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Encyclopedia > Neoplatonism
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Platonism
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Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. The term was first coined by Thomas Taylor,[1] in his translation of Plotinus' Enneads. Taylor was the first to translate Plotinus' works into English.[2] Neoplatonists considered themselves simply "Platonists", and the modern distinction is due to the perception that their philosophy contained enough unique interpretations of Plato to make it substantively different from what Plato wrote and believed. The Neoplatonism of Plotinus and Porphyry has been referred to as really being orthodox (neo)Platonic philosophy by scholars like Professor John D. Turner. This distinction provides a contrast with later movements of Neoplatonism, such as those of Iamblichus and Proclus, which embraced magical practices or theurgy as part of the soul's development and the return to the Source. This could also be due to one possible motive of Plotinus, being to clarify some of the traditions in the teachings of Plato that had been misrepresented before Iamblichus (see Neoplatonism and Gnosticism). Image File history File links Plato-raphael. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... Platonic realism is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals after the Greek philosopher Plato who lived between c. ... Middle Platonism refers to the development of certain philosophical doctrines associated with Plato during the first and second centuries A.D. One of the outstanding thinkers of Middle Platonism was Philo Judeaus (Philo the Jew) who synthesized Platos philosophy with Jewish scripture largely through allegorical interpretation of the latter. ... Platonic epistemology is the belief that knowledge is innate, the development (often under the midwife-like guidance of an interrogator) of ideas buried deep in the soul. ... Socratic Method (or Method of Elenchus or Socratic Debate) is a dialectic method of inquiry, largely applied to the examination of key moral concepts and first described by Plato in the Socratic Dialogues. ... Socratic dialogue (Greek Σωκρατικός λόγος or Σωκρατικός διάλογος), is a prose literary form developed in Greece at the turn of the fourth century BCE, preserved today in the dialogues of Plato and the Socratic works of Xenophon - either dramatic or narrative - in which characters discuss moral and philosophical problems. ... Theory of Forms typically refers to Platos belief that the material world as it seems to us is not the real world, but only a shadow of the real world. ... The Platonic doctrine of recollection is the idea that we are born possessing all knowledge and our realization of that knowledge is contingent on our discovery of it. ... Plato describes The Form of the Good in his book, The Republic, using Socrates as his mouth piece. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... This page is about the ancient Greek philosopher. ... Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (Greek: ; English /ælsɪbaɪədi:z/; 450 BC–404 BC), also transliterated as Alkibiades, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. ... Protagoras (in Greek Πρωταγόρας) was born around 481 BC in Abdera, Thrace in Ancient Greece. ... Parmenides of Elea (Greek: , early 5th century BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Elea, a Hellenic city on the southern coast of Italy. ... Plato, in The Republic (507b-509c), uses the sun as a metaphor for the source of illumination, arguably intellectual illumination, which he held to be The Form of the Good, which is sometimes interpreted as Platos notion of God. ... Plato, in The Republic Book 6 (509D–513E), uses the literary device of a divided line to teach his basic views about four levels of existence (especially the intelligible world of the forms, universals, and the visible world we see around us) and the corresponding ways we come to know... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Third Man Argument (commonly refered to as TMA), first offered by Plato in his dialogue Parmenides, is a philosophical criticism of Platos own Theory of Forms. ... Quis custodiet ipsos custodes? is a Latin phrase that translates to Who will guard the guards? or Who shall watch the watchers themselves? The question was first asked by Plato in the Republic, his great work on government and morality. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Plotinus Plotinus (ancient Greek: ) (ca. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... Thomas Taylor (15 May 1758 - 1 November 1835) was an English translator and Neoplatonist, the first to translate into English the complete works of Aristotle and of Plato, as well as the Orphic fragments. ... Plotinus Plotinus (ancient Greek: ) (ca. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Plotinus Plotinus (ancient Greek: ) (ca. ... Plotinus Plotinus (ancient Greek: ) (ca. ... Porphyry (Greek Πορφύριος purple-clad) may refer to: Porphyry of Tyros (c. ... Two historical persons go by the name Iamblichus (Greek: Ιάμβλιχος) A Greek novelist; see Iamblichus (novelist) A neoplatonist philosopher; see Iamblichus (philosopher) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about Proclus Diadochus, the Neoplatonist philosopher. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up monad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Plotinus Plotinus (ancient Greek: ) (ca. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Neoplatonism took definitive shape with the philosopher Plotinus, who claimed to have received his teachings from Ammonius Saccas, a dock worker and philosopher in Alexandria.[3] Plotinus was also influenced by Alexander of Aphrodisias and Numenius of Apamea. Plotinus's student Porphyry assembled his teachings into the six Enneads. Plotinus Plotinus (ancient Greek: ) (ca. ... Ammonius Saccas (3rd century AD) was a Greek philosopher of Alexandria, often called the founder of the Neoplatonic school. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Alexander of Aphrodisias, a pupil of Aristocles of Messene, was the most celebrated of the Greek commentators on the writings of Aristotle. ... Numenius of Apamea was a Greek philosopher, who lived in Apamea in Syria and flourished during the latter half of the 2nd century A.D. He was a Neo-Pythagorean and forerunner of the Neo-Platonists. ... Porphyry of Tyre (Greek: , c. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Subsequent Neoplatonic philosophers included Hypatia of Alexandria, Iamblichus, Proclus, Hierocles of Alexandria, Simplicius of Cilicia, and Damascius, who wrote On First Principles. Born in Damascus, he was the last teacher of Neoplatonism at Athens. Neoplatonism strongly influenced Christian thinkers (such as Augustine, Boethius, Pseudo-Dionysius, John Scotus Eriugena, and Bonaventura). Neoplatonism was also present in medieval Islamic and Jewish thinkers such as al-Farabi and Maimonides, and experienced a revival in the Renaissance with the acquisition and translation of Greek and Arabic Neoplatonic texts. An imagined portrait of Hypatia of Alexandria Hypatia of Alexandria (Greek: Υπατία; born between 350 and 370 AD – 415 AD) was an Egypt-born [1] Greek[2][3] Neoplatonist philosopher, the first notable woman in mathematics, and who also taught in the fields of astronomy and astrology. ... Two historical persons go by the name Iamblichus (Greek: Ιάμβλιχος) A Greek novelist; see Iamblichus (novelist) A neoplatonist philosopher; see Iamblichus (philosopher) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about Proclus Diadochus, the Neoplatonist philosopher. ... Hierocles of Alexandria, Neoplatonist writer, flourished c. ... Simplicius, a native of Cilicia, a disciple of Ammonius and of Damascius, was one of the last of the Neoplatonists. ... Damascius, the last of the Neoplatonists, was born in Damascus about AD 480. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... There are several persons called Bo thius: Philosophers: Anicius Manlius Severinus thius - to many scholars this is the Bo thius, a late-Roman writer best known for his works in philosophy and theology. ... Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite is the name scholars have given to an anonymous theologian and philosopher of the 5th century, who wrote a collection of books (Corpus Areopagiticum) falsely ascribed to the Dionysius mentioned in Acts 17:34. ... Eriugena commemorated on a Irish banknote, issued 1976-1993 Johannes Scotus Eriugena (ca. ... Saint Bonaventura, John of Fidanza (1221 – July 15, 1274), was a Franciscan theologian. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ...

Contents

Platonism and Neoplatonism

The philosophers called Neoplatonists did not found a school as much as attempt to preserve the teachings of Plato. They regarded themselves as Platonists, pure and simple. The concept of the One was not as clearly defined in Plato's Timaeus as it later was by Plotinus' Enneads. The afterlife as defined by Socrates in Phaedo is also different than the afterlife of the person or soul in the Enneads. The soul returns to the Monad or One in the Plotinus' works, whereas in Phaedo there are different afterlifes: one could be re-incarnated, one could receive punishment, or one could go to Hades to be with the heroes of old (Socrates' ideal afterlife for philosophers). Timaeus (Honour) (or Timæus) is a name that appears in several ancient (Greek) sources: Timaeus (dialogue), a Socratic dialogue by Plato Timaeus of Locri, the 5th-century Pythagorean philosopher, appearing in Platos s Timaeus. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... It has been suggested that Phaidon be merged into this article or section. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Phaidon be merged into this article or section. ...


Teachings

Neoplatonism is generally a religious philosophy. Neoplatonism is a form of idealistic monism (also called theistic monism) and combines elements of Polytheism (see Monistic-polytheism). Plotinus taught the existence of an ineffable and transcendent One, from which emanated the rest of the universe as a sequence of lesser beings. Later Neoplatonic philosophers, especially Iamblichus, added hundreds of intermediate beings such as Gods, angels and demons, and other beings as mediators between the One and humanity. The Neoplatonist Gods are omni-perfect beings and do not display the usual amoral behaviour associated with their representations in the myths. This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... Theistic Monism is a form of idealistic monism in which the absolute is identified with the divine, either as an impersonal or a personal God. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... A form of monism which combines elements of polytheism, as in Neoplatonism and Hinduism. ... In religion, transcendence is a condition or state of being that surpasses, and is independent of, physical existence. ... The Absolute is the totality of things, all that is, whether it has been discovered or not. ... Emanationism is a component in the cosmology of certain religious or philosophical belief systems that claim that the supreme god did not create the physical universe, but instead emanated lower spiritual beings who consequently carried out the actual work. ... Iamblichus (ca. ...


The Celestial Hierarchy


The One - God, The Good. Transcendent and ineffable. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


The Hypercosmic Gods - Those which make Essence, Life and Soul


The Demiurge - The creator. The Demiurge, The Craftsman or Creator, in some belief systems, is the deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe. ...


The Cosmic Gods - Those who make Being, Nature, and Matter. These include the Gods known to us from classical mythology.


Salvation


Neoplatonists believed human perfection and happiness were attainable in this world, without awaiting an afterlife. Perfection and happiness— seen as synonymous— could be achieved through philosophical contemplation. For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... Contemplation comes from the latin root for temple, and means to enter an open or consecrated place. ...


They did not believe in an independent existence of evil. They compared it to darkness, which does not exist in itself but only as the absence of light. So too, evil is simply the absence of good. Things are good insofar as they exist; they are evil only insofar as they are imperfect, lacking some good that they should have. It is also a cornerstone of Neoplatonism to teach that all people return to the Source. The Source, Absolute, or One is what all things spring from and, as a superconsciousness, is where all things return. It can be said that all consciousness is wiped clean and returned to a blank slate when returning to the Source. All things have energy as their essence.[citation needed] When people return to the Source, their energy returns to the One, Monad, or Source and is then recycled into the cosmos, where it can be broken up and then amalgamated into other things.[citation needed] For other uses, see Evil (disambiguation). ... For the episode of Buffy the Vampire Slayer, see Tabula Rasa (Buffy episode) In music, Tabula Rasa is the title of many compositions, including one by Arvo Pärt, and an album by Einstürzende Neubauten. ...


The Philosophers

Ammonius Saccas


Ammonius Saccas (birth unknown death ca. 265 AD) is a founder of Neoplatonism and the teacher of Plotinus. Little is known of the teacher other than both Christians (see Eusebius, Jerome, and Origen) and pagans (see Porphyry and Plotinus) claim him a teacher and founder of the Neoplatonic system. Porphyry stated in On the One School of Plato and Aristotle, that Ammonius' view was that the philosophies of Plato and Aristotle were in harmony. Eusebius and Jerome claimed him as a Christian until his death, whereas Porphyry claimed he had renounced Christianity and embrace pagan philosophy. Ammonius Saccas (3rd century AD) was a Greek philosopher of Alexandria, often called the founder of the Neoplatonic school. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ... Porphyry (Greek Πορφύριος purple-clad) may refer to: Porphyry of Tyros (c. ... Plotinus Plotinus (ancient Greek: ) (ca. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... Porphyry (Greek Πορφύριος purple-clad) may refer to: Porphyry of Tyros (c. ...


Plotinus


Plotinus (Greek: Πλωτῖνος) (ca. 205–270) was a major Egyptian[4] philosopher of the ancient world who is widely considered the father of Neoplatonism. Much of our biographical information about him comes from Porphyry's preface to his edition of Plotinus' Enneads. While he was himself influenced by the teachings of classical Greek philosophy, Persian philosophy, and Indian philosophy,[5] his metaphysical writings later inspired numerous Christian, Jewish, Muslim, and Gnostic metaphysicians and mystics over the centuries. Plotinus taught that there is a supreme, totally transcendent "One", containing no division, multiplicity or distinction; likewise it is beyond all categories of being and non-being. The concept of "being" is derived by us from the objects of human experience, and is an attribute of such objects, but the infinite, transcendent One is beyond all such objects, and therefore is beyond the concepts that we derive from them. The One "cannot be any existing thing", and cannot be merely the sum of all such things (compare the Stoic doctrine of disbelief in non-material existence), but "is prior to all existents". Plotinus Plotinus (ancient Greek: ) (ca. ... Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Filled with OR and completely unsourced. ... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Porphyry


Porphyry (Greek: Πορφύριος, c. A.D. 233– c. 309) was a Syrian[4] Neoplatonist philosopher. He wrote widely on astrology, religion, philosophy, and musical theory. He produced a biography of his teacher, Plotinus. He is important in the history of mathematics because of his Life of Pythagoras, and his commentary on Euclid's Elements which was used by Pappus when he wrote his own commentary. [1] Porphyry is also known as an opponent of Christianity and defender of Paganism; of his Adversus Christianos (Against the Christians) in 15 books, only fragments remain. He famously said, "The Gods have proclaimed Christ to have been most pious, but the Christians are a confused and vicious sect." Porphyry of Tyre (Greek: , c. ...


Iamblichus


Iamblichus, also known as Iamblichus Chalcidensis, (ca. 245 - ca. 325, Greek: Ιάμβλιχος) was a Syrian[4] neoplatonist philosopher who determined the direction taken by later Neoplatonic philosophy, and perhaps western philosophical religions themselves. He is perhaps best known for his compendium on Pythagorean philosophy. In Iamblichus' system the realm of divinities stretched from the original One down to material nature itself, where soul in fact descended into matter and became "embodied" as human beings. The world is thus peopled by a crowd of superhuman beings influencing natural events and possessing and communicating knowledge of the future, and who are all accessible to prayers and offerings. Iamblichus had salvation as his final goal. The embodied soul was to return to divinity by performing certain rites, or theurgy, literally, 'divine-working'. Some translate this as "magic", but the modern connotations of the term do not exactly match what Iamblichus had in mind, which is more along the lines of religious ritual. Two historical persons go by the name Iamblichus (Greek: Ιάμβλιχος) A Greek novelist; see Iamblichus (novelist) A neoplatonist philosopher; see Iamblichus (philosopher) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Proclus


Proclus Lycaeus (February 8, 412 – April 17, 485), surnamed "The Successor" or "diadochos" (Greek Πρόκλος ὁ Διάδοχος Próklos ho Diádokhos), was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher, one of the last major Greek philosophers (see Damascius). His set forth one of the most elaborate, complex, and fully developed Neoplatonic systems. The particular characteristic of Proclus' system is his insertion of a level of individual ones, called henads between the One itself and the divine Intellect, which is the second principle. The henads are beyond being, like the One itself, but they stand at the head of chains of causation (seirai or taxeis) and in some manner give to these chains their particular character. They are also identified with the traditional Greek gods, so one henad might be Apollo and be the cause of all things apollonian, while another might be Helios and be the cause of all sunny things. The henads serve both to protect the One itself from any hint of multiplicity, and to draw up the rest of the universe towards the One, by being a connecting, intermediate stage between absolute unity and determinate multiplicity. This article is about Proclus Diadochus, the Neoplatonist philosopher. ...


Julian the Philosopher


Flavius Claudius Iulianus (born c.331–died June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. He was the last pagan Roman Emperor, and tried to reform traditional Pagan worship by unifying Pagan worship in the Byzantine empire in the form of Neoplatonism developed by Iamblichus. Julian sought to do this after the legalization of Christianity and its widespread success within the Eastern Roman Empire. Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Category: ... Two historical persons go by the name Iamblichus (Greek: Ιάμβλιχος) A Greek novelist; see Iamblichus (novelist) A neoplatonist philosopher; see Iamblichus (philosopher) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Gemistus Pletho


Gemistus Pletho (born c. 1355–died 1452) remained the preeminent scholar of Neoplatonic philosophy in the Eastern Roman Empire. He introduced his understanding and insight into the works of Neoplatonism during the failed attempt to reconcile the East-West schism at the council of Florence. Georgius Gemistos (or Plethon, Pletho), (c. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... A decree of the Council of Constance (9 October 1417), sanctioned by Pope Martin V obliged the papacy to summon general councils periodically. ...


Early Christian and Medieval Neoplatonism

Central tenets of Neoplatonism, such as the absence of good being the source of evil, and that this absence of good comes from human sin, served as a philosophical interim for the Christian theologian Augustine of Hippo on his journey from dualistic Manichaeism to Christianity. When writing his treatise 'On True Religion' several years after his 387 baptism, Augustine's Christianity was still tempered by Neoplatonism, but he eventually decided to abandon Neoplatonism altogether in favor of a Christianity based on his own reading of Scripture. Many other Christians were influenced by Neoplatonism, especially in their identifying the Neoplatonic One, or God, with Jehovah. The most influential of these would be Origen, the pupil of Ammonius Saccas and the fifth-century author known as Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, (whose works were translated by John Scotus in the 9th century for the west) and proved significant for both the Eastern Orthodox and Western branches of Christianity. Neoplatonism also had links with Gnosticism, which Plotinus rebuked in his ninth tractate of the second Enneads: "Against Those That Affirm The Creator of The Kosmos and The Kosmos Itself to Be Evil" (generally known as "Against The Gnostics"). Due to their belief being grounded in Platonic thought, the Neoplatonists rejected gnosticism's vilification of Plato's demiurge, the creator of the material world or cosmos discussed in the Timaeus. Although Neoplatonism has been referred to as orthodox Platonic philosophy by scholars like Professor John D. Turner, this reference may be due in part to Plotinus' attempt to refute certain interpretations of Platonic philosophy, through his Enneads. Plotinus believed the followers of gnosticism had corrupted the original teachings of Plato. Despite the influence this 'pagan' philosophy had on Christianity, Justinian I would hurt later Neoplatonism by ordering the closure of the refounded School of Athens.[6] In the Middle Ages, Neoplatonist ideas influenced Jewish thinkers, such as the Kabbalist Isaac the Blind, and the Jewish Neoplatonic philosopher Solomon ibn Gabirol, who modified it in the light of their own monotheism. Neoplatonist ideas also influenced Islamic and Sufi thinkers such as al Farabi and Avicenna. Neoplatonism survived in the Eastern Christian Church as an independent tradition and was reintroduced to the west by Plethon. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... Events The widowed Roman Emperor Theodosius I marries Galla, sister of his colleague Valentinian II Births Deaths Flaccilla, wife of the Roman Emperor Theodosius I. Categories: 387 ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... This article is about a reading of the name of God in Hebrew scripture. ... Origen Origen (Greek: ÅŒrigénÄ“s, 185–ca. ... Ammonius Saccas (3rd century AD) was a Greek philosopher of Alexandria, often called the founder of the Neoplatonic school. ... Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, also known as pseudo-Denys, refers to the anonymous theologian and philosopher of the 5th century whose Corpus Areopagiticum was falsely ascribed to Dionysius the Areopagite of Acts 17:34. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Demiurge, The Craftsman or Creator, in some belief systems, is the deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe. ... Timaeus (Honour) (or Timæus) is a name that appears in several ancient (Greek) sources: Timaeus (dialogue), a Socratic dialogue by Plato Timaeus of Locri, the 5th-century Pythagorean philosopher, appearing in Platos s Timaeus. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Rabbi Yitzhak Saggi Nehor רַבִּי יִצְחַק סַגִּי נְהוֹר, also known as Isaac the Blind, (c. ... Solomon Ibn Gabirol, also Solomon ben Judah, is a Spanish Jewish poet and philosopher. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... AbÅ« Nasr Muhammad ibn al-Farakh al-Fārābi[1] (Persian: ) or AbÅ« Nasr al-Fārābi (in some sources, known as Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Tarkhan ibn Uzlagh al-Farabi[2]), also known in the West as Alpharabius, Al-Farabi, Farabi, and Abunaser (c. ... (ابن سينا) (c. ... Georgius Gemistos Plethon (or Pletho), (c. ...


Renaissance Neoplatonism

In western Europe, Neoplatonism was revived in the Italian Renaissance by figures such as Nicholas Cusanus, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Marsilio Ficino, the Medici, Michelangelo, Sandro Botticelli and later Giordano Bruno. The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... Nicholas of Cusa Nicholas of Cusa (1401 – August 11, 1464) was a cardinal of the Catholic Church, a philosopher, a mathematician, and an astronomer. ... Pico della Mirandola. ... Domenico Ghirlandaio. ... For the board game, see Medici (board game). ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (little barrel) (March 1, 1445 – May 17, 1510) was an Italian painter of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance (Quattrocento). ... Giordano Bruno Giordano Bruno (1548, Nola – February 17, 1600, Rome) was an Italian philosopher, priest, cosmologist, and occultist. ...


The Cambridge Platonists

In the seventeenth century in England, Neoplatonism was fundamental to the school of the Cambridge Platonists, whose luminaries included Henry More, Ralph Cudworth, Benjamin Whichcote and John Smith, all graduates of Cambridge University. Coleridge claimed that they were not really Platonists, but "more truly Plotinists": "divine Plotinus", as More called him. The Cambridge Platonists were a group of divines at Cambridge University in England in the middle of the 17th century (between 1633 and 1688). ... Henry More. ... Ralph Cudworth (1617 - June 26, 1688) was an English philosopher, the leader of the Cambridge Platonists. ... Benjamin Whichcote (1609 - 1683), divine, belonged to a good Shropshire family, and was at Cambridge, where he became Provost of Kings College, of which office he was deprived at the Restoration. ... John Smith (1618-52) was an English educator, born at Achurch, Northamptonshire. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ...


Modern Neoplatonism

In the essay "Inner and Outer Realities: Jean Gebser in a Cultural/Historical Perspective", Integral philosopher Allan Combs claims that ten modern thinkers can be called Neo-Platonists: Goethe, Schiller, Schelling, Hegel, Coleridge, Emerson, Rudolf Steiner, Carl Jung, Jean Gebser and the modern theorist Brian Goodwin. He sees these thinkers as participating in a tradition that can be distinguished from the empiricist, rationalist, dualist and materialist Western philosophical traditions[1]. This article is about integral theory in philosophy, psychology, and society. ... Allan Combs is a consciousness researcher, neuropsychologist, and systems theorist. ... “Goethe” redirects here. ... Friedrich Schiller “Schiller” redirects here. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (January 27, 1775 – August 20, 1854), later von Schelling, was a German philosopher. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (IPA: ) (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and, with Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, one of the representatives of German idealism. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... Rudolf Steiner. ... “Jung” redirects here. ... Jean Gebser Jean Gebser (August 20, 1905 – May 14, 1973) was a prodigy, a student of the transformations of human consciousness, a linguist, and a poet. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Empiricism is generally regarded as being at the heart of the modern scientific method, that our theories should be based on our observations of the world rather than on intuition or faith; that is, empirical research and a posteriori inductive reasoning rather than purely deductive logic. ... This article is not about continental rationalism. ... The term dualism is the state of being dual, or having a twofold division. ... This article primarily focuses on the general concepts of matter and existence. ... Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ...


Other notable modern Neoplatonists include Thomas Taylor, "the English Platonist," who wrote extensively on Platonism and translated almost the entire Platonic and Plotinian corpora into English, and the Belgian writer Suzanne Lilar. Thomas Taylor (15 May 1758 - 1 November 1835) was an English translator and Neoplatonist, the first to translate into English the complete works of Aristotle and of Plato, as well as the Orphic fragments. ... Suzanne Lilar in the 1980 Suzanne Lilar (born Suzanne Verbist) (b. ...


Commentary on Parmenides

As Plotinus claimed that, since the academy and Plato taught via dialectical interaction between student and teacher, his works were the writing down of a long oral tradition. This remark has been given renewed attention due to some scholars calling into question The Anonymous Commentary on Plato's 'Parmenides' as being authored after Plotinus by his student Porphyry. It has recently been presented that the text is pre-Plotinian and pre-Porphyryian in origin by Kevin Corrigan of the University of Saskatchewan and this conclusion is supported by Professor John D Turner. This text contains a great many ideas that have been attributed to Plotinus and his students exclusively. If the text was pre-Plotinus, then much of what is considered Neoplatonic would indeed be pre-Plotinus. Even possibly pre-Ammonius Saccas. Porphyry (Greek Πορφύριος purple-clad) may refer to: Porphyry of Tyros (c. ... John D Turner is the professor for religious studies at the University of Nebraska. ... Ammonius Saccas (3rd century AD) was a Greek philosopher of Alexandria, often called the founder of the Neoplatonic school. ...


See also

Ammonius Saccas (3rd century AD) was a Greek philosopher of Alexandria, often called the founder of the Neoplatonic school. ... Antiochus of Ascalon (c. ... Atticus, all of what is known of this philosopher are fragments of his book preserved in Eusebius Preparatio Evangelica, Atticus was vehemently anti-Peripatetic. ... Plutarch Mestrius Plutarchus (ca. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Alexander of Aphrodisias, a pupil of Aristocles of Messene, was the most celebrated of the Greek commentators on the writings of Aristotle. ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... The Brethren of Purity (اخوان الصفا; also translated as Brethren of Sincerity) were an obscure and mysterious organization of neo-Platonic Arabic philosophers in Basra, Iraq (then seat of the Abbasid Caliphate) sometime during the 900s CE. They are remembered primarily because of a work they produced- the Encyclopedia of the Brethren... Within the realm of Neoplatonic philosophy henosis is the divine work committed to by each individual toward the goal of union with the Monad, Source, or the One. ... Hypatia could refer to: Hypatia of Alexandria (?370–415), a neo-Platonic philosopher, mathematician, and teacher. ... Origen Origen (Greek: ÅŒrigénÄ“s, 185–ca. ... Plotinus Plotinus (ancient Greek: ) (ca. ... Porphyry (Greek Πορφύριος purple-clad) may refer to: Porphyry of Tyros (c. ... Peripatetic (περιπατητικός) is the name given to followers of Aristotle, the Greek philosopher. ... Numenius of Apamea was a Greek philosopher, who lived in Apamea in Syria and flourished during the latter half of the 2nd century A.D. He was a Neo-Pythagorean and forerunner of the Neo-Platonists. ... This article is about Proclus Diadochus, the Neoplatonist philosopher. ... Two historical persons go by the name Iamblichus (Greek: Ιάμβλιχος) A Greek novelist; see Iamblichus (novelist) A neoplatonist philosopher; see Iamblichus (philosopher) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Cambridge Platonists were a group of divines at Cambridge University in England in the middle of the 17th century (between 1633 and 1688). ...

Further reading

  • The London Philosophy Study Guide offers many suggestions on what to read, depending on the student's familiarity with the subject: Post-Aristotelian philosophy
  • Ruelle, an edition of On First Principles, (Paris, 1889)
  • Whittaker, The Neo-Platonists, (Cambridge, 1901)
  • Cambridge Companion to Plotinus. Ed. L.P. Gerson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996)
  • Neoplatonic Philosophy. Introductory Readings. Trans. and ed. by John Dillon and Lloyd P. Gerson, (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Co., 2004)

References

  1. ^ Notopoulos, J.A. "Shelley and Thomas Taylor" Proceedings of the Modern Language Association of America, Vol. 51, No. 2 (Jun., 1936), pp. 502-517
  2. ^ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry for Plotinus
  3. ^ *Mubabinge Bilolo: Fondements Thébains de la Philosophie de Plotin l'Égyptien (Academy of African Thought & African Institute for Future Studies, Sect. I, vol. 9), Kinshasa-Munich-Paris, 2007. ISBN 978-3-931169-00-5
  4. ^ a b c George Sarton (1936). "The Unity and Diversity of the Mediterranean World", Osiris 2, p. 406-463 [429-430].
  5. ^ Porphyry, On the Life of Plotinus and the Order of His Books, Ch. 3 (Armstrong's Loeb translation).

    "he became eager to make acquaintance with the Persian philosophical discipline and that prevailing among the Indians" The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (hereafter SEP) is a free online encyclopedia of philosophy run and maintained by Stanford University. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956) was a seminal Belgian-American polymath and historian of science. ...

  6. ^ See Rainer Thiel, Simplikios und das Ende der neuplatonischen Schule in Athen, and a review by Gerald Bechtle, University of Berne, Switzerland, in the Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2000.04.19. Online version retrieved June 15, 2007.

External links


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The Alexandrian philosophical syllabus was imbued with Neoplatonism and coated with Aristotelianism.
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