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Encyclopedia > Neorealism

Realism & Neorealism
Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism
Marxism & Dependency theory
Functionalism & Neofunctionalism
Critical theory & Constructivism
International relations theory attempts to provide a conceptual model upon which international relations can be analyzed. ... It has been suggested that Defensive realism be merged into this article or section. ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism Former President of the United States Woodrow Wilson, considered to be a founder of idealism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Liberal institutionalism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... International Relations Theory Realism Liberalism Idealism Neoconservatism Institutionalism Functionalism Marxism Critical theory Isolationism Marxist and Neo-Marxist international relations theories are positivist paradigms which reject the realist/liberal view of state conflict or cooperation; instead focusing on the economic and material aspects. ... International Relations Theory Realism Liberalism Idealism Neoconservatism Institutionalism Functionalism Marxism Critical theory Isolationism Dependency theory is the body of social science theories by various intellectuals, both from the Third World and the First World, that create a worldview which suggests that the wealthy nations of the world need a peripheral... International Relations Theory Realism Liberalism Idealism Neoconservatism Institutionalism Functionalism Marxism Critical theory Isolationism Functionalism is a theory of international relations that arose principally from the experience of European integration. ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Constructivism Neofunctionalism is a theory of regional integration, building on the work of David Mitrany. ... Critical international relations theory is a set of schools of thought in international relations that have criticized the status-quo – both from positivist positions as well as postpositivist positions. ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism In international relations, constructivism is the application of constructivist epistemology to the study of world affairs. ...

Neorealism or structural realism is a theory of international relations, outlined by Kenneth Waltz in his 1979 book, Theory of International Politics. Waltz argues in favor of a systemic approach: the international structure acts as a constraint on state behavior, so that different states behave in a similar rational manner, and outcomes fall within an expected range. International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs of and relations among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... Kenneth N. Waltz is one of the most prominent scholars of international relations (IR) alive today. ...


Neorealism, developed largely within the American political science tradition, seeks to reformulate the classical realism tradition of E.H. Carr, Hans Morgenthau, and Reinhold Niebuhr into a rigorous and positivistic social science. Political science is the field of the social sciences concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism The term realism or political realism collects a wide variety of theories and modes of thought about International Relations that have in common that the motivation of states is in the... Edward Hallett Carr (1892–1982) was a British historian and international relations theorist. ... Hans Joachim Morgenthau (February 17, 1904 - July 19, 1980) was a International Relations theorist and one of the most influential ones to date. ... Reinhold Niebuhr (June 21, 1892 – June 1, 1971) was a Protestant theologian best known for his study of the task of relating the Christian faith to the reality of modern politics and diplomacy. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ...

Contents

Theory

Neorealism shuns classical realism's use of often essentialist concepts such as "human nature" to explain international politics. Instead, neorealist thinkers developed a theory that privileges structural constraints over agents' strategies and motivations. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The structure of a thing is how the parts of it relate to each other, how it is put together. This contrast with process, which is how the thing works; but process requires a viable structure. ...


The international structure is decentralized, having no central authority and is anarchic, with states acting as independent sovereign political units. States are assumed at a minimum to want to ensure their own survival as this is a prerequisite to pursue other goals. This driving force of survival is the primary factor influencing their behaviour and in turn ensures states develop offensive military capabilities, as a means to increase their relative power. Neorealists bring attention to a persistent lack of trust between states which requires states to be on guard and act in an overtly aggressive manner. Decentralisation (or decentralization) is any of various means of more widely distributing decision-making to bring it closer to the point of service or action. ... In politics, authority (Latin auctoritas, used in Roman law as opposed to potestas and imperium) is often used interchangeably with the term power. However, their meanings differ. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... Offensive may relate to In sports or combat, the team which is attacking, pitching or moving forwards In language or morals, terms and concepts which are unacceptable to some people, such as swearing and profanity. ... Trust in sociology and psychology refers to an open, positive relationship between people, or between people and social institutions such as a corporation or government. ...


States are deemed similar in terms of needs but not in capabilities for achieving them. The positional placement of states in terms of abilities primarily defines the structure. The structure then limits cooperation among states through fears of relative gains made by other states, and the possibility of dependence on other states. The desire and relative abilities of each state to maximize power results in a 'balance of power', which shapes international relations. It also gives rise to the 'security dilemma' that all nations face. Co-operation refers to the practice of people or greater entities working in common with commonly agreed-upon goals and possibly methods, instead of working separately in competition. ... Balance of power is a central concept of realist theories of international relations. ... In international relations, the security dilemma refers to a common situation wherein two or more states are drawn into conflict, possibly even war, over security concerns when none of the states involved actually wanted conflict. ...


Neorealists conclude that because violence is part of the structure of the international system it is likely to continue in the future. Indeed, neorealists often argue that the international system has not fundamentally changed from the time of Thucydides to the advent of nuclear warfare. The view that long-lasting peace is not likely to be achieved is described by other theorists as a largely pessimistic view of international relations. One of the main challenges is the democratic peace theory and supporting research such as the book Never at War. Nevertheless such theories have been disregarded by neorealists because they state these theories tend to pick and choose the definition of democracy to get the wanted result. For example Germany of Kaiser Wilhem II, the Dominican Republic of Juan Bosch, or Chile of Salvador Allende are not considered to be democratic or the conflicts do not qualify as wars according to these theorists. Furthermore they claim several wars between democratic states have been averted only by causes other than democratic ones. (see K. WALTZ, "Structural Realism after the Cold War" in International Security, Vol. 25, (2000), 1.) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... Never at War is book by the historian Spencer R. Weart published by Yale University Press in 1998. ... Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ... Juan Bosch y Gaviño Juan Emilio Bosch y Gaviño (30 June 1909, La Vega – 1 November 2001, Santo Domingo) was the first democratically elected president of the Dominican Republic after the assassination of dictator Rafael Leónidas Trujillo in 1961. ... Salvador Isabelino del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús Allende Gossens[1] (July 26, 1908 – September 11, 1973) was President of Chile from November 1970 until his removal from power and death on September 11, 1973. ...


Criticism

Neorealism has been criticized from the point of view of the philosophy of science. John Vasquez uses the Lakatosian criteria of the Methodology of Scientific Research Programs in an attempt to prove the degenerative nature of the neorealist research program. Thus, Waltz's theory of neorealism explains international behaviour through the balance-of-power concept, according to which states in almost all cases balance each other in order to survive. Stephen Walt, on the other hand, argues that states do not balance power, but there is a so-called balance-of-threat, thus always balancing states which seem to be the most threatening, not necessarily the most powerful. Randall Schweller introduces the concept of balance-of-interests, better known as bandwagoning. Thomas J. Christensen and Jack Snyder try to correct gaps in Waltz's original theory by using the concepts of buck-passing and chain-ganging. However these similar theories contradict each other, at least partially: for example balancing versus bandwagoning. Vasquez considers them as theory shifts which explain away discrepant evidence. These contradictory hypotheses increase the probability that at least one passes an empirical test, thus the whole neorealist research program showing signs of degeneration. (Vasquez, John 1997:"The Realist Paradigm and Degenerative versus Progressive Research Programs". In: American Political Science Review, 39(December):899-912) Philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, including the formal sciences, natural sciences, and social sciences. ... Lakatos – book by Brendan Larvor. ... Balance of power is a central concept of realist theories of international relations. ... Balance of Threat theory was proposed by Stephen M. Walt in an article entitled “Alliance Formation and the Balance of Power” published in the journal International Security in 1985. ... In realist theories of international relations, bandwagoning refers to the act of weaker states joining a stronger power or coalition within balance of power politics. ... Jack Snyder is a character on the American soap opera As The World Turns. ...


Notable neorealists

Robert Gilpin is a scholar of international political economy and the professor emeritus of Politics and International Affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. ... Robert Jervis, the Adlai E. Stevenson Professor of International Affairs at Columbia University, is one of the most influential scholars of international relations. ... Professor John J. Mearsheimer John J. Mearsheimer (born December 1947) is the R. Wendell Harrison Distinguished Service Professor of Political Science at the University of Chicago. ... Jack Snyder is a character on the American soap opera As The World Turns. ... Stephen Martin Walt (born July 2, 1955) is a professor of international affairs at Harvard Universitys John F. Kennedy School of Government. ... Kenneth N. Waltz is one of the most prominent scholars of international relations (IR) alive today. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Neorealism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (436 words)
Neorealism or structural realism is a theory of international relations, outlined by Kenneth Waltz in his 1979 book, Theory of International Politics.
Neorealism, developed largely within the American political science tradition, seeks to reformulate the classical realism tradition of E.H. Carr, Hans Morgenthau, and Reinhold Niebuhr into a rigorous and positivistic social science.
Neorealism eschews classical realism's use of often essentialist concepts such as "human nature" to explain international politics.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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