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Encyclopedia > Nepenthes
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Nepenthes
Nepenthes alata
Winged Pitcher Plant (Nepenthes alata)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Nepenthaceae
Genus: Nepenthes
L.
Species

See text This is a Picture of my own plant growing in my living room File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a fern... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Orders see text Dicotyledons or dicots are flowering plants whose seed contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ... Families Achatocarpaceae Aizoaceae (Fig-marigold family) Amaranthaceae (amaranth family) Ancistrocladaceae Asteropeiaceae Barbeuiaceae Basellaceae (basella family) Cactaceae (cactus family) Caryophyllaceae (carnation family) Dioncophyllaceae Droseraceae (sundew family) Drosophyllaceae Frankeniaceae Molluginaceae (carpetweed family) Nepenthaceae Nyctaginaceae (four-oclock family) Physenaceae Phytolaccaceae (pokeweed family) Plumbaginaceae (plumbago family) Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) Portulacaceae (purslane family) Rhabdodendraceae... Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné ▶(?), and in English usually under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ...

The genus Nepenthes (Tropical Pitcher Plants or Monkey Cups) in the monotypic family Nepenthaceae contains roughly 80-100 species, (depending on author), several natural and many cultivated hybrids. They are carnivorous or insectivorous plants of the old world tropics, ranging from South China, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines; westward to Madagascar (2 species) and the Seychelles (1); southward to Australia (1) and New Caledonia (1); and northward to India (1) and Sri Lanka (1). The greatest diversity occurs on Borneo and Sumatra with many endemic species. Many are plants of hot humid lowland areas, but the majority are tropical montane plants, receiving warm days but cool to cold humid nights year round. A few are considered tropical alpine with cool days and nights near freezing. The name Monkey Cups refers to the fact that monkeys have been observed drinking rainwater from these plants. Unidentified Nepenthes species, possibly Pitcher plants (or pitfall traps) are carnivorous plants whose prey-trapping mechanism features a deep cavity filled with liquid. ... Monotypic refers to a taxonomic group with only one subgroup at the next (smaller) taxonomic level, for example, a monotypic genus has only one species. ... A Nepenthes in flower, growing on a road cut in Palau A carnivorous plant is a plant that derives some or most of its nutrients (but not energy) by trapping and consuming animals, especially insects and other arthropods. ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus: Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia) and the surrounding islands. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Borneo and Sulawesi Borneo (politically divided between Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei) is the third largest island in the world. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatara and Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest part of Indonesia. ...

Contents


Morphology and Function

The plants usually consist of a shallow root system and a prostrate or climbing stem, often several metres long, and usually 1 cm or less in diameter, although this may be thicker in a few species (e.g. N. bicalcarata). From the stems arise leaf-like expanded petioles, similar to certain Citrus spp., ending in a tendril, which in some species aid in climbing, and at the end of which forms the pitcher, considered the true leaf. The pitcher starts as a small bud and gradually expand to form a globe- or tube-shaped trap. A petiole (also called a pedicel) is the first abdominal segment of members of the Apocrita. ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus x aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus x aurantium Citrus x hystrix - Kaffir Lime Citrus x ichangensis - Ichang Lemon Citrus x limetta Citrus x limon - Lemon Citrus x limonia - Rangpur Citrus x paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus...

Light Green Pitcher Plant (Nepenthes rafflesiana)
Enlarge
Light Green Pitcher Plant (Nepenthes rafflesiana)

The trap contains a fluid of the plant's own production, which may be watery or syrupy and is used to drown the prey. The lower part of the trap contains glands which absorb nutrients from captured prey. Above this is a waxy zone, to prevent escape. Surrounding the entrance to the trap is a structure called the peristome (the "mouth") which is slippery and often quite colorful, attracting prey but offering an unsure footing. Above the peristome is a lid (the operculum): in many species this keeps rain from diluting the fluid within the pitcher, and the underside of lids (and other parts of the plants) contain nectar glands which attract prey. Download high resolution version (476x640, 86 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (476x640, 86 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In cooking, a syrup (from Arabic شراب sharab, beverage, via Latin siropus) is a thick, viscous liquid, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars, but showing little tendency to deposit crystals. ... In bryophyte mosses, the peristome is a specialed structure in the sporangium that allows for gradual spore discharge, instead of releasing them all at once. ... Sagittal section of nose mouth, pharynx, and larynx. ... In Biology operculum (Latin for little lid) has been used to describe several completely separate features. ... Rain falling For other uses see Rain (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ...


Plants may contain several different types of pitchers, lower traps which typically sit on the ground usually are larger and more round, hanging pitchers are more funnel-shaped, usually smaller and may be colored differently. Frequently there are intermediates between the two types.


In some species (N. rafflesiana) different prey may be attracted by different types of pitchers; Nepenthes albomarginata is unique in specializing in termites. Nepenthes albomarginata is a pitcher plant of genus nepenthes found in Brunei. ... Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae A termite (also known as a white ant) is any member of the order Isoptera, a group of social insects that eat wood and other cellulose-rich vegetable matter. ...


Prey usually consists of insects, but the largest species (N. rajah, N. merrilliana, etc.) may occasionally catch small vertebrates, possibly accidentally. Flowers occur in racemes or more rarely in panicles with male and female flowers on separate plants. Seed is produced in a four-sided capsule which may contain 10-60 or more seeds, consisting of a central ovary and two wings, one on either side. Seeds are wind distributed. Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets... Groups Conodonta Hyperoartia Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Pteraspidomorphi (early jawless fish) Thelodonti Anaspida Cephalaspidomorphi (early jawless fish) Galeaspida Pituriaspida Osteostraci Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates) Placodermi Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii Osteichthyes (bony fish) Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Tetrapoda Amphibia Amniota Sauropsida/(Reptiles) Aves (Birds) Synapsida Mammalia... Clivia miniata bears bright orange flowers. ... This inflorescence of the terrestrial orchid Spathoglottis plicata is a typical raceme. ... White-fruited Rowan (Sorbus glabrescens) corymb; note the branched structures holding the fruits. ... Male symbol Male is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, which produces sperm. ... Female symbol Female is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, which produces egg cells. ... SEED is a block cipher developed by the Korean Information Security Agency. ... Human female internal reproductive anatomy Ovaries are egg-producing reproductive organs found in female organisms. ... Wind is the roughly horizontal movement of air (as opposed to an air current) caused by uneven heating of the Earths surface. ...


Culture

Nepenthes may be cultivated in greenhouses. The easier species are N. alata, N. ventricosa, N. khasiana and N. sanguinea. These 4 species are highlanders, some easy lowlander species are "N. rafflesiana", "N.bicalcarata" and "N.hirsuta". They respond best to rainwater, bright light (not full sun), a well drained but moisture holding medium, good air circulation and a relatively high humidity. Highland species must have night-time cooling to thrive in the long-term. Chemical fertilisers are probably best avoided or used at low strength. Ocassional feeding with frozen (thawed before use) crickets may be beneficial. Terrarium culture of smaller plants like N. bellii, N. × Trichocarpa and N. ampullaria is possible, but most plants will get too large over time. Genera Crickets, family Gryllidae (also known as true crickets), are insects related to grasshoppers and katydids (order Orthoptera). ...


Plants can be propagated by seed, cuttings and tissue culture. Seeds may be sown on damp chopped Sphagnum moss, or on sterile plant tissue culture media once they have been properly disinfected. The seeds generally become inviable soon after harvesting, so seed are not usually the preferred method of propagation. A 50:50 mixture of orchid medium with moss or perlite is suitable for germination and culture. Seed may take two months to germinate, and two years or more to yield mature plants. Cuttings may be rooted in damp Sphagnum moss in a plastic bag or tank with high humidity and moderate light. They can begin to root in 1-2 months and start to form pitchers in about six months. Species See text Sphagnum is a genus of mosses commonly called peat moss due to its prevalence in peat bogs. ... Subclasses Sphagnidae Andreaeidae Tetraphidae Polytrichidae Archidiidae Buxbaumiidae Bryidae Moss gametophyte generation plants with a single sporophyte. ... Expanded Perlite Perlite is an amorphous volcanic glass that has a relatively high water content. ...


Tissue culture is now used commercially and helps reduce collection of wild plants, as well as making many rare species available to hobbyists at reasonable prices. Nepenthes are considered threatened or endangered plants and are listed in CITES appendices 1 & 2. A tissue culture is the growth of cells (tissue) separate from the organism. ... The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between Governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). ...


Species

  • N. adnata
  • N. alata
  • N. albomarginata
  • N. ampullaria
  • N. anamensis
  • N. angasanensis
  • N. argentii
  • N. aristolochioides
  • N. bellii
  • N. benstonei
  • N. bicalcarata
  • N. bongso
  • N. boschiana
  • N. burbidgeae
  • N. burkei
  • N. campanulata
  • N. clipeata
  • N. danseri
  • N. deaniana
  • N. densiflora
  • N. diatas
  • N. distillatoria
  • N. dubia
  • N. edwardsiana
  • N. ephippiata
  • N. eustachya
  • N. eymae
  • N. faizaliana
  • N. fallax
  • N. fusca
  • N. glabrata
  • N. glandulifera
  • N. gracilis
  • N. gracillima
  • N. gymnamphora
  • N. hamata
  • N. hirsuta
  • N. inermis
  • N. insignis
  • N. izumiae
  • N. jacquelineae
  • N. khasiana
  • N. klossii
  • N. lamii
  • N. lavicola
  • N. longifolia
  • N. lowii
  • N. macfarlanei
  • N. macrophylla
  • N. macrovulgaris
  • N. madagascariensis
  • N. mapuluensis
  • N. masoalensis
  • N. maxima
  • N. merrilliana
  • N. mikei
  • N. mindanaoensis
  • N. mira
  • N. mirabilis
  • N. mollis
  • N. muluensis
  • N. neoguineensis
  • N. northiana
  • N. ovata
  • N. paniculata
  • N. papuana
  • N. pervillei (formerly in the monotypic genus Anurosperma)
  • N. petiolata
  • N. philippinensis
  • N. pilosa
  • N. platychila
  • N. rafflesiana
  • N. rajah
  • N. reinwardtiana
  • N. rhombicaulis
  • N. rigidifolia (formerly aptera)
  • N. rowanae
  • N. sanguinea
  • N. saranganiensis
  • N. sibuyanensis
  • N. singalana
  • N. spathulata
  • N. spectabilis
  • N. stenophylla
  • N. sumatrana
  • N. talangensis
  • N. tentaculata
  • N. tenuis
  • N. thorelii
  • N. tobaica
  • N. tomoriana
  • N. treubiana
  • N. truncata
  • N. veitchii
  • N. ventricosa
  • N. vieillardii
  • N. villosa
  • N. vogelii

Nepenthes albomarginata is a pitcher plant of genus nepenthes found in Brunei. ...

Hybrids

There are many hybrid Nepenthes. Some of the more well known are:

  • N. "Coccinea" ((N. rafflesiana × N. ampullaria) × N. mirabilis)
  • N. × 'hookeriana' (N. rafflesiana × N. ampullaria)
  • N. "Mixta" (N. northiana × N. maxima)
  • N. × 'trusmadiensis' (N. macrophylla × N. lowii)
  • N. "Ventrata" (N. ventricosa × N. alata)

References

  • Nepenthaceae in: Watson, L., and M. J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The Families of Flowering Plants: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, Information Retrieval. http://delta-intkey.com
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  Results from FactBites:
 
NEPENTHES, PITCHER PLANTS, CANTHARIFERA, PHYLLAMPHORA (576 words)
Nepenthes cuttings, when well rooted, will generally pick-up from where they left-off on the parent plant, i.e., a cutting from a mature plant making upper pitchers will (most of the time) continue with mature growth characteristics and upper pitchers when rooted.
All photographs on this web-site are of plants grown at Leilani Hapu'u Nepenthes Nursery.
Our nepenthes are grown on benches in shade houses certified by the State of Hawaii to be free of pests (including burrowing and reniform nematode certification).
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I have to admit this was not caught using nepenthes, neither using a ghh or phphop.
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The similar nepenthes module module-honeytrap does not offer the mirror mode yet, but allows accepting connections to unbound ports intercepting the tcp handshake using ip_queue and libipq.
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