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Encyclopedia > Nepal
नेपाल
Nepāl
Nepal
Flag of Nepal Emblem of Nepal
Flag Emblem
Motto"Mother and Motherland are Greater than Heaven"
Anthem"Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka"
Capital Kathmandu (Nepal Bhasa: येँ)
27°42′N 85°19′E / 27.7, 85.317
Largest city Kathmandu
Official languages Nepali[1]
Recognised regional languages Maithili, Nepal Bhasa, Bhojpuri, Tharu, Gurung, Tamang, Magar, Awadhi, Sherpa, Kiranti and another 100 different indigenous languages.
Demonym Nepali
Government Federal Republic
 -  Acting Head of State Girija Prasad Koirala
 -  Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala
Unification
 -  Kingdom declared December 21, 1768 
 -  State declared January 15, 2007 
 -  Republic declared May 28, 2008 
Area
 -  Total 147,181 km² (93rd)
56,827 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 2.8
Population
 -  July 2008 estimate 29,519,114 (40th)
 -  2003 census 23,151,423 
 -  Density 184/km² (56th)
477/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $48.18 billion (87th)
 -  Per capita $1,500 (164th)
Gini (2003–04) 47.2 (high) 
HDI (2007) 0.534 (medium) (142nd)
Currency Rupee (NPR)
Time zone NPT (UTC+5:45)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+5:45)
Internet TLD .np
Calling code +977

Nepal (Nepali: नेपाल [neˈpaːl] ), is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, and India to the south, east and west. The Himalaya mountain range runs across Nepal's northern and western parts, and eight of the world's ten highest mountains, including the highest, Mount Everest, are within its territory. Image File history File links Acap. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Flag ratio: 4:3 The national flag of Nepal is the only non-quadrangular national flag, and one of only two non-rectangular official jurisdictional flags in the world (the other is the flag of Ohio). ... Nepals emblem The Nepalese national emblem consists of the rhododendron; a white cow; a green pheasant; two Gurkha soldiers, one carrying a khukri and a bow and an arrow and the other a modern rifle; peaks of the Himalaya; the moon and the sun, both with faces showing Hindu... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka (Nepali: सयौं थूंगा फूलका, translates to hundreds of flowers) is the national anthem of Nepal. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... For other uses, see Kathmandu (disambiguation). ... Newari redirects here. ... For other uses, see Kathmandu (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... Maithili is of the family of Indo-Aryan languages, which are part of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Newari redirects here. ... Categories: Indo-Aryan languages | Languages of India | Language stubs ... Gurung (ISO/DIS 639-3: gvr) is a language spoken by the Gurung community in parts of Nepal and Sikkim in India. ... Tamang (ISO/DIS 639-3: taj) is a language spoken in parts of Nepal and Sikkim. ... Magar (ISO/DIS 639-3: mgp /ISO/DIS 639-3: mrd) is a language spoken in parts of Nepal and Sikkim in India. ... Awadhi is a dialect of Hindi, spoken in the Awadh (Oudh) region of Uttar Pradesh. ... Sherpa (ISO/DIS 639-3: xsr) is a language spoken in parts of Nepal and Sikkim mainly by the Sherpa community. ... The Kiranti languages form a sub-group of the Tibeto-Burman language family, which is itself a branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Girija Prasad Koirala (born 1925) is the incumbent Prime Minister of Nepal. ... The position of Prime Minister of Nepal was created in 1799. ... Girija Prasad Koirala (born 1925) is the incumbent Prime Minister of Nepal. ... In the mid 18th century Nepal was fractured into three kingdoms. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code NPR User(s) Nepal Inflation 7. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Nepal Time (NPT) is the time zone for the Kingdom of Nepal. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .np is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Nepal. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... Image File history File links Nepal. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Everest redirects here. ...


The modern state was formed with the Unification of Nepal by Prithvi Narayan Shah on December 21, 1768. Prior to 2006, Nepal was a kingdom and the only nation with Hinduism as its official religion. At present, Nepal is officially and constitutionally a secular country. Its recent history has involved struggles for democratic government with periods of direct monarchic rule. From 1995 until 2006, Nepal suffered from a Civil War between government forces and Maoist guerrillas of the Communist Party of Nepal. In the mid 18th century Nepal was fractured into three kingdoms. ... Prithvi Narayan Shah, King of Nepal (1723 - 1775 A.D.; Nepali: पृथ्वी नारायण शाह), with whom we move into the modern period of Nepals history, was the ninth generation descendant of Dravya Shah (1559 - 1570 A.D.) , the founder of the ruling house of Gorkha. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Combatants Government forces Communist Party Commanders Gyanendra of Nepal Prachanda Casualties 12,700+ deaths The Nepalese Civil War (labelled Peoples War by the Maoists [1]) was a conflict between monarchist government forces and Maoist rebels in Nepal which lasted from 1996 until 2006. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛澤東思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), also called Marxism-Leninism–Mao Zedong Thought or Marxism-Leninism-Maoism (MLM), is a variant of communism derived from the teachings of Mao Zedong (1893–1976). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


On December 28, 2007, the Interim Parliament passed a bill and declared Nepal to be a Federal Democratic Republic. The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly officially implemented that declaration on May 28, 2008. is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


Nepal is a multi-cultural, multi-linguistic and multi religious country. For a relatively small country, Nepal has a diverse landscape, ranging from the humid Terai plains in the south to the mountainous Himalayas in the north, which makes it a major tourist destination. Hinduism is practised by huge majority of the people, but the country also has a strong Buddhist tradition; Lumbini, the birthplace of Buddha Siddhartha Gautama being located in the Terai, one of the three regions of Nepal. The Terai, or Tarai (i. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Lumbini(27° 28 60N, 83° 16 60E) (Sanskrit: , the lovely) is a Buddhist pilgrimage site located in Rupandehi District, Lumbini Zone of Nepal. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... The Terai, or Tarai (i. ...


The capital Kathmandu is the largest city in the country. The official language is Nepali and the state currency is the Nepalese Rupee (NPR). Nepal's Flag is the only national flag in the world that is non-quadrilateral in shape. It is believed that lord Vishnu had organized the Nepali people and given them this flag, with the sun and moon as emblems on it.[2] For other uses, see Kathmandu (disambiguation). ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... ISO 4217 Code NPR User(s) Nepal Inflation 7. ... Flag ratio: 4:3 The national flag of Nepal is the only non-quadrangular national flag, and one of only two non-rectangular official jurisdictional flags in the world (the other is the flag of Ohio). ... This article is about the geometric shape. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Etymology

Ne Muni

Historians and local traditions say that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself at the valley of Kathmandu during prehistoric times and that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place protected ("pala" in Sanskrit) by the sage "Ne". The etymology of the name Nepal means, "the country looked after by Ne".[3] Saints are recognized in Hinduism although it does not require canonization or similar formal process to acknowledge a person as one. ...


He used to perform religious ceremonies at Teku, the confluence of the Bagmati and Bishnumati rivers.[4] He is said by legend to have selected a pious cowherd to be the first of the many kings of the Gopala Dynasty.[5] These rulers are said to have ruled Nepal for over 500 years.[6] He selected Bhuktaman to be the first king in the line of the Gopal (Cowherd) Dynasty.[7] The Gopal dynasty ruled for 621 years. Yakshya Gupta was the last king of this dynasty.However,this mythology can be challenged as no such name as Ne exists in Nepali or other sanskrit derived languages.


According to Skanda Purana, a rishi called "Ne" or "Nemuni" used to live in Himalaya.[8] In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a saint and a protector. [9] He is said to have practiced penance at the Bagmati and Kesavati rivers[10] and to have taught his doctrines there too. [11] Skanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text believed to be written and compiled over a long period, from 6th century to 15th century, is the largest Purana, and is devoted mainly to the life and deed of Kartikeya (also called Skanda), a son of Shiva... Tapasya is a principle of austerity or willingness to bear suffering in Hinduism and related religions such as Buddhism and Jainism. ...


Other possible derivations

Another legend ties the name to agriculture; "Ne" means wool in the Tibetan language and "pal" means house or godown.[citation needed] Hong Kong English is sometimes used to refer to the accent and characteristics of English spoken by some of the ethnic Chinese residents of Hong Kong. ...


Others believe the word “Nepal” was derived from the word “Nepa:” which refers to the Newar Kingdom of with Kathmandu Valley as its capital. With Sanskritization, the Newar word Nepa became Nepal[12]. The Newars, a linguistic community (derived from various ethnicities) of present day Nepal, refer to all the inhabitants of Kathmandu valley and its peripheries (called "Nepa:") before the advent of Shah dynasty. The Nepal Sambat calendar, named after this Newar kingdom and devised 1200 years ago, is still one of the major calendars used in Nepal and testifies to its antiquity. The Newa (Nepal Bhasa:नेवाः Newa or Newah, Old Nepal Bhasa: नेवार Newar, नेवाल Newal) are the indigenous people of Nepals Kathmandu Valley. ... A typical Nepalese house in the valley, made from cow dung and clay The Kathmandu valley, located in the Kingdom of Nepal, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of Asia, and has at least 130 important monuments, including several places of pilgrimage for the Hindus as well as the... Nepal Sambat (Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत) is a lunar calendar. ...


Language

All the languages spoken in Nepal are the national languages[13]. Nepali is the official language of Nepal[14]. It was originally called Khaskura, but became known as Nepali during the 20th century[15]. However, all languages spoken in Nepal can be used for official purposes and documentation irrespective of what the official language is [16]. Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ...


History

Main article: History of Nepal

The History of Nepal is characterized by its isolated position in the Himalayas and its two dominant neighbors, India and China. ...

Prehistory

Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least 9,000 years. It appears that people who were probably of Kirant ethnicity lived in Nepal 2,500 years ago.[17] An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... A typical Nepalese house in the valley, made from cow dung and clay The Kathmandu valley, located in the Kingdom of Nepal, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of Asia, and has at least 130 important monuments, including several places of pilgrimage for the Hindus as well as the... Selected ethnic groups of Nepal; Bhotia, Sherpa, Thakali Gurung Kiranti, Rai, Limbu Newari Pahari Tamang Kirant refers to the Kiranti group or a Kirata confederation that includes the Limbu, Rai, Yakkha and Sunuwar ethnic groups of Nepal. ...


Ancient

Nepal is mentioned in Hindu scriptures such as the Narayana Puja[18] and the Atharva Siras (800-600 BC).[19]Around 1000 BC, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the region. From one of these, the Shakya confederation, arose a prince named Siddharta Gautama (563–483 BC), who later renounced his royalty to lead an ascetic life and came to be known as the Buddha ("the enlightened one").7th Kirata king Jitedasti was on throne in Nepal valley at the time. By 250 BC, the region came under the influence of the Mauryan empire of northern India, and later became a vassal state under the Gupta Dynasty in the fourth century AD. From the late fifth century, rulers called the Licchavis governed the area. There is a good and quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk, Xuanzang, dating from c. 645 AD.[20][21] This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Śākya (Sanskrit) or Sakya (Pāli) is the name (derived from Sanskrit Å›akya, capable, able) of an Indo-Aryan-speaking nation or janapada of the (the so-called warrior caste). The Śākyas formed independent tribes or kingdoms near the foothills of the Himālayas. ... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... The Gupta dynasty ruled the Gupta Empire of India, from around 320 to 550. ... Licchavi (also Lichchhavi, Lichavi) was an ancient kingdom in Nepal, which existed in the Kathmandu Valley from approximately 400 to 750. ... A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. ...


The Licchavi dynasty went into decline in the late eighth century and was followed by a Newari era, from 879, although the extent of their control over the entire country is uncertain. By the late 11th century, southern Nepal came under the influence of the Chalukaya Empire of southern India. Under the Chalukayas, Nepal's religious establishment changed as the kings patronised Hinduism instead of the prevailing Buddhism. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Newar are the indigenous ethnolinguistic group of Nepals Kathmandu valley. ... The Chalukya dynasty (Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) was a powerful Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th century C.E. They began to assert their independence at the decline of the Satavahana empire and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ...

Map of Nepal
Map of Nepal

Image File history File links Nepal_map. ... Image File history File links Nepal_map. ...

Medieval

By the early 12th century, leaders were emerging whose names ended with the Sanskrit suffix malla ("wrestler"). Initially their reign was marked by upheaval, but the kings consolidated their power and ruled over the next 200 years; by the late 14th century, much of the country began to come under a unified rule. This unity was short-lived; in 1482 the region was carved into three kingdoms: Kathmandu, Patan, and Bhadgaon. For other uses, see Kathmandu (disambiguation). ... Patan is : a city in Nepal (Patan, Nepal) a city and district in Gujarat (Patan, Gujarat) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Bhadgaon is a place in Nepal. ...

Hindu temples in Patan, capital of one of the three medieval Newar kingdoms
Hindu temples in Patan, capital of one of the three medieval Newar kingdoms

After centuries of petty rivalry between the three kingdoms, in the mid-18th century Prithvi Narayan Shah, a Gorkha King set out to unify the kingdoms. Seeking arms and aid from India, and buying the neutrality of bordering Indian kingdoms, he embarked on his mission in 1765. After several bloody battles and sieges, he managed to unify Kathmandu Valley three years later in 1768. However, an actual battle never took place to conquer the Kathmandu valley; it was taken over by Prithvi Narayan and his troops without any effort, during Indra Jatra, a festival of Newars, when all the valley's citizens were celebrating the festival. This event marked the birth of the modern nation of Nepal. Image File history File links Patan_temples. ... Image File history File links Patan_temples. ... The Newar or Newah are the indigenous group of Nepals Kathmandu valley. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Prithvi Narayan Shah, King of Nepal (1723 - 1775 A.D.; Nepali: पृथ्वी नारायण शाह), with whom we move into the modern period of Nepals history, was the ninth generation descendant of Dravya Shah (1559 - 1570 A.D.) , the founder of the ruling house of Gorkha. ... Gurkha Soldiers (1896) Wives and children of Gurkha Soldiers (1896) Gurkha (or Gorkha) are a people from Nepal who take their name from the former city-state of Gorkha, which went on to found the Kingdom of Nepal later on. ... The Newar or Newah are the indigenous group of Nepals Kathmandu valley. ...


Modern

There is historical evidence that, at one time, the boundary of Greater Nepal extended from Tista River on the East to Kangara, across Sutlej River, in the west. A dispute and subsequently war with Tibet over the control of mountain passes forced the Nepalese to retreat and pay heavy reparations. Rivalry between Nepal and the British East India Company over the annexation of minor states bordering Nepal eventually led to the Anglo-Nepalese War (1815–16). The valor displayed by the Nepalese during the war astounded their enemies and earned them their image of fierce and ruthless "Gurkhas". The war ended the Treaty of Sugauli. This treaty ceded Sikkim and lands in Terai to the Company. The Sutlej is a river that flows through Northern India, with its source in Tibet. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... The Gurkha War (1814-1816), also known as the Anglo-Nepalese War, was fought between the British Empire and the Kingdom of Nepal. ... Gurkha, also spelled as Gorkha, are people from Nepal and parts of North India, who take their name from the eighth century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath. ... Areas ceded to the British by the Nepalese. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ...


Factionalism inside the royal family had led to a period of instability. In 1846 a plot was discovered, revealing that the reigning queen had planned to overthrow Jung Bahadur Rana, a fast-rising military leader. This led to the Kot Massacre; armed clashes between military personnel and administrators loyal to the queen led to the execution of several hundred princes and chieftains around the country. Jung Bahadur Rana emerged victorious and founded the Rana lineage. The king was made a titular figure, and the post of Prime Minister was made powerful and hereditary. The Ranas were staunchly pro-British, and assisted them during the Indian Sepoy Rebellion in 1857 (and later in both World Wars). The decision to help British East India Company was taken by the Rana Regime, then led by Jang Bahadur Rana. Some parts of Terai Region were given back to Nepal by the British as a friendly gesture, because of her military help to sustain British control in India during the Sepoy Rebellion. In 1923, the United Kingdom and Nepal formally signed an agreement of friendship, in which Nepal's independence was recognized by the UK. Royal Standard of Nepal The king of Nepal is known as the Raja; his Queen is known as the Rani. ... The Kot Massacre was a bloodbath in in 1846 in which the royals of Nepal and the military clashed, ensuring in the death of thousands of noblemen. ... The Rana dynasty is a family who usurped control of Nepal from the mid-19th century until 1951, reducing the monarch to a figurehead and ruling through hereditary government positions. ... An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from the British perspective. ... A world war is a war affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ... An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from the British perspective. ...

Nepalese royalty in the 1920s
Nepalese royalty in the 1920s

Slavery was abolished in Nepal in 1924.[22] Rani (Queen) of Nepal with her ladies-in-waiting, from October, 1920, National Geographic Magazine This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Rani (Queen) of Nepal with her ladies-in-waiting, from October, 1920, National Geographic Magazine This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ...


In the late 1940s, newly emerging pro-democracy movements and political parties in Nepal were critical of the Rana autocracy. Meanwhile, with the assertion of Chinese control in Tibet in the 1950s, India sought to counterbalance the perceived military threat from its northern neighbour by taking pre-emptive steps to assert more influence in Nepal. India sponsored both King Tribhuvan as Nepal's new ruler in 1951, and a new government, mostly comprising the Nepali Congress Party, thus terminating Rana hegemony in the kingdom. After years of power wrangling between the king and the government, the monarch scrapped the democratic experiment in 1959, and a "partyless" panchayat system was made to govern Nepal until 1989, when the "Jan Andolan" (People's Movement) forced the monarchy to accept constitutional reforms and to establish a multiparty parliament that took seat in May 1991.[23] This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Nepali Congress is a Nepalese political party. ... // The Panchayat (पंचायत in Devanagiri) is an Indian political system that groups five villages in a quincunx (four peripheral villages around a central one were laid out as the 5 side of a die). ...


In 1996, the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) started a bid to replace the royal parliamentary system with a people's socialist republic. This led to the long Nepal Civil War and more than 12,000 deaths. On June 1, 2001, there was a massacre in the royal palace; it left the King, the Queen and the Heir Apparent Crown Prince Dipendra among the dead. Prince Dipendra was accused of patricide and of committing suicide thereafter, alleged to be a violent response to his parents' refusal to accept his choice of wife. However, there are lots of speculations and doubts among Nepalese citizens about the person(s) responsible for the Royal Massacre. Following the carnage, the throne was inherited by King Birendra's brother Gyanendra. On February 1, 2005, Gyanendra dismissed the entire government and assumed full executive powers to quash the violent Maoist movement. In September 2005, the Maoists declared a three-month unilateral ceasefire to negotiate their demands. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A parliamentarian is a specialist in parliamentary procedure. ... now. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, King of Nepal (June 27, 1971 – June 4, 2001) was King of Nepal from June 1 to June 4, 2001. ... Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, King of Nepal (Nepali: ज्ञानेन्द्र वीर विक्रम शाहदेव; Jñānendra Vīra Vikrama Śāhadeva) (born July 7, 1947) is the present King of Nepal since June 4, 2001. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In response to the 2006 democracy movement, the king agreed to relinquish the sovereign power back to the people and reinstated the dissolved House of Representatives on April 24, 2006. Using its newly acquired sovereign authority, on May 18, 2006, the newly resumed House of Representatives unanimously passed a motion to curtail the power of the king and declared Nepal a secular state, abolishing its time honoured official status as a Hindu Kingdom. On December 28, 2007, a bill was passed in parliament, to amend Article 159 of the constitution - replacing "Provisions regarding the King" by "Provisions of the Head of the State" - declaring Nepal a federal republic, and thereby abolishing the monarchy.[24] The bill came into force on May 28, 2008 as a constituent assembly meeting in the capital, Kathmandu, overwhelmingly voted to abolish royal rule.[25] Protestors take to the streets The 2006 democracy movement in Nepal (Nepali: Loktantra Andolan) is a name given to the ongoing political agitations against the rule of King Gyanendra of Nepal. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Laïcité be merged into this article or section. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Kathmandu (disambiguation). ...


End of monarchy

The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) won the largest number of seats in the Constituent Assembly election held on 10 April 2008, and is trying to form a coalition government with some smaller parties. The Maoists had insisted on the abolition of the monarchy and the removal of Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev as King with Nepal becoming a federal democratic state with an elected head of state. The newly-elected Assembly met in Kathmandu on May 28, 2008 and abolished the monarchy that had reigned for 240 years. There was a polling of constituent Assembly members and out of a total of 564 Assembly members, 560 voted to end Nepal's monarchical rule.[26][27][28] The proposal declared that Nepal had become an independent, indivisible, sovereign, secular and an inclusive democratic republic.[29] Elections for a Constituent Assembly will be held in Nepal in 2008 at an unspecified date,[1] possibly in March or April,[2] after having been postponed from the earlier dates of 20 June 2007[3] and 22 November 2007. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, King of Nepal (Nepali: ज्ञानेन्द्र वीर विक्रम शाहदेव; Jñānendra Vīra Vikrama Śāhadeva) (born July 7, 1947) is the present King of Nepal since June 4, 2001. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


Nepal's government has announced a public holiday for three days, from May 28 to May 30, to celebrate the country becoming a republic. is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Narayanhity palace removed the royal flag that was flying on its premises and replaced it with Nepal's national flag on 29 May 2008.[30]


Geography

Cho Oyu, Nepal
Topographic map of Nepal.
Topographic map of Nepal.

Geography of Nepal is uncommonly diverse. Nepal is of roughly trapezoidal shape, 800 kilometres (500 mi) long and 200 kilometres (125 mi) wide, with an area of 147,181 square kilometres (56,827 sq mi). See List of territories by size for the comparative size of Nepal. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Cho Oyu (or Qowowuyag; in Nepal चोयु, Tibetan in Wylie transliteration: jo bo dbu yag; Chinese: 卓奧有山, Pinyin: ZhuóàoyÇ’u Shān) is the sixth highest mountain in the world. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x852, 361 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x852, 361 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Geographic regions Sandwiched between two Asian giants--China and India--Nepal traditionally has been characterized as a yam caught between two rocks. ... Topographic map of Nepal The Himalayan arc extends about 2400 km from Nanga Parbat (8,138 m) in the west to Namche Barwa (7,756 m) in the east (Le Fort, 1996). ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...


Nepal is commonly divided into three physiographic areas: the Mountain, Hill, Siwalik region and Terai Regions. These ecological belts run east-west and are vertically intersected by Nepal's major, north to south flowing river systems. The hill region consists of mainly the land area from height 600 meters to 1,800 meters. ... The Terai, or Tarai (i. ...


The southern lowland Plains bordering India are part of the northern rim of the Indo-Gangetic plains. They were formed and are fed by three major rivers: the Kosi, the Narayani (India's Gandak River), and the Karnali. This region has a hot, humid climate. The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... Dudh Kosi (Milk River) is a river in eastern Nepal. ... Kali Gandaki River, Nepal The Gandaki River, also known as the Kali Gandaki and the Gandak, is a tributary of the Ganges River. ... The Karnali River is the longest river in Nepal. ...


The Hill Region (Pahad) abuts the mountains and varies from 1,000 to 4,000 metres (3,300–13,125 ft) in altitude. Two low mountain ranges, the Mahabharat Lekh and Shiwalik Range (also called the Churia Range) dominate the region. The hilly belt includes the Kathmandu Valley, the country's most fertile and urbanised area. Unlike the valleys called Inner Tarai (Bhitri Tarai Uptyaka), elevations above 2,500 metres (8,200 ft) are sparsely populated. The Mahabharat Lekh is a hill range in Nepal it runs parallel to the Himalayan range. ... The Siwalik Hills (also spelled Shiwalik, Shivalik, or Sivalik) are the southernmost and geologically youngest foothills running parallel to the main Himalayas. ...


The Mountain Region, situated in the Great Himalayan Range, makes the northern part of Nepal. It contains the regions of highest altitude in the world; the world's highest mountain, 8,850 metres (29,035 ft) height Mount Everest (Sagarmatha in Nepali) is located here on the border with Tibet. Seven other of the world's ten highest mountains are located in Nepal: Lhotse, Makalu, Cho Oyu, Kanchenjunga, Dhaulagiri, Annapurna and Manaslu. Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... Everest redirects here. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Cho Oyu, Lhotse, Makalu and Mount Everest as seen from the International Space Station. ... Lhotse is the fourth highest mountain on Earth and is connected to Mount Everest via the South Col. ... Makalu is the fifth highest mountain in the world and is located 22 km (14 mi) east of Mount Everest. ... Cho Oyu (or Qowowuyag; in Nepal चोयु, Tibetan in Wylie transliteration: jo bo dbu yag; Chinese: 卓奧有山, Pinyin: ZhuóàoyÇ’u Shān) is the sixth highest mountain in the world. ... Kanchenjunga (a number of alternative spellings are used Kangchenjunga which is the correct spelling, Kangchen Dzö-nga, Khangchendzonga, Kanchenjanga, Kachendzonga, or Kangchanfanga) is the third highest mountain in the world and the second highest in Nepal and the highest in India, located in the Taplejung district of Sikkim, straddling the... Dhaulagiri (धौलागिरी) is the seventh highest mountain in the world. ... Annapurna (Sanskrit, Nepali, Nepal Bhasa: अन्नपूर्ण) is a series of peaks in the Himalaya, a 55-km-long massif whose highest point, Annapurna I, stands at 8,091 m (26,538 ft), making it the 10th-highest summit in the world and one of the 14 eight-thousanders. It is located... Manaslu (also known as Kutang) is the eighth highest mountain in the world, located in the Nepalese Himalayas. ...

The arid and barren Himalayan landscape.
The arid and barren Himalayan landscape.

Nepal has five climatic zones, broadly corresponding to the altitudes. The tropical and subtropical zones lie below 1,200 metres (3,940 ft), the temperate zone 1,200 to 2,400 metres (3,900–7,875 ft), the cold zone 2,400 to 3,600 metres (7,875–11,800 ft), the subarctic zone 3,600 to 4,400 metres (11,800–14,400 ft), and the Arctic zone above 4,400 metres (14,400 ft). ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1185x768, 331 KB) Description: Kali Gandaki valley (Nepal) Source: photo taken by Kogo Date: April 2001 Author: Kogo Permission: Kogo put it under the GFDL Other versions of this file: - File links The following pages link to this file: Nepal ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1185x768, 331 KB) Description: Kali Gandaki valley (Nepal) Source: photo taken by Kogo Date: April 2001 Author: Kogo Permission: Kogo put it under the GFDL Other versions of this file: - File links The following pages link to this file: Nepal ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ...


Nepal experiences five seasons: summer, monsoon, autumn, winter and spring. The Himalaya blocks cold winds from Central Asia in winter, and forms the northern limit of the monsoon wind patterns. Once thickly forested, deforestation is a major problem in all regions, with resulting erosion and degradation of ecosystems. For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to...


Nepal is a hotspot of mountaineering, containing some of the highest and most challenging mountains in the world, including Mount Everest. Technically, the south-east ridge on the Nepali side of the mountain is easier to climb; so, most climbers prefer to trek to Everest through Nepal.


Until the Sugauli Sandhi (treaty) was signed, the territory of Nepal also included Darjeeling, and Tista to the east, Nainital to the south-west and Kalapani, Susta, Garhwal to the west. However, today these areas are a part of India. As a result, Nepal shares no boundary with Bangladesh now and the two countries are separated by a narrow strip of land about 21 kilometre (13 mi) wide, called the Siliguri Corridor‎ or Chicken's Neck. Efforts are underway to make this area a free-trade zone.[31]The border dispute between India and Nepal has often been a cause of tension between the two countries. For other uses, see Darjeeling (disambiguation). ... , Nainital is a town in the Indian state of Uttarakhand and headquarters of Nainital district in the Kumaon foothills of the outer Himalayas. ... The Kalapani River runs through northern India and western Nepal and includes a disputed area of about 400 km² [1] around the source of the river although the exact size of the disputed area varies from source to source. ... Garhwal, or Gurwal, is a region and administrative division of Uttaranchal state, India, lying in the Himalayas. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Subdivisions

Subdivisions of Nepal
Subdivisions of Nepal
Nepalese woman
Nepalese woman

Nepal is divided into 14 zones and 75 districts, grouped into 5 development regions. Each district is headed by a permanent chief district officer responsible for maintaining law and order and coordinating the work of field agencies of the various government ministries. The 14 zones are: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 111 KB) Map of the zones of Nepal. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 111 KB) Map of the zones of Nepal. ... There are 14 zones in Nepal. ... Nepal, a landlocked country of South Asia is divided into 14 administrative zones, comprised currently (2005) of 75 districts as mentioned below: Achham district - Arghakhanchi district - Baglung district Baitadi district - Bajhang district - Bajura district Banke district - Bara district - Bardiya district Bhaktapur district - Bhojpur district - Chitwan district Dadeldhura district - Dailekh district... Nepal is divided into 14 administrative zones (अञ्चल), which are divided into 75 districts (जिल्ला). The 14 administrative zones are grouped into five development regions (विकास क्षेत्र). Each district is headed by a chief district officer (or CDO) responsible for maintaining law and order and coordinating the work of field agencies of the various... There are 14 zones in Nepal. ... Nepal, a landlocked country of South Asia is divided into 14 administrative zones, comprised currently (2005) of 75 districts as mentioned below: Achham district - Arghakhanchi district - Baglung district Baitadi district - Bajhang district - Bajura district Banke district - Bara district - Bardiya district Bhaktapur district - Bhojpur district - Chitwan district Dadeldhura district - Dailekh district... Nepal is divided into 14 administrative zones (अञ्चल), which are divided into 75 districts (जिल्ला). The 14 administrative zones are grouped into five development regions (विकास क्षेत्र). Each district is headed by a chief district officer (or CDO) responsible for maintaining law and order and coordinating the work of field agencies of the various...

The zone in Nepal which contains the Kathmandu valley is named after this river. ... Bheri zone (भेरी अञ्चल) is one of the fourteen zones of Nepal. ... Dhawalagiri(Dhaulagiri) is one of the fourteen zones of Nepal. ... The Gandaki zone lies in the western administrative region of Nepal. ... Janakpur is one of the 14 zones of Nepal. ... Karnali is one of the zones of Nepal. ... Kosi Zone is one of the fourteen Zones of Nepal, a landlocked country of South Asia. ... Lumbini Zone is one of the 14 zones of Nepal and is home to Lumbini site, the birth place of Gautama Buddha. ... Mahakali is one of the fourteen zones of Nepal. ... Mechi is one of the fourteen zones of Nepal. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rapti is a mid-western region of Nepal. ... Sagarmatha is a zone in the east of Nepal. ... Seti Zone is one of the fourteen Zones of Nepal, a landlocked country of South Asia. ...

Neotectonics of Nepal

The collision between the Indian subcontinent and the Eurasian continent, which started in Paleogene time and continues today, produced the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau, a spectacular modern example of the effects of plate tectonics. Nepal lies completely within this collision zone, occupying the central sector of the Himalayan arc, nearly one third of the 2400km-long Himalayas. [32] Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the landmass composed of the continents of Europe and Asia. ... Paleogene (alternatively Palaeogene) period is a unit of geologic time that began 65 and ended 23 million years ago. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ...


The Indian plate continues to move northward relative to Asia at the rate of ~50mm/yr.[33] Given the great magnitudes of the blocks of the Earth’s crust involved, this is remarkably fast, about twice the speed at which human fingernails grow. As the strong Indian continental crust subducts beneath the relatively weak Tibetan crust, it pushes up the Himalaya mountains. This collision zone has accommodated huge amounts of crustal shortening as the rock sequences slide one over another. Erosion of the Himalayas is a very important source of sediment, which flows via great rivers (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra) to the Indian Ocean.[34] For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... Ganga redirects here. ... The Brahmaputra is one of the major rivers of Asia. ...


Structural and Neotectonic pattern of Nepal

The main structures of Nepal consist of several north-dipping [thrust fault]s; the more important ones are the main frontal thrust (MFT), the main boundary thrust (MBT) and the main central thrust (MCT) (F. Jouanne et al.,2004). These thrust faults lie to the south of the South Tibetan Detachment System( STDS) which is a system of low angle [normal fault]s and is also an important aspect of Nepal Himalayan tectonics.

Geological Map of Nepal Showing Major Tectonic Thrusts.
Geological Map of Nepal Showing Major Tectonic Thrusts.

The thrust faults trend generally 120°N in western Nepal, curving to 90°N in the eastern part of the country (Upreti & Le Fort 1999). These thrust faults, with generally southerly transport directions (Brunel 1986; Pecher 1991; Mugnier et al.,1999), are inferred to branch off the major basal detachment of the Himalayan thrust belt called the main Himalayan thrust (MHT) that localizes the underthrusting of the Indian lithospere beneath the Himalayas and Tibet (Zhao et al., 1993). All the cross-sections made through the Himalayan belt advocate a mid-crustal ramp, below a large-scale antiformal structure of the Lesser Himalayas and to be north of a synformal structure(Schelling & Arita 1991; Srivastava & Mitra 1994; Pandey et al. 1990; DeCelles et al. 1998; Mugnier et al. 2003). Geological, geophysical and structural data indicate that there are lateral variations in the geometry of the MHT (Zhao et al.,1993; Pandey et al.1995,1999), but direct knowledge of the geometry of the MHT is sparse and therefore the validity of the profiles is still in debate. The thrusts are generally younger from north to south (24-21 Ma for the MCT, less than 2 Ma for the MFT) (Hodges et al. 1996; Harrison et al. 1997). On the basis of these faults, the structure of Nepal is generally subdivided into five tectonic zones:

  1. Gangetic Plain (Terai) (area on the south of MFT)
  2. Sub-Himalayas (Siwaliks)( area between MFT and MBT)
  3. Lesser Himalayas (area between MBT and MCT)
  4. Higher Himalayas (area between MCT and STDS)
  5. Tibetan-Tethys ( area north of STDS)

The Terai, or Tarai (i. ...

Present-day deformation of Nepal

The modern deformation of the Himalayas is characterized by big earthquakes. Almost half of the continuing convergence between India and Eurasia is absorbed by underthrusting of the Indian lithosphere, beneath the Himalayas and Tibet along the MHT, as proposed by seismic investigations (Zhao et al.1993). Three of the big Nepalese earthquakes (1905,1934 and 1950, with magnitudes around 8) were caused by the mid-crustal ramp along MHT (Pandey & Molnar 1989). The territory of Nepal is characterized by very intense microseismic activity, most of which follows approximately the topographic front of the Higher Himalaya (Pandey et al.,1999). Most of the earthquakes cluster between the MCT and MBT (Fig: Seismicity in the Himalayas of Nepal). This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... The tectonic plates of the lithosphere on Earth. ...

Seismicity in the Himalayas of Nepal.
Seismicity in the Himalayas of Nepal.

Earthquake focal mechanisms indicate that the intermediate magnitude earthquakes are shallow depth (10-20km) beneath the Lesser Himalayas, demonstrating the activation of thrust planes gently dipping to the north (Ni and Barazangi, 1984). Detailed analysis of the Uttarkashi earthquake (Cotton et al. 1996) in the west of Nepal indicates that this event was initiated to the south of the Higher Himalayas front at 12±3 km depth corresponding to the southward propagation of a rupture along this segment of the MHT. A detailed study of the microseismic clusters suggests segmentation of the Himalayan arc (Pandey et al. 1999) and two major discontinuities segment the microseismicity belt at 82.5°E and 86.5°E. The projection along cross sections of the microseismic event (Fig:Cross-section and Projection of Microseimic Activity) reveals a noticeable change in shape of the clusters between central Nepal (rounded clusters are located in the vicinity of the flat-ramp transition of the MHT) and western Nepal (clusters are elongated and nearly horizontal) (F. Jouanne et al.,2004). Similarly, vertical displacement rates, expressed with reference to the Gangetic plain, indicate current uplift of the high Himalayas at 6mm/yr, but also suggest active displacement along frontal thrusts inducing localized uplift (B. Antoine et al., 2004). There is change in maximum elevation between central (8500m) and western (7500m) Nepal and also a big difference in incision between eastern-central Nepal (6000m) and western Nepal (4500m)(B. Antoine et al., 2004). This is reflected in gentler relief in western Nepal and confirms the segmentation of geology and deformation observed with microseismicity and GPS measurements (Fig:Cross-section and Projection of Microseimic Activity). This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ...

Cross-section and Projection of Microseimic Activity.
Cross-section and Projection of Microseimic Activity.

Conclusion: To summarise, the neotectonic deformation of Nepal is characterised by three major thrust faults (MCT, MBT and MFT) which are inferred to be the splay thrust of MHT that marks the underthrusting of Indian lithosphere beneath the Himalayas. Likewise, there is a sudden change in geometry of the MHT between central and western Nepal, which is also marked in the Himalayan relief. The MHT is the main structure responsible for recent uplift and continuing deformation in Nepal. This hypothesis is reinforced by the observation that Quaternary displacement along the Main Frontal Thrust, southern emergence of the MHT and the convergence rate estimated across the Himalayas by GPS are both estimated at 18-20 mm/yr, which suggests that nearly all the displacement between India and Tibet is today transferred along the MHT (B. Antoine et al., 2004).


Government and politics

Main article: Politics of Nepal

Nepal has seen rapid political changes during the last two decades. Until 1990, Nepal was an absolute monarchy running under the executive control of the king. Faced with a people's movement against the absolute monarchy, King Birendra, in 1990, agreed to large-scale political reforms by creating a parliamentary monarchy with the king as the head of state and a prime minister as the head of the government. Politics of Nepal takes place in a framework of a monarchy in transition to a parliamentary democracy. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev (December 28, 1945 - June 1, 2001) was king of Nepal from 1972 until 2001, and the son of King Mahendra, whom he succeeded. ... A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges a hereditary or elected monarch as head of state. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The head of government is the leader of the government or cabinet. ...


Nepal's legislature was bicameral, consisting of a House of Representatives called the Pratinidhi Sabha and a National Council called the Rastriya Sabha. The House of Representatives consisted of 205 members directly elected by the people. The National Council had sixty members: ten nominated by the king, thirty-five elected by the House of Representatives and the remaining fifteen elected by an electoral college made up of chairs of villages and towns. The legislature had a five-year term, but was dissolvable by the king before its term could end. All Nepali citizens 18 years and older became eligible to vote. In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The House of Representatives of Nepal consists of 205 members directly elected by the people. ... The National Council of Nepal has 60 members, 10 nominated by the king, 35 elected by the House of Representatives and the remaining 15 elected by an electoral college made up of chairs of villages and towns. ...


The executive comprised the King and the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet). The leader of the coalition or party securing the maximum seats in an election was appointed as the Prime Minister. The Cabinet was appointed by the king on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. Governments in Nepal tended to be highly unstable, falling either through internal collapse or parliamentary dissolution by the monarch, on the recommendation of prime minister, according to the constitution; no government has survived for more than two years since 1991. The Council of the European Union forms, along with the European Parliament, the legislative arm of the European Union (EU). ... This article is about the governmental body. ...


The movement in April, 2006, brought about a change in the nation's governance: an interim constitution was promulgated, with the King giving up power, and an interim House of Representatives was formed with Maoist members after the new government held peace talks with the Maoist rebels. The number of parliamentary seats was also increased to 330. In April, 2007, the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) joined the interim government of Nepal. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


On December 28, 2007, the interim parliament passed a bill that would make Nepal a federal republic, with the Prime Minister becoming head of state. The bill was passed by the Constituent Assembly on May 28, 2008. is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about federal states. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ...


On April 10, 2008, there was the first election in Nepal for the constitution assembly. The Maoist party led the poll results, but failed to gain a simple majority in the parliament.[35] is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛澤東思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), also called Marxism-Leninism–Mao Zedong Thought or Marxism-Leninism-Maoism (MLM), is a variant of communism derived from the teachings of Mao Zedong (1893–1976). ...


On May 28, 2008, lawmakers in Nepal legally abolished the monarchy and declared the country a republic, ending 239 years of royal rule in the Himalayan nation. The newly elected assembly, led by the former communist rebels, adopted the resolution at its first meeting by an overwhelming majority. King Gyanendra was given 15 days to leave former Royal Palace in central Kathmandu by the Nepalese Constituent Assembly. He left former Royal Palace on June 11.[36] is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... King Gyanendra King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev of Nepal (born July 7, 1947) has been the king of Nepal since June 2001. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Military and foreign affairs

The famous outpost of Naamche Bazaar in the Khumbu region close to Mount Everest. The town is built on terraces in what resembles a giant Greek theatre.
The famous outpost of Naamche Bazaar in the Khumbu region close to Mount Everest. The town is built on terraces in what resembles a giant Greek theatre.

Nepal's military consists of the Nepalese Army which includes the Nepalese Army Air Service, (the air force unit under it). Nepalese Police Force is the civilian police and the Armed Police Force Nepal[37] is the paramilitary force. Service is voluntary and the minimum age for enlistment is 18 years. Nepal spends $99.2 million (2004) on its military—1.5% of its GDP. Many of the equipment and arms are imported from India.[citation needed] Nepals military consists of an army of about 40,000 troops formerly organized into seven infantry brigades including a Royal Palace brigade. ... // As a small, landlocked country wedged between two larger and far stronger powers, Nepal maintains good relations with both China (Peoples Republic of China) and India. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1180x768, 592 KB) Description: Namche Bazar (Khumbu, Nepal) Source: photo taken by Kogo Date: November 2001 Author: Kogo Permission: Kogo put it under the GFDL Other versions of this file: - File links The following pages link to this file: Nepal ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1180x768, 592 KB) Description: Namche Bazar (Khumbu, Nepal) Source: photo taken by Kogo Date: November 2001 Author: Kogo Permission: Kogo put it under the GFDL Other versions of this file: - File links The following pages link to this file: Nepal ... The Nepalese Army is the army of Nepal and a major component of the Military of Nepal. ... There is no Air Force in Nepal. ... For a particular Air Force, see List of air forces. ... The Nepalese Police Force is the national police of Nepal. ... The Armed Police Force (APF) of Nepal is a paramilitary force with the basic roles of catalyst in maintaining law and order and containing insurgency cracking down terrorist activities. ...


Nepal has close ties with both of its neighbours, India and China. In accordance with a long standing treaty, Indian and Nepalese citizens may travel to each others' countries without a passport or visa. Nepalese citizens may work in India without legal restriction. Although Nepal and India typically have close ties, from time to time Nepal becomes caught up in the problematic Sino-Indian relationship. Recently China has been asking Nepal to curb protests in Nepal against China's Tibet policy[38], and on April 17th, 2008, police arrested over 500 Tibetan protestors[39] citing a need to maintain positive relations with China. For Microsoft Corporation’s “universal login” service, formerly known as Microsoft Passport Network, see Windows Live ID. For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ... Entry visa valid in Schengen treaty countries. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Nepal
Terraced farming on the foothills of the Himalayas.
Terraced farming on the foothills of the Himalayas.

Nepal's gross domestic product (GDP) for the year 2005 was estimated at just over US$39 billion (adjusted to Purchasing Power Parity), making it the 83rd-largest economy in the world. Agriculture accounts for about 40% of Nepal's GDP, services comprise 41% and industry 22%. Agriculture employs 76% of the workforce, services 18% and manufacturing/craft-based industry 6%. Agricultural produce——mostly grown in the Terai region bordering India——includes tea, rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops, milk, and water buffalo meat. Industry mainly involves the processing of agricultural produce, including jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. Its workforce of about 10 million suffers from a severe shortage of skilled labour. The spectacular landscape and diverse, exotic cultures of Nepal represent considerable potential for tourism, but growth in this hospitality industry has been stifled by recent political events. The rate of unemployment and underemployment approaches half of the working-age population. Thus many Nepali citizens move to India in search of work; the Gulf countries and Malaysia being new sources of work. Nepal receives US$50 million a year through the Gurkha soldiers who serve in the Indian and British armies and are highly esteemed for their skill and bravery. The total remittance value is worth around 1 billion USD, including money sent from Persian Gulf and Malaysia, who combined employ around 700,000 Nepali citizens. A long-standing economic agreement underpins a close relationship with India. The country receives foreign aid from India, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, the European Union, China, Switzerland, and Scandinavian countries. Poverty is acute; per-capita income is less than US$ 470.[40] The distribution of wealth among the Nepalis is consistent with that in many developed and developing countries: the highest 10% of households control 39.1% of the national wealth and the lowest 10% control only 2.6%. An isolated, agrarian society until the mid-20th century, Nepal entered the modern era in 1951 without schools, hospitals, roads, telecommunications, electric power, industry, or civil service. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2700x1795, 1435 KB) Summary Photo courtesy of the US Department of Agriculture http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2700x1795, 1435 KB) Summary Photo courtesy of the US Department of Agriculture http://www. ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... GDP redirects here. ... This article is about vegetable fibre. ... Unemployment rates in the United States. ... Gurkha, also spelled as Gorkha, are people from Nepal and parts of North India, who take their name from the eighth century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath. ... PRC is a common abbreviation for: Peoples Republic of China Palestinian Red Crescent Popular Resistance Committees This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient. ...


The government's budget is about US$1.153 billion, with expenditures of $1.789bn (FY05/06). The Nepalese rupee has been tied to the Indian Rupee at an exchange rate of 1.6 for many years. Since the loosening of exchange rate controls in the early 1990s, the black market for foreign exchange has all but disappeared. The inflation rate has dropped to 2.9% after a period of higher inflation during the 1990s. ISO 4217 Code NPR User(s) Nepal Inflation 7. ... “INR” redirects here. ...


Nepal's exports of mainly carpets, clothing, leather goods, jute goods and grain total $822 million. Import commodities of mainly gold, machinery and equipment, petroleum products and fertilizer total US$2 bn. India (53.7%), the US (17.4%), and Germany (7.1%) are its main export partners. Nepal's import partners include India (47.5%), the United Arab Emirates (11.2%), China (10.7%), Saudi Arabia (4.9%), and Singapore (4%). This article is about vegetable fibre. ...

A Rs.500 banknote of The Republic of Nepal. (Yet the watermark on the right contains picture of King Gyanendra, later admitted clerical error by state owned Nepal Rashtra Bank.)
A Rs.500 banknote of The Republic of Nepal. (Yet the watermark on the right contains picture of King Gyanendra, later admitted clerical error by state owned Nepal Rashtra Bank.[41])

Nepal remains isolated from the world’s major land, air and sea transport routes although, within the country, aviation is in a better state, with 48 airports, ten of them with paved runways; flights are frequent and support a sizeable traffic. Hilly and mountainous terrain in the northern two-thirds of the country has made the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. There were just over 8,500 km of paved roads, and one 59 km railway line in the south in 2003. There is only one reliable road route from India to the Kathmandu Valley. The only practical seaport of entry for goods bound for Kathmandu is Calcutta in India. Internally, the poor state of development of the road system (22 of 75 administrative districts lack road links) makes volume distribution unrealistic. Besides having landlocked, rugged geography, few tangible natural resources and poor infrastructure, the long-running civil war is also a factor in stunting the economic growth. [42]


There is less than one telephone per 19 people. Landline telephone services are not adequate nationwide but are concentrated in cities and district headquarters. Mobile telephony is in a reasonable state in most parts of the country with increased accessibility and affordability; there were around 175,000 Internet connections in 2005. After the imposition of the "state of emergency", intermittent losses of service-signals were reported, but uninterrupted Internet connections have resumed after Nepal's second major people's revolution to overthrow the King's absolute power.[43]


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Nepal
The Population Density map of Nepal.
The Population Density map of Nepal.

Perched on the southern slopes of the Himalayan Mountains, Nepal is as ethnically diverse as its terrain of fertile plains, broad valleys, and the highest mountain peaks in the world. The Nepalese are descendants of three major migrations from India, Tibet, and North Burma and Yunnan via Assam. Perched on the southern slopes of the Himalayan Mountains, the Kingdom of Nepal is as ethnically diverse as its terrain of fertile plains, broad valleys, and the highest mountain peaks in the world. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... For the tea from this region, see Yunnan tea. ... , Assam  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm [É”xÉ”m]) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ...


Among the earliest inhabitants were the Kirat of east mid-region, Newar of the Kathmandu Valley and aboriginal Tharu in the southern Terai region. The ancestors of the Brahman and Chetri caste groups came from India's present Kumaon, Garhwal and Kashmir regions, while other ethnic groups trace their origins to North Burma and Yunnan and Tibet, e.g. the Gurung and Magar in the west, Rai and Limbu in the east(from Yunnan and north Burma via Assam), and Sherpa and Bhotia in the north(from Tibet). Kirant or Kirat refers to the Kiranti group or Kirat confederation that includes the Rai, Limbu and Sunuwar ethnic groups of Nepal. ... The Newar or Newah are the indigenous group of Nepals Kathmandu valley. ... A typical Nepalese house in the valley, made from cow dung and clay The Kathmandu valley, located in the Kingdom of Nepal, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of Asia, and has at least 130 important monuments, including several places of pilgrimage for the Hindus as well as the... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Terai, or Tarai (i. ... Brahman (nominative ) is a concept of Hinduism. ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... Kumaon may refer to: Kumaon (or Kumaun) is one of the two regions and administrative divisions of Uttarakhand, a mountainous state of northern India, the other being Garhwal. ... Garhwal, or Gurwal, is a region and administrative division of Uttaranchal state, India, lying in the Himalayas. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... For the tea from this region, see Yunnan tea. ... Selected ethnic groups of Nepal; Bhotia, Sherpa, Thakali Gurung Kiranti, Rai, Limbu Newari Pahari Tamang The Gurung is an ethnic group from the Central region of Nepal. ... Magar is an Sino-Tibetan ethnic group of Nepal and northern India whose homeland extends from the western and southern edges of the Dhaulagiri section of the high Himalayas range south to the prominent Mahabharat foothill range and eastward into the Gandaki basin. ... Selected ethnic groups of Nepal; Bhotia, Sherpa, Thakali Gurung Kiranti, Rai, Limbu Newari Pahari Tamang Mankhim (Tample) of Rai at Aritar, Sikkim The Rai, also known as the Khambu, is one of Nepal’s most ancient indigenous ethnolinguistic groups. ... Selected ethnic groups of Nepal; Bhotia, Sherpa, Thakali Gurung Kiranti, Rai, Limbu Newari Pahari Tamang The Limbu (meaning: archer) or Yakthumba(in Limbu language) or bearer of bow and arrows are an ethnic group that belong to the Kiranti group or Kirat confederation that includes the Rai and Sunuwar who... The word Sherpa originally referred to an ethnic group from the most mountainous region of Niple, high into the Himalayas (although many of them now live in India). ... The Bhutias are people of Tibetan origin, who migrated to Sikkim, India after the 15th century through Bhutan, where they are also known as Ngalop and constitute half of the countrys population. ...


In the Terai, a part of the Ganges Basin with 20% of the land, much of the population is physically and culturally similar to the Indo-Aryans of northern India. Indo-Aryan and East Asian looking mixed people live in the hill region. The mountainous highlands are sparsely populated. Kathmandu Valley, in the middle hill region, constitutes a small fraction of the nation's area but is the most densely populated, with almost 5% of the population. This article is about the river. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Nepal is a multilingual, multireligious and multiethnic society. These data are largely derived from Nepal's 2001 census results published in the Nepal Population Report 2002. Bilingual redirects here. ... Multiethnic societies, in contrast to nationalistic societies, integrate different ethnic groups irrespective of differences in culture, race, and history under a common social identity larger than one nation in the conventional sense. ...

Languages Spoken in Nepal.
Languages Spoken in Nepal.
Population Structure
Data Size
Population 28,676,547 (2005)
Growth Rate 2.2%
Population below 14 Years old 39%
Population of age 15 to 64 57.3%
Population above 65 3.7%
The median age (Average) 20.07
The median age (Male) 19.91
The median age (Females) 20.24
Ratio (Male:Female) 1, 000:1,060
Life expectancy (Average) 59.8 Years
Life expectancy (Male) 60.9
Life expectancy (Female) 59.5
Literacy Rate (Average) 53.74%
Literacy Rate (Male) 68.51%
Literacy Rate (Female) 42.49%

Despite the migration of a significant section of the population to the southern plains or terai in recent years, the majority of the population still lives in the central highlands. The northern mountains are sparsely populated. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Kathmandu, with a population of around 800,000 (metropolitan area: 1.5 million), is the largest city in the country.


Religion

Shaiva-devotees gather at the Hindu Pashupatinath Temple
Shaiva-devotees gather at the Hindu Pashupatinath Temple
Nepal religiosity
religion percent
Hinduism
 
80.6%
Buddhism
 
10.7%
Islam
 
4.2%
Mundhum
 
3.6%
Christianity
 
0.5%
Other
 
0.4%

The main religion of Nepal is Hinduism. Lord Shiva is regarded as the guardian deity of the country.[44] Nepal is home to the largest Shiva temple in the world, the famous Pashupatinath Temple, where Hindus from all over the world come for pilgrimage. According to mythology, Sita Devi of the epic Ramayana was born in the Mithila Kingdom of King Janaka Raja.[45] Buddhism was relatively more common among the Newar. But, differences between Hindus and Buddhists have been in general very subtle and academic in nature due to the intermingling of Hindu and Buddhist beliefs. Both share common temples and worship common deities and many of Nepal's Buddhists could also be regarded as Hindus and vice versa. Gurkhas from Nepal are Hindu. Among other natives of Nepal, those most influenced by Hinduism were the Magar, Sunwar, Limbu and Rai. Hindu influence is less prominent among the Gurung, Bhutia, and Thakali groups, who employ Buddhist monks for their religious ceremonies.[43][17] Most of the festivals in Nepal are Hindu.[46] The Machendrajatra festival, dedicated to Hindu Shaiva Siddha, is celebrated even by Buddhists and it is the Buddhists' main festival.[47] As it is believed that Ne Muni established Nepal,[48] important priests in Nepal are called "Tirthaguru Nemuni". Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixel, file size: 892 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixel, file size: 892 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Shaivism, also Saivism, is a branch of Hinduism that worships Siva as the Supreme God. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Pashupatinath Temple, Eastview Pashupatinath Temple Dye seller outside Pashupatinath Pashupatinath is a Hindu temple located on the shore of the Bagmati river on the eastern part of Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. ... The Gopuram of temples, in south India, are adorned with icons depicting a particular story surrounding the temples deity. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... Pashupatinath Temple, Eastview A holyman crosses Bagmati river with a plank of wood Pashupatinath Temple Pashupatinath temple (पशुपतिनाथ मन्दिर) is a Hindu temple located on the shore of the Bagmati river on the eastern part of Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. ... The Gopuram of temples, in south India, are adorned with icons depicting a particular story surrounding the temples deity. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Lord Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. ... It has been suggested that Shri Vidya be merged into this article or section. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... This page includes English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations such as . ... Gurkha Soldiers (1896) Wives and children of Gurkha Soldiers (1896) Gurkha (or Gorkha) are a people from Nepal who take their name from the former city-state of Gorkha, which went on to found the Kingdom of Nepal later on. ... Magar is an Sino-Tibetan ethnic group of Nepal and northern India whose homeland extends from the western and southern edges of the Dhaulagiri section of the high Himalayas range south to the prominent Mahabharat foothill range and eastward into the Gandaki basin. ... Sunwar is a tribe in Nepal. ... Selected ethnic groups of Nepal; Bhotia, Sherpa, Thakali Gurung Kiranti, Rai, Limbu Newari Pahari Tamang The Limbu (meaning: archer) or Yakthumba(in Limbu language) or bearer of bow and arrows are an ethnic group that belong to the Kiranti group or Kirat confederation that includes the Rai and Sunuwar who... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Selected ethnic groups of Nepal; Bhotia, Sherpa, Thakali Gurung Kiranti, Rai, Limbu Newari Pahari Tamang The Gurung is an ethnic group from the Central region of Nepal. ... The Bhutias are people of Tibetan origin, who migrated to Sikkim, India and Bhutan some time after the 15th century. ... The Thakali ethnolinguistic group originated from the Thak Khola region of Mustang district in the Dhaulagiri zone of Nepal. ... This article is about the religion Shaivism. ... A Siddha in Sanskrit means One who is accomplished and refers to perfected masters who have transcended the Ahamkara (Ego or I-maker), have subdued their minds to be subservient to their Awareness, and have transformed their bodies composed of dense Rajo-tama Gunas into pure Satvic light. ... Motto: Mother and Motherland are Greater than Heaven Anthem: Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka Capital Kathmandu (Nepal Bhasa: येँ) , Largest city Kathmandu Official languages Nepali[1] Recognised regional languages Maithili, Nepal Bhasa, Bhojpuri, Tharu, Gurung, Tamang, Magar, Awadhi, Sherpa, Kiranti and another 100 different indigenous languages. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Nepal

Nepalese culture is diverse, reflecting different ethnic origins of the people. The Newar community is particularly rich in cultural diversity; they celebrate many festivals, well known for their music and dance. The culture of Nepal, the rich cultural heritage of the Kingdom of Nepal, has evolved over centuries. ... The Newar or Newah are the indigenous group of Nepals Kathmandu valley. ...


A typical Nepalese meal is dal-bhat-tarkari. Dal is a spicy lentil soup, served over bhat (boiled rice), served with tarkari (curried vegetables) together with achar (pickles) or chutni (spicy condiment made from fresh ingredients).. The Newar community, however, has its own unique cuisine. It consists of non-vegetarian as well as vegetarian items served with alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Mustard oil is the cooking medium and a host of spices, such as cumin, coriander, black peppers, sesame seeds, turmeric, garlic, ginger, methi (fenugreek), bay leaves, cloves, cinnamon, pepper, chillies, mustard seeds etc., are used in the cooking. The cuisine served on festivals is generally the best. The Newar or Newah are the indigenous group of Nepals Kathmandu valley. ...

Nepalese children practicing dance
Nepalese children practicing dance

The Newari Music orchestra consists mainly of percussion instruments, though wind instruments, such as flutes and other similar instruments, are also used. String instruments are very rare. There are songs pertaining to particular seasons and festivals. Paahan chare music is probably the fastest played music whereas the Dapa the slowest. There are certain musical instruments such as Dhimay and Bhusya which are played as instrumental only and are not accompanied with songs. The dhimay music is the loudest one. In the hills, people enjoy their own kind of music, playing saarangi (a string instrument), madal and flute. They also have many popular folk songs known as lok geet and lok dohari. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 527 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1349 pixel, file size: 872 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nepal Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 527 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1349 pixel, file size: 872 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Nepal Metadata This file contains additional... The Newar are the indigenous ethnolinguistic group of Nepals Kathmandu valley. ...


The Newar dances can be broadly classified into masked dances and non-masked dances. The most representative of Newari dances is Lakhey dance. Almost all the settlements of Newaris organise Lakhey dance at least once a year, mostly in the Goonlaa month. So, they are called Goonlaa Lakhey. However, the most famous Lakhey dance is the Majipa Lakhey dance; it is performed by the Ranjitkars of Kathmandu and the celeberation continues for one whole week that contains the full moon of Yenlaa month. The Lakhey are considered as the saviors of children. Lakhey (Nepal Bhasa:लाखे, lā-khé) is a famous character in Newar culture. ... Lakhey (Nepal Bhasa:लाखे, lā-khé) is a famous character in Newar culture. ... Majipa Lakhey (Lakhey Aaju, Devnagari: मजिपा लाखे, लाखे आजु) is a special Lakhey. ... Ranjitkar (रंजितकार aka Chhipaa or Ranjit) is one of the castes of Newar. ...


Folklore is an integral part of Nepalese society. Traditional stories are rooted in the reality of day-to-day life, tales of love, affection and battles as well as demons and ghosts and thus reflect local lifestyles, cultures and beliefs. Many Nepalese folktales are enacted through the medium of dance and music.


The Nepali year begins in mid-April and is divided into 12 months. Saturday is the official weekly holiday. Main annual holidays include the National Day, celebrated on the birthday of the king (December 28), Prithvi Jayanti, (January 11), Martyr's Day (February 18) and a mix of Hindu and Buddhist festivals such as dashain in autumn, and tihar in late autumn. During tihar, the Newar community also celebrates its New Year as per their local calendar Nepal Sambat. is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nepal Sambat (Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत) is a lunar calendar. ...


Most houses in rural lowland of Nepal are made up of a tight bamboo framework and walls of a mud and cow-dung mix. These dwellings remain cool in summer and retain warmth in winter. Houses in the hills are usually made of unbaked bricks with thatch or tile roofing. At high elevations construction changes to stone masonry and slate may be used on roofs.


See also

  • List of Nepal-related topics

This is a list of topics related to Nepal. ...

Notes

  1. ^ According to Interim Constitution Nepali is only official language (article 5, point 2), other languages spoken as the mother tongue in Nepal are the national languages (article 5, point 1). According to article 5, point3, ALL LANGUAGES ARE ACCEPTED AS OFFICIAL LANGUAGES AT REGIONAL LEVEL. Besides, this part of article is about native names and NOT about official language. The constitution does not state that Nepal written in Devanagari is the official name. Nepal_Interim_Constitution2007
  2. ^ Gorkhapatra Corporation The Nepalese Perspective
  3. ^ W.B., P. 34 Land of the Gurkhas
  4. ^ The Ancient Period
  5. ^ W.B., P. 34 Land of the Gurkhas
  6. ^ Balfour, P. 195 Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, :
  7. ^ The Ancient Period
  8. ^ Alone In Kathmandu
  9. ^ Prasad, P. 4 The life and times of Maharaja Juddha Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana of Nepal
  10. ^ Khatri, P. 16 The Postage Stamps of Nepal
  11. ^ W.B., P. 34 Land of the Gurkhas
  12. ^ Newa-Author:Shrestha, Moolookha Publication
  13. ^ Interim Constitution, Article 5, point 1
  14. ^ Interim Constitution of Nepal, Article 5, point 2
  15. ^ Nepali - UCLA
  16. ^ Interim Constitution of Nepal, Article 5, point 3
  17. ^ a b A Country Study: Nepal. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Retrieved on September 23, 2005.
  18. ^ P. 17 Looking to the Future: Indo-Nepal Relations in Perspective By Lok Raj Baral
  19. ^ P. 17 Looking to the Future: Indo-Nepal Relations in Perspective By Lok Raj Baral
  20. ^ Li, Rongxi (translator). 1995. The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions, pp. 219-220. Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. Berkeley, California. ISBN 1-886439-02-8
  21. ^ Watters, Thomas. 1904-5. On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India (A.D. 629-645), pp. 83-85. Reprint: Mushiram Manoharlal Publishers, New Delhi. 1973.
  22. ^ Tucci, Giuseppe. (1952). Journey to Mustang, 1952. Trans. by Diana Fussell. 1st Italian edition, 1953; 1st English edition, 1977. 2nd edition revised, 2003, p. 22. Bibliotheca Himalayica. ISBN 99933-0-378-X (South Asia); 974-524-024-9 (Outside of South Asia).
  23. ^ Timeline: Nepal. BBC News. Retrieved on September 29, 2005.
  24. ^ Nepal votes to abolish monarchy - CNN
  25. ^ Nepal votes to abolish monarchy - CNN
  26. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7424302.stm
  27. ^ http://www.kantipuronline.com/kolnews.php? The pro-King Rastriya Prajatantra Party (Nepal), which has four members in the Constituent Assembly , however registered a dissent note. the Constituent Assembly gave 15 days notice to King Gyanendra to vacate the Narayanhiti Royal Palace, which will be soon turned into a public museum. The Constituent Assembly will now amend the Constitution and elect a President, along with a new Prime Minister. nid=148454
  28. ^ http://www.nepalnews.com/archive/2008/may/may28/news18.php
  29. ^ "Nepal abolishes its monarchy", Al Jazeera, May 28, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-05-29. (English) 
  30. ^ http://www.mysansar.com/?p=2692
  31. ^ Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan and India to set up FTA
  32. ^
    • Beek van der Peter ,Xavier Robert, Jean-Louis Mugnier, Matthias Bernet, Pascale Huyghe and Erika Labrin, “Late Miocene- Recent Exhumation of the Central Himalaya and Recycling in the Foreland Basin Assessed by Apatite Fission-Track Thermochronology of Siwalik Sediments, Nepal,” Basic research, 18, 413-434, 2006.
    • Berger Antoine, Francois Jouanne, Riadm Hassani and Jean Louis Mugnier, “Modelling the Spatial Distribution of Present day Deformation in Nepal: how cylindrical is the Main Himalayan Thrust in Nepal?”, Geophys.J.Int., 156, 94-114, 2004.
    • Bilham Roger and Michael Jackson,“Constraints on Himalayan Deformation inferred from Vertical Velocity Fields in Nepal and Tibet,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 99, 897-912, 10 July, 1994.
    • Chamlagain Deepak and Daigoro Hayashi , “Neotectonic Fault Analysis by 2D Finite Element Modeling for Studying the Himalayan Fold and Thrust belt in Nepal,” University of the Ryukyus,Okinawa, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 1-16, 14 July 2006.
    • F. Jouanne et al., “ Current Shortening Across the Himalayas of Nepal”, Geophys.J.Int. , 154, 1-14, 2004.
    • Pandey M.R, R.P Tandukar, J.P. Avouac, J.Vergne and Th. Heritier, “Seismotectonics of the Nepal Himalaya from a Local Seismic Network”, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences,17, 703-712,1999.
  33. ^ Bilham et al., 1998; Pandey et al., 1995.
  34. ^ Summerfield & Hulton, 1994; Hay, 1998.
  35. ^ [1]
  36. ^ Nepal's Lawmakers Abolish the Country's Monarchy
  37. ^ Official Website of Armed Police Force Nepal
  38. ^ China urges Nepal to act on Tibet - BBC News
  39. ^ Nepal Arrests Tibetan Protesters - BBC News
  40. ^ Nepal. Factbook on Global Sexual Exploitation. Retrieved on September 23, 2005.
  41. ^ Nepal king's head spared on new banknotes. Retrieved on October 7, 2007.
  42. ^ Nepal: Economy. MSN Encarta. Retrieved on September 23, 2005.
  43. ^ a b Nepal. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved on September 23, 2005.
  44. ^ Anthologia anthropologica. The native races of Asia and Europe; by James George Frazer, Sir; Robert Angus Downie
  45. ^ P. 28 Nepal is also the birthplace of Siddhartha Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. He is believed to have been born some 2550 years back in a place called Lumbini, a town south-west of Nepal, bordering India. Historical Studies and Recreations By Shoshee Chunder Dutt
  46. ^ Festivals of Nepal
  47. ^ P. 885 Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 10 By James Hastings
  48. ^ Wright, P. 107, History of Nepal: With an Introductory Sketch of the Country and People of Nepal

Nepali could mean: Nepali — A citizen of the country of Nepal. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ...

References

  • Shaha, Rishikesh (1992). Ancient and Medieval Nepal. New Delhi: Manohar Publications. ISBN 8185425698. 
  • Tiwari, Sudarshan Raj (2002). The Brick and the Bull: An account of Handigaun, the Ancient Capital of Nepal. Himal Books. ISBN 9993343528. 
  • Nepal. MSN Encarta. Retrieved on 2005-09-23.
  • India Nepal Open Border. Nepal Democracy. Retrieved on 2005-09-23.
  • Football at the heart of the Himalaya. FIFA. Retrieved on 2005-09-23.
  • Nepal: Information Portal. Explore Nepal. Retrieved on 2007-09-01.
  • The Best Memoir You Never Heard Of: "Shadow Over Shangri-La". San Francisco Chronicle.
  • Nepal: A state under siege. The South Asian: Featured Articles. Retrieved on 2005-09-23.
  • Nepal: Basic Fact Sheet. Nepal homepage. Retrieved on 2005-09-23.
  • Jailed ex-PM in Nepal court plea. BBC News. Retrieved on 2005-09-29.
  • Nepal's new emblem. Citizen Journalism Nepal. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  • Gotz Hagmuller (2003). Patan Museum: The Transformation of a Royal Palace in Nepal. London: Serindia. ISBN 0962658X. 
  • Kunda Dixit (2006). A people war: Images of the Nepal conflict 1996–2006. Kathmandu: nepa-laya. 
  • Barbara Crossette (1995). So Close to Heaven: The Vanishing Buddhist Kingdoms of the Himalayas. New York: Vintage. ISBN 0679743634. 
  • Bista, Dor Bahadur (1967). People of Nepal. Dept. of Publicity, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of Nepal. ISBN 9993304182. 
  • Michael Hutt, ed., Himalayan 'people's war' : Nepal's Maoist rebellion, London: C. Hurst, 2004
  • Peter Matthiessen (1993). The Snow Leopard. Penguin. ISBN 0002720256. 
  • Joe Simpson (1997). Storms of Silence. Mountaineers Books. ISBN 0898865123. 
  • Samrat Upadhyay (2001). Arresting God in Kathmandu. Mariner Books. ISBN 0618043713. 
  • Joseph R. Pietri (2001). The King of Nepal. ISBN 061511928X. 
  • Maurice Herzog (1951). Annapurna. The Lyons Press. ISBN 1558215492. 
  • Dervla Murphy (1968). The Waiting Land: A Spell in Nepal. Transatlantic Arts. ISBN 0719517451. 
  • Rishikesh Shaha (2001). Modern Nepal: A Political History. Manohar Publishers and Distributors. ISBN 8173044031. 

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the international association football organization. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Annapurna (Sanskrit, Nepali, Nepal Bhasa: अन्नपूर्ण) is a series of peaks in the Himalaya, a 55-km-long massif whose highest point, Annapurna I, stands at 8,091 m (26,538 ft), making it the 10th-highest summit in the world and one of the 14 eight-thousanders. It is located...

External links

Nepal Portal
SAARC Portal
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Coordinates: 26°32′N, 86°44′E  Afghanistan  Bangladesh  Bhutan  India  Maldives  Nepal  Pakistan  Sri Lanka Headquarters Kathmandu, Nepal Statistics Area  - Total 7th if ranked 5,130,746 km² Population  - Total (2004)  - Density 1st if ranked 1,467,255,669 285. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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She feels that the alarmingly low rates of female literacy, coupled with the traditionally low status of the girl-child in Nepal have to be addressed to tackle the problem.
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