerulus refers to two unrelated structures in the body, both named for their globular form. ... Renal physiology is the study of the physiology of the kidneys. ...


Differential diagnosis

The two classic diagnoses of nephritic syndrome are:

Nephritic syndrome causes are usually grouped into 'focal proliferative' and 'diffuse proliferative' on the basis of histology (obtained by a renal biopsy). Glomerulonephritis is a primary or secondary autoimmune renal disease featuring inflammation of the glomeruli. ... Glomerulonephritis is a primary or secondary autoimmune renal disease featuring inflammation of the glomeruli. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ...


Focal proliferative

IgA nephropathy (also known as IgA nephritis, IgAN, Bergers disease and synpharyngitic glomerulonephritis) is a form of glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney). ... Liver failure is the final stage of liver disease. ... Coeliac disease (also termed non-tropical sprue, celiac disease and gluten intolerance) is an autoimmune disease characterised by chronic inflammation of the proximal portion of the small intestine caused by exposure to certain dietary gluten proteins. ... Dermatitis herpetiformis, or DH, is a skin disorder often associated with celiac disease. ... In medicine (rheumatology and pediatrics) Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP, also known as allergic purpura) is a form of vasculitis that mainly affects children. ... Alport syndrome is a hereditary disease characterized by hematuria. ... Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a chronic, potentially debilitating or fatal autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the body’s cells and tissue, resulting in inflammation and tissue damage. ...

Diffuse proliferative

Red blood cell infected with Malaria, derived from male aria (Italian for bad air) and formerly called ague or marsh fever in English, is an infectious disease which causes about 350-500 million infections with humans and approximately 1. ... Originally known as serum hepatitis, hepatitis B has only been recognized as such since World War II, and has caused current epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa. ... Hepatitis C is a blood-borne viral disease which can cause liver inflamation, fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver cancer. ... Sickle-shaped red blood cells Sickle cell disease is a general term for a group of genetic disorders caused by sickle hemoglobin (Hgb S). ... Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a chronic, potentially debilitating or fatal autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the body’s cells and tissue, resulting in inflammation and tissue damage. ... In medicine, Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (or haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, abbreviated HUS) is a disease characterised by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure and a low platelet count (thrombopenia). ... Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP or Moschcowitz disease) is a rare disorder of the blood coagulation system that in most cases arises from the deficiency or inhibition of the enzyme responsible for cleaving von Willebrand factor. ... Cryoglobulinemia is the presence of abnormal proteins in the bloodstream which thicken or gel on exposure to cold. ... Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a chronic, potentially debilitating or fatal autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the body’s cells and tissue, resulting in inflammation and tissue damage. ...

Treatment

Treatment is dependent on the underlying etiology (cause).


Prognosis

Prognosis depends on the underlying etiology.


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lifespan's A - Z Health Information Library - Nephrotic syndrome (616 words)
Nephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms including protein in the urine (exceeding 3.5 grams per day), low blood protein levels, high cholesterol levels, and swelling (edema).
Nephrotic syndrome is caused by various disorders that damage the kidneys, particularly the basement membrane of the glomerulus.
The outcome varies; the syndrome may be acute and short-term or chronic and unresponsive to therapy.
Acute nephritic syndrome (295 words)
Acute nephritic syndrome is a group of disorders that cause inflammation of the internal kidney structures (specifically, the glomeruli).
Acute nephritic syndrome is the result of inflammation of the internal structures of the kidney, often caused by an immune response triggered by infection (typified by acutepost-streptococcal glomerulonephritis) or other disease.
Acute nephritic syndrome may be associated with the development of hypertension, interstitial inflammation (inflammation of the spaces between the cells of the kidney tissue), and acute renal failure.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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