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Encyclopedia > Nepal Bhasa
Nepal Bhasa
नेपालभाषा
Spoken in: Nepal, India, Bhutan 
Region: South Asia
Total speakers: 1 million approx.
Language family: Sino-Tibetan
 Tibeto-Burman
  Himalayish
   Nepal Bhasa 
Writing system: Devanagari script, Ranjana script, Prachalit script, Brahmi script, Gupta script, Bhujimol script, Golmol script
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: new
ISO 639-3: new

Nepal Bhasa (नेपाल भाषा, also known as Newah Bhaye and Newari) is one of the major languages of Nepal. It is one of roughly five hundred Sino-Tibetan languages, and belongs to the Tibeto-Burman branch of this family. It is the only Tibeto-Burman language to be written in the Devanāgarī script. It is spoken mainly by the Newars, who chiefly inhabit the towns of the Kathmandu Valley. Although Nepal Bhasa is classified as a Sino-Tibetan language, it has been greatly influenced by the Indo-Aryan languages. Newari can mean: Pertaining to Newar Nepal Bhasa ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... The Sino-Tibetan languages form a putative language family composed of Chinese and the Tibeto-Burman languages, including some 250 languages of East Asia. ... The Tibeto-Burman family of languages (often considered a sub-group of the Sino-Tibetan language family) is spoken in various central and south Asian countries, including Myanmar (Burma), northern Thailand, and parts of Western China (Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai (Amdo), Gansu, Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Hunan), Nepal, Bhutan, India (Himachal... Himalayish is a group of languages classified under Tibeto-Burman group of languages. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... च् + छ = च्छ Devanagari in Unicode The Unicode range for Devanagari is U+0900 . ... The Newari script also known as the Ranjana script is used for writing the Newari language of Nepal. ... Prachalit script is one of the many scripts used in Nepal Bhasa. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas used in South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... The Gupta script was used for writing Sanskrit and is associated with the Gupta Empire of India which was a period of material prosperity and great religious and scientific developments. ... Bhujimol script, palm_leaf MS of the Devimahatmya, Bihar or Nepal, 11th century. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The Sino-Tibetan languages form a putative language family composed of Chinese and the Tibeto-Burman languages, including some 250 languages of East Asia. ... The Tibeto-Burman linguistic subfamily of the proposed Sino-Tibetan language family is spoken in various central and south Asian countries: Myanmar (Burmese language), Tibet (Tibetan language), northern Thailand (Mong language), Nepal, Bhutan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and the Ladakh region of... () is an abugida script used to write several Indo-Aryan languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Gujarati,Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Marwari, Konkani, Bhojpuri, Pahari (Garhwali and Kumaoni), Santhali, Nepali, Newari, Tharu and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ... The Newar or Newah are the indigenous group of Nepals Kathmandu valley. ... A typical Nepalese house in the valley, made from cow dung and clay The Kathmandu valley, located in the Kingdom of Nepal, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of Asia, and has at least 130 important monuments, including several places of pilgrimage for the Hindus as well as the...

Contents

Geographic distribution

The language is spoken by roughly around a million people in Nepal according to 2001 census. Plus a few thousand people outside Nepal speak the language.

  • In Nepal: Kathmandu valley i.e. (Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Lalitpur Sub Metropolitan City, Bhaktapur Municipality, Kirtipur Municipality, Thimi Municipality), Dolakha, Banepa, Dhulikhel, Bhimphedi (Makwanpur), Panauti, Palpa, Trishuli, Nuwakot, Bhojpur, Biratnagar, Baglung, Bandipur, Birgunj, Hetaunda and other chief cities.
  • In India: Sikkim, West Bengal, Bettiah, Andamans[1]
  • In Tibet: Khasa

With an increase in emigration, various bodies and societies of Nepal Bhasa speaking people have emerged in countries like the US, the UK and Japan. Dhulikhel is a town with an estimated population of 10,170 that is the headquarters of Nepals Kavrepalanchok District. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchim Bônggo IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... , Bettiah is the headquarters of West Champaran district in the state of Bihar, near Indo-Nepal border, 225 Kilometres north-west of Patna. ... Ethnolinguistic map of the precolonial Andaman Islands The Andaman Islands are a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal, and are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India. ... The Khasas are an ancient people, believed to be a section of the Iranians who originally belonged to Central Asia from where they had penetrated, in remote antiquity, the Himalayas from Central Asia through Kashgar and Kashmir and dominated the whole hilly region. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...


History and development

A historical inscription in Bhaktapur Durbar Square in Nepal Bhasa
A historical inscription in Bhaktapur Durbar Square in Nepal Bhasa

Little is known about the origins of Nepal Bhasa except for the fact that the language has evolved with continued influences from Tibetan, Kirati, Maithali, Pali, Sanskrit, Khas, Hindi and other languages of the region. The language largely replaced Sanskrit as the official language of medieval Nepal as the language used in the shilalekh or stone scripture. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 533 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1572 × 1768 pixel, file size: 685 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took the photo myself. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 533 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1572 × 1768 pixel, file size: 685 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took the photo myself. ...


Nepal Bhasa has undergone continuous change through time. The language can be classified into old era and new era language. Although there is no specific demarcation between the two, mid-Rana regime of Nepal i.e. around 966 to 1061 N.S. is taken as the period of demarcation between the two [2].


Modern Nepal Bhasa is the most Indianized of the Tibeto-Burman languages. It has had many centuries of contact with neighboring Indic languages. The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ...


Ancient era

The earliest known (dated) document in Nepal Bhasa is called "The Palmleaf from Uku Bahal" which dates back to 1114AD (235 NS) [3]. A few lines from the script read[4]:

छीन ढाको तृसंघष परिभोग। छु पुलेंग कीत्य बिपार वस्त्र बिवु मिखा तिवु मदुगुन छु सात दुगुनव ल्है।

which is a general discussion of business transactions. This document dates from Lichchhivi period. Hence, it can be inferred that although the official language of the period was Sanskrit, Nepal Bhasa was already in use.


Medieval era

The language continued growing in the Medieval period, and enjoyed royal patronage. Noted royal writers include Mahindra Malla,Siddhinarsingh Malla, Jagatprakash Malla etc. An example of the language used in that period is provided by lines of Mooldevshashidev written by Jagatprakash Malla[5]

धु छेगुकि पाछाव वाहान
तिलहित बिया हिङ लाहाति थाय थायस

which is a description of Shiva, and the use of a tiger skin as a seat for Shiva. For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ...


The language replaced Sanskrit as the administrative language during this period. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Dark ages

The language faced a setback after unification of Nepal in 17th century. The language spoken by hilly people became the court language.


Furthermore,the literature, scripts etc. of the language were put in shadow during the 104 years of aristocratic "Rana rule"(1846-1950 AD). During this time, legal documents made in Nepa Bhasa were declared as non-usable and any evidence in Nepal Bhasa was declared null and void. There was no state support afterwards too.


During the autocratic rule of King Mahendra called Panchayat (which followed the coup-de-tat that deposited the democratically elected bodies of Nepal), a new policy was brought called "Ek Bhasa Ek Rashtra" (One language one nation). This policy made Nepali language the only state language and the other languages were in shadow as "ethnic" or "local" languages. The implementation of this policy made Nepali language, the state language. The continued enforcement of the language over 30 years made Khas language or Nepali the lingua franca as well. Oher languages including Nepal Bhasa were cast aside as the population could not use it for official, educational or for legal activities.


Renaissance era

The era between B.S.1965 to B.S. 1997 is considered as the renaissance era of Nepal Bhasa.[6] During this era, people like Pandit Nisthananda Bajracharya, Siddhidas Mahaju, Jagatsundar Malla, Yogbir Singh Kansakar, Shukraraj Shastri, Dharmaditya Dharmacharya started writing, translating, educating, and restructuring the language. Siddhidas Mahaju (सिद्धिदास महाजु) is one of the greatest writers in Nepal Bhasa literature. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The publication of a modern grammar, reader, and children's story books by Shukraraj Shastri, translation of the ancient epic Ramayan, writing about the morals and ethics by Siddhidas Mahaju, "education in mother tongue" movement by Jagatsundar Malla and other literary activities in the era marked the renaissance. Also, research on the language began in this period. It was proven that this language was a Sino-Tibetan language and not Indo-Aryan language (as was believed) in this era. Also, the renaissance marked the revival of the word "Nepal Bhasa" to name the language rather than the Khas imposed term "Newari". Lord Ram, Laxman, Sita and Hanuman(crouching) The Ramayana (Sanskrit: march (ayana) of Rama) is part of the Hindu smriti, written by Valmiki. ...


Some of the lines of Siddhidas Mahaju(N.S.987-N.S.1050) read as follows Siddhidas Mahaju (सिद्धिदास महाजु) is one of the greatest writers in Nepal Bhasa literature. ... Nepal Sambat (Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत) is a lunar calendar. ...

सज्जन मनुष्या संगतनं मूर्ख नापं भिना वै
पलेला लपते ल वंसा म्वति थें ल सना वै

which state that even a moron can improve with the company of good people just like even a drop of water appears like a pearl when it descends upon the leaves of a lotus plant.


Modern Nepal Bhasa

A lot of writers and thinkers have contributed to the modern form of Nepal Bhasa. These include Chittadhar "Hridaya", Durga Lal Shrestha etc.. Chittadhar Hridaya is one of the most noted writers of Nepal Bhasa. ... Durga Lal Shrestha is a famous poet of Nepal Bhasa. ...


During the Panchayat era, under the slogan of "एक देश, एक भाषा नीति" (one nation, one language), Nepal Bhasa (and other languages of Nepal) was prevented from being broadcasted in Radio Nepal or other government media. As the Government did not allow private broadcasting in Nepal, this prevented the language from mass media. Also, the term Newari was used to address the language instead of "Nepal Bhasa" which met fierce criticism and resistance. This marked the beginning of Nepal Bhasa movement. Instead of using mass media, people started producing audio cassettes. Also, the first Nepal Bhasa movie "Silu" marked the beginning of movies in Nepal Bhasa. Nepal Bhasa movement aimed to end the one nation, one language policy. Some lines from the famous poet Durga Lal Shrestha of this era are as follows[7]- Nepal Bhasa movement (Nepal Bhasa:नेपालभाषा आन्दोलन) is a linguistic movement of Nepal. ... Durga Lal Shrestha is a famous poet of Nepal Bhasa. ...

घाः जुयाः जक ख्वइगु खः झी
स्याःगुलिं सः तइगु खः
झी मसीनि ! झी मसीनि !
धइगु चिं जक ब्वैगु खः

which translate as "We are crying because we are wounded, we are shouting because of the pain, all in all we are demonstrating signs that we are not dead yet".


The restoration of democracy marked the privatization of media. Various concerned people and organizations are working on the development of Nepal Bhasa by themselves. Nepal Bhasa has several newspapers, a primary level curriculum, several schools, several F.M. stations (selected time for Nepal Bhasa programs), regular TV programs and News (in Image TV Channel), Nepal Bhasa Music Award (a part of Image Award), several websites (including Nepal Bhasa wikipedia) etc.


Even after the restoration of democracy and the Loktantra revolution, the state owned media address the language as Newari. Also, after the Supreme court banned the use of Nepal Bhasa and any other language of Nepal in any administrative activities, Nepal Bhasa movement merged with other languages movements to fight for the right of language.


Dialects

The main dialects are [8]:-


Dolkhali (Dolakha)

This is the most preserved form of language and resembles the old Nepal Bhasa.


Sindhupalchowk Pahri (Pahri, Pahari)

This dialect has similar vocabulary as the Yala subdialect of Yen-Yala-Kyepu dialect. However, the language is spoken with a Tamang langauge tone.


Totali

Chitlang

This dialect is used in Chitlang, a place south of Kathmandu valley in Makawanpur district.


Kathmandu-Patan-Kirtipur

Also known as Yen-Yala-Kyepu Bhaaye (ञ - यल - क्येपु भाय्), this is the most dominant form of language. It is the most evolved form of language and is very close to the standard form of language used in academics and media. This is also the most widely used dialect. Variations are seen in the use of the words, specially nouns, amongst the Buddhists and Hindus.


Bhaktapur

Also known as Khwapa Bhaaye (ख्वप: भाय्), this form of language is more close to the old form than the standard form. Variations exist in the use of this form of language in Bhaktapur, Banepa, Panauti and Dhulikhel.


Baglung

In addition to these dialects, there are few sub-dialects spoken in Kathmandu valley and other parts of Nepal. These sub-dialects are spoken in surrounding villages of Kathmandu, Patan, Bhaktapur, Chitlang and Dolakha. The dialect spoken in Bandipur is the oldest form of Khwapa Bhaaye. The dialect spoken in Chainpur, Bhojpur, Terathum, Palpa is related to Kathmandu and Patan. The dialect spoken in Ridi, Baglung, Arughat (Gorkha) is closer to Bhaktapur.


Sounds

The sounds are traditionally listed in the order vowels, diphthongs, anusvara and visarga, stops and nasals (starting in the back of the mouth and moving forward), and finally the liquids and fricatives, written in IAST as follows (see the tables below for details): Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... Anusvaara (or anusvaaram) appears in the alphabet of Indian languages like Sanskrit which use the Devanagari script, and in the Dravidian languages. ... Visarga () is a Sanskrit word meaning sending forth, discharge. In Sanskrit phonology (), (also called, equivalently, by earlier grammarians) is the name of a phone, , written as IAST <>, Harvard-Kyoto <H>, Devanagari <>. Visarga is an allophone of and in pausa (at the end of an utterance). ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Liquid consonants, or liquids, are speech sounds; more specifically, they are approximant consonants that are not classified as semivowels (glides) because they do not correspond phonetically to specific vowels (in the way that, for example, the initial [j] in English yes corresponds to [i]). The class of liquids can be... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ...

a ā i ī u ū ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ ; e ai o au
ṃ ḥ
k kh g gh ṅ; c ch j jh ñ; ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍh ṇ; t th d dh n; p ph b bh m
y r l v; ś ṣ s h

Writing systems and grammar

Shukraraj Shastri's Grammar book
Shukraraj Shastri's Grammar book
Main articles: Writing system of Nepal Bhasa and Nepal Bhasa grammar

Nepal Bhasa has been written in a variety of abugida scripts. The scripts which have been used to write this language are: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 413 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (859 × 1247 pixel, file size: 218 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took the image myself of the cover of the first edition of Shukraraj Shastris book called Nepal Bhasa Byakaran. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 413 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (859 × 1247 pixel, file size: 218 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took the image myself of the cover of the first edition of Shukraraj Shastris book called Nepal Bhasa Byakaran. ... An inscription of Swampy Cree using Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, an abugida developed by Christian missionaries for Aboriginal Canadian languages An abugida (from Ge‘ez አቡጊዳ ’äbugida) is a segmental writing system in which each letter (basic character) represents a consonant accompanied by a specific vowel; other vowels are indicated by modification...

Over the centuries, Nepal Bhasa has been written in many scripts, all of which are descended from the Brahmi script. All the scripts proceed from left to right, and include two separate sets of characters - a vowel set and a consonant set. Devanagari is the most widely-used script at the present, as it is the official script of Nepal as well as is used widely in neighbouring India. Ranjana script was the most widely-used script for Nepal Bhasa in ancient times, and is experiencing a sort of a revival due to recent cultural awareness. The Prachalit script, being similar to Devanagari, is also in use. The Brahmi and Golmol scripts are rarely used in present. The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas used in South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... The Gupta script was used for writing Sanskrit and is associated with the Gupta Empire of India which was a period of material prosperity and great religious and scientific developments. ... Prachalit script is one of the many scripts used in Nepal Bhasa. ... The Newari script also known as the Ranjana script is used for writing the Newari language of Nepal. ... च् + छ = च्छ Devanagari in Unicode The Unicode range for Devanagari is U+0900 . ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas used in South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... च् + छ = च्छ Devanagari in Unicode The Unicode range for Devanagari is U+0900 . ... The Newari script also known as the Ranjana script is used for writing the Newari language of Nepal. ... Prachalit script is one of the many scripts used in Nepal Bhasa. ...


In overall writing system of Nepal Bhasa, there are four form of alphabets:

  • Vowels called Ma Akha
  • Consonants called Ba Akha
  • Complex consonants called China Akha
  • Numericals called Lyaa Akha

Vowels

The vowels, called MaAkha (माआखः) used in Nepal Bhasa are

Orthography अं अः
Roman a aa i ii u uu e ai o au am aha ru Ru lru lRuu
IPA /ə/ /ɑː/ /i/ /iː/ /u/ /uː/ /eː/ /əi/ /oː/ /əu/ /əⁿ/ /əʰ/ /ru/ /ruː/ /lru/ /lruː/

Even though ऋ, ॠ, ऌ, ॡ are present in Nepal Bhasa, they are rarely used. Instead, some of the experts are suggesting to include अय्(aya)and आय्(aaya) in the list of vowels [9].


Consonants

The consonants, called BaAkha(बाआखः), used in Nepal Bhasa are:

k
/k/
kha
/kʰ/
g
/g/
gh
/gʰ/
gn
/ŋ/
ch
/cɕ/ or /ts/
chh
/cɕʰ/
j or z
/ɟʝ/ or /z/
jh or zh
/ɟʝʰ/ or /zʰ/
tra
/ɲ/
t
/ʈ/
th
/ʈʰ/
d
/ɖ/
dh
/ɖʰ/
n
/ɳ/
t
/t̪/
th
/t̪ʰ/
d
/d̪/
dh
/d̪ʰ/
n
/n̪/
p
/p/
f
/f/
b
/b/
bh
/bʰ/
m
/m/
y
/j/
r
/r/
l
/l/
v
/v/
sh
/ʃ/
sh
/ʃ/
s
/s/
h
/h/
क्ष त्र ज्ञ
ksh
/ɭ/
tra
/kʃ/
gny
/d̪n/

The use of ङ and ञ was very common in the old form of language. However, in the new form, specially in written, the use of these characters has diminished. The use of ण, त, थ, द, ध, न, श, ष, क्ष, त्र, ज्ञ are limited by the new Grammar books to the loan words only.


Complex/compound consonants

Besides the consonants mentioned above, some complex consonants called China Akha (चिना आखः) are also used. These China Akha represent the Sino-Tibetan characteristics of the language. The most used of these complex consonants, which by some are considered individual letters, are [10]:

  • न्ह
  • म्ह
  • ल्ह
  • ह्र

Numericals

The numericals used in Nepal Bhasa have ten digits from 0-9. The numericals used in Ranjana script are as follows (from 0 to 9)

The same numericals in Devnagari are: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

In Devanāgarī
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

The earliest form of written grammar were developed by Shukraj Shastri and Nisthananda Bajracharya. Shukraraj Shastri's grammar is very similar to Sanskrit. He had studied Sanskrit, English and Hindi grammar[11] before creating his masterpiece called Nepal Bhasa Wyakarana which is based largely on Sanskrit but with great study of Nepal Bhasa as well.


Literature

Books in Nepal Bhasa
Books in Nepal Bhasa

Main article: Nepal Bhasa literature Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 396 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took the image myself. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 396 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took the image myself. ... Nepal Bhasa literature refers to literature in Nepal Bhasa. ...


Nepal Bhasa literature has a long history. It has the fourth-oldest literature of the Sino-Tibetan languages (the first, second and third being Chinese, Tibetan and Burmese respectively).


Drama

Dramas are traditionally performed in open Dabu (stage). Most of the traditional dramas are related to deities and demons. Masked characters are central to such dramas. Music forms an important part of drama. Most of them are narrated with the help of songs sang at intervals. The drama as such resembles dance in many cases. The theme of most of the drama is to create a social wellbeing with morals illustrating the rise, turbulence and fall of evil. There are fixed dates in the Nepal Sambat (Nepal Era) calendar for performance of specific drama. Most of the dramas are carried out by specific Guthis. For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... Nepal Sambat (Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत) is a lunar calendar. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Poetry

Poetry writing constituted a pompous part of medieval Malla aristrocracy. Many of the kings were well renowned poets. Siddhidas Mahaju and Chittadhar Hridaya are two great poets in the language. This article is about the art form. ... Siddhidas Mahaju (सिद्धिदास महाजु) is one of the greatest writers in Nepal Bhasa literature. ... Chittadhar Hridaya is one of the most noted writers of Nepal Bhasa. ...


Prose fiction

This is a relatively new field of literature compared to other fields. Most of the fiction were written in poetry form till the medieval era. So, almost all of prose fiction belong to the modern Nepal Bhasa. Collective short stories in Nepal Bhasa are more popular than novels.


Story

The art of verbal story telling is very old in Nepal Bhasa. There are a variety of mythical and social stories that have aided in establishing the norm of Kathmandu valley. Stories ranging from the origin of Kathmandu valley to the temples of the valley and the important monuments have been passed down verbally in Nepal Bhasa and very few are present in written form. However, with an increase in literacy rate and an awareness amongst the people, those stories have been penned down. Stories on other topics have also taken root. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Nepal Bhasa and Newar community

A wall slogan of Maoists using Nepal Bhasa
A wall slogan of Maoists using Nepal Bhasa

Nepal Bhasa is the mother tongue of Newars. Newars form a very diverse community with people from the Mongolian, Aryan and—according to some—even Dravidian races. Newars follow Hinduism and Buddhism, and are subdivided into 64 castes. The language therefore plays a central unifying role in the existence and perpetuation of Newar community. The poet Siddhidas Mahaju concluded that the Newar community and its rich culture can only survive if Nepal Bhasa survives (भाषा म्वासा जाति म्वाइ). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 342 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took the image myself in Bhaktapur. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 342 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I took the image myself in Bhaktapur. ...


Nepal Bhasa faced a decline during the Shah era when this language was replaced by Khas Kura (later renamed Nepali) as the national language and after the introduction of the "One nation, one language" policy of King Mahendra. The then Royal Nepalese Government spent a lot for Sanskrit education and a Sanskrit University was approved during those times—although Sanskrit is virtually not spoken by anyone in Nepal—because Khas Kura's roots lie in Sanskrit. There were very few resources available then for even primary-level education in Nepal Bhasa. There were no programs broadcast in Nepal Bhasa in the state radio, Radio Nepal. Even after programs in Nepal Bhasa began to be broadcast, the language was referred to as "Newari", a term considered derogatory by Newars. Even today, there are no programs in Nepal Bhasa in the state television, Nepal Television, although it broadcasts a Bollywood Hindi movie every Saturday (although it is used as lingua franca in Terai, Hindi is mother tongue of less than 1% population in Nepal) and often Pakistani serials (in Urdu) as well. The Supreme Court of Nepal has also banned any use of Nepal Bhasa even for trivial matters in official purposes of any part of Nepal. These factors have led to a resentment among Newar community and a feeling of "second class" citizen in one's own state.


This fact has been used for political advantages by many parties of Nepal. Many slogans are translated into Nepal Bhasa, although very few important documents of political parties are ever translated into Nepal Bhasa.


Some common phrases and terms

English Devanagari Roman script
Hello ज्वजलपा Jwajalapa
What is your name? छिगु नां: छु खः ? Chhigu naa chhu kha?
My name is ___ जिगु नां: ___ ख: Jigu naa___ kha
Happy New Year न्हूदँया भिंतुना Nhugu dan yaa bhintunaa
Mother मां Maa
Father अबु Abu
Grandmother अजी Ajee
Grandfather अजा Ajaa
Friend पासा Paasaa
Organization गुथि Guthi
House छें Chhen
Person मनु Manu
Medicine वास: Waasa
News बुखं Bukhan
Dance प्याखं Pyakhan
Stage दबली / दबू: Dabalee / Daboo
Palace लाय्‌कू Layaku
Office ज्यास: Jyaasa
Shop पस: Pasa/Pasal
Courtyard चूक Chooka
Brain न्ह्यपु Nhepu
Heart नुगः Nugah
Water लः / ना Lah / Naa
I don't understand Nepal Bhasa जित: नेपाल भाषा मवः Jita Nepal Bhasa mawa

Few words--origin--meaning

(From the review article on "Dictionary of classical Newari compiled from manuscript sources. Nepal Bhasa Dictionary Committee. Cwasā Pāsā. Kathmandu: Modern Printing Press, Jamal 2000, pp. XXXV, 530. ISBN: 99933-316-0-0" by Siegfried Lienhard (SpringerLink),for the full list)

Words Origin (orig. word) Meaning
La:h Pali (Jala:h) Water
Kaa:sa Pali Bronze
Kaji Arabic leader
Khaapaa Pali Door (Original meaning in Pali was "door panel")
Kimi Sanskrit (Krmi) Hookworm
Adha:vata Farsi Malice
Ka:h Pali (Kana) Blind (Original meaning in Pali was "one-eyed")
Dya:h Pali (Dev) Diety
Nhya:h Pali (Na:sika) Nose
Mhu:tu Pali (Mukhena) Mouth
Khicha: Pali (Kukkura) Dog

References

  1. ^ Ethnologue entry
  2. ^ Pulangu Nepalbhasa Wangmaya-muna by Kashinath Tamot
  3. ^ The Earliest Dated Document in Newar: The Palfleaf from Uku Bahah by Dr. Kamalprakash Malla
  4. ^ Pulangu Nepalbhasa Wangmaya-muna by Kashinath Tamot
  5. ^ Mooldevshashidev by Jagatprakash Malla, edited by Saraswati Tuladhar
  6. ^ शुक्रराज अस्पताल स्मारिका २०५७, Page 52, नेपालभाषाको पुनर्जागरणमा शुक्रराज शास्त्री by सह-प्रा. प्रेमशान्ति तुलाधर
  7. ^ नेपालभाषाया न्हूगु पुलांगु म्ये मुना ब्वः१
  8. ^ Ethnologue
  9. ^ Nepal Bhasa Wyaakarana (Page 2) by Tuyubahadur Maharjan, published by Nepal Bhasa Academy
  10. ^ Nepal Bhasa Wyaakarana (Page 3) by Tuyubahadur Maharjan, published by Nepal Bhasa Academy
  11. ^ Nepal Bhasa Wyaakarana by Shukraraj Shastri, Page "gha"

External links

Wikipedia
Nepal Bhasa edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikibooks
Wikibooks' [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject:
Nepal Bhasa
The Newar or Newah are the indigenous group of Nepals Kathmandu valley. ... Timeline and Samples Genres Newari Music - Nepali rock - Nepalese Hip hop Awards Image Music Awards - HitsFM Music Awards Charts Festivals Goon lā Media Radio Nepal , Hits FM, Image FM National anthem Rastriya Gaan Newari Music is a traditional music developed in Nepal by the Newars. ... Dhimay or Dhimaya (Nepal Bhasa: ) is a double-headed cylindrical drum with a big wooden or metallic body. ... Bhusyah (Nepal Bhasa: भूस्याः) is a pair of metallic cymbals. ... Dhau Newari Cuisine is a type of cuisine developed over centuries by the Newars of Nepal. ... Ailaa (Nepal Bhasa:अयला) is a type of hard liquor prepared by Newars. ... Baji(Nepal Bhasa: बजि, Nepali: ) is a type of beaten rice eaten in Nepal. ... Chataamari is a kind of rice crepe. ... Chwelaa is a special type of water buffalo delicacy of Newars. ... JAA is an abbreviation for: Japan Asia Airways the Joint Aviation Authorities of Europe This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Kachilaa is a special meat delicacy of Newars, consisting of marinated raw minced water buffalo meat. ... Lakhamari (Nepal Bhasa: लाखमरी) is a type of sweet of Newars. ... Sanyaa is a special type of dried fish prepared by the Newars. ... Sanyaakhuna is a special type of jelly like food prepared and consumed primarily by the Newars. ... Thwon (Nepal Bhasa:थ्वं) is a type of alcoholic beverage. ... Goon lā(Nepal Bhasa:गुं ला) is a month of Nepalese calendar Nepal Sambat. ... Sā Pāru (Devnagari : सा पारू, English: Cow festival, Nepali: Gai Jatra) is a festival celebrated chiefly in Nepal by the Newars. ... Yanyā Punhi (Devnagari: ञेया पुन्ही, Sanskrit: Indra Jatra) is a festival celebrated in Kathmandu, Nepal. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ehee(Nepal Bhasa:ईही) is a ceremony in Nepal in which pre-adolescent girls are married to the bel fruit tree, ensuring that the girl becomes and remains fertile. ... Jankwa is a ritual to commemorate the elderly and the infants in Newar community. ... Ketaa Pujaa is a ritual of Newar boys in which they are required to shave their head. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nepal Bhasa. ... Nepal Bhasa literature refers to literature in Nepal Bhasa. ... Nepal Bhasa movement (Nepal Bhasa:नेपालभाषा आन्दोलन) is a linguistic movement of Nepal. ... Stupa at Swayambhunath Shikhar style temple erected by king Pratap Malla Swayambhunath (Devnagari: स्वयम्भूनाथ स्तुप, English (rarely):Monkey Temple) is one of the holiest Buddhist sites in the area of Kathmandu. ... Shree Pashupatinath (श्री पशुपतिनाथ) is an important Hindu name for Lord Shiva. ... Lakhey (Nepal Bhasa:लाखे, lā-khé) is a famous character in Newar culture. ... Majipa Lakhey (Lakhey Aaju, Devnagari: मजिपा लाखे, लाखे आजु) is a special Lakhey. ... Star Trek: Enterprise starship, see Kumari (Star Trek). ... The eight Ajimas of Kathmandu are also worshipped as Asthamatrika Ajima (Nepal Bhasa:अजिमा) is a group of goddess of Newar pantheon. ... Matrikas, that is, the mothers, are a band of divinities, which always appear in a group. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Newari Dance consists of the whole array of dances that are traditionally performed by Newars. ... Nepal Sambat (Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत) is a lunar calendar. ... For other uses, see Kathmandu (disambiguation). ... Birds eye view of the Patan Durbar Square. ... Peacock Window View of a typical square A street of Bhaktapur Bhaktapur (27. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Newar Buddhism originally means the Vajrayana Buddhism practised by Newars with Bajrachharya as the priest. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Requests for new languages/Wikipedia Nepal Bhasa - Meta (626 words)
Nepal Bhasa is one of the largest and oldest Tibeto-Burman language.
Nepal Bhasa was the official language of Medieval Nepal.
As Nepal Bhasa sounds very similar to Nepali, it was tagged Newari just because the majority of the people who spoke the language at that time were Newars.
Nepal Bhasa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - wiki.farrma.info (2749 words)
Nepal Bhasa (नेपाल भाषा, also known as Newah Bhaye and Newari) is one of the major languages of Nepal.
Nepal Bhasa is the mother tongue of Newars.
Nepal Bhasa faced a decline during the Shah era when this language was replaced by Khas Kura (later renamed Nepali) as the national language and after the introduction of the "One nation, one language" policy of King Mahendra.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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