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Encyclopedia > Nephridium

Nephridia are invertebrate organs which function similarly to kidneys. They remove metabolic wastes from an animal's body. They are present in many different invertebrate lines. There are two basic types, metanephridia and protonephridia. The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος(metavallo), the Greek word for change), in the most general sense, is the ingestion and breakdown of complex compounds, coupled...


A metanephridium (pl. metanephridia) is a type of excretory gland or nephridium found in many types of invertebrates such as annelids, arthropods and molluscs. It typically consists of a ciliated funnel opening into the body cavity or coelom connected to a duct which may be variously glandularized, folded or expanded (vesiculate) and which typically opens to the organism's exterior. These ciliated tubules pump water carrying surplus ions, metabolic waste, toxins from food, and useless hormones out of the organism through openings known as nephrostomes. The primary urine produced by filtration of blood (or a similar functioning component) are modified into secondary urine through selective reabsorption by the cells lining the metanephridium. Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of metabolism and other materials that are of no use. ... A gland is an organ in an animals body that synthesizes a substance for release such as hormones, often into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland). ... Invertebrate is a term coined by Chevalier de Lamarck to describe any animal without a backbone or vertebra, like insects, squids and worms. ... Classes and subclasses Class Polychaeta (paraphyletic?) Class Clitellata*    Oligochaeta - earthworms, etc. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... A body cavity is an aspect of a number of basic animal body plans (phyla) that incorporate a central body cavity, known as a coelom. ... A duct may refer to: An atmospheric duct. ... A crab is an example of an organism. ... Multivalent redirects here. ... Metabolic wastes or excretes are substances left over from metabolic processes, which cannot be used by the organism (they are surplus or have lethal effect), and must therefore be excreted. ... The venom of the black widow spider is a potent latrotoxin. ... A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Nephrostome is the funnel-like component of a metanephridium. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In chemistry, alchemy and water treatment, filtration is the process of using a filter to mechanically separate a mixture. ... A diagram to show the process of selective reabsorption. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ...

In many earthworms the nephridial ducts open into the digestive tract instead, a condition known as enteronephry. Families   Acanthodrilidae   Ailoscolecidae   Alluroididae   Almidae   Biwadrilidae   Eudrilidae   Exxidae   Glossoscolecidae   Lumbricidae   Lutodrilidae   Megascolecidae   Microchaetidae   Ocnerodrilidae   Octochaetidae   Sparganophilidae Earthworm is the common name for the larger members of the Oligochaeta (which is either a class or subclass depending on the author) in the phylum Annelida. ...


A protonephridium is a network of dead-end tubules lacking internal openings. The ends are called "flame cells" (if cilliated, "solenocytes" if flagellated), they function in osmoregulation. The terminal cells are located in the bottom of the protonephridium. Each cell has one or several cilia and when they beat inside the protonephridial tube they create an outward going current and hence a partial vacuum in the bottom of the tube. Because of this partial vacuum waste fluids from the inside of the animal are pulled through small perforations in the terminal cells and into the protonephridium. The perforations in the terminal cell are so large that small molecules can pass whereas larger proteins are retained in the animal. From the bottom of the protonephridium the waste fluid is led through the tube, formed by the canal cells, and exits the animal from a small opening formed by the nephridiopore. Protonephridia are found in simpler organisms such as flatworms. A tubule is a very small tube or fistular structure. ... A flame cell is a specialized excretory cell found in the Platyhelminthes (except the tubellarian order Acoela), these are the simplest animals to have a dedicated excretory system. ... Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the bodys water content; that is it keeps the bodys fluids from becoming too dilute or too concentrated. ... cross-section of two cilia, showing 9+2 structure A cilium (plural cilia) is a fine projection from a eukaryotic cell that constantly beats in one direction. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Metabolic wastes or excretes are substances left over from metabolic processes, which cannot be used by the organism (they are surplus or have lethal effect), and must therefore be excreted. ... In chemistry, a molecule is an aggregate of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. Chemical substances are not infinitely divisible into smaller fractions of the same substance: a molecule is generally considered the smallest particle of a pure... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Nephridiopore is part of the nephridia,an excretory organ found in many organisms such as annelids. ... Classes Monogenea Trematoda Cestoda Turbellaria The flatworms (Platyhelminthes, Greek platy: flat; helminth: worm) are a phylum of relatively simple soft-bodied invertebrate animals. ...



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