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Encyclopedia > Neoplasia

Neoplasia (new growth in Greek) is abnormal proliferation of cells in a tissue or organ. A neoplastic growth is called a neoplasm. Many neoplasms form distinct masses, or tumors, but there are also many examples of neoplastic processes which are not grossly apparent, a commonly diagnosed example being cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, a pre-cancerous lesion of the uterine cervix. It is important to note that the term "neoplasm" is not synonymous with cancer, since neoplasms can be either benign or malignant. Leiomyoma (fibroids of the uterus) and melanocytic nevi (moles) are the most common types of neoplasms - both are benign. Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... In biology, an organ (Latin: organum, instrument, tool) is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions. ... Tumor or tumour literally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... Gross examination or grossing is the process by which pathology specimens are inspected with the naked eye to obtain diagnostic information, while being processed for further microscopic examination. ... Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, or CIN, is the abnormal growth of precancerous cells in the cervix. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Look up Benign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that means to be severe and become progressively worse, as in malignant hypertension. ... A leiomyoma (plural is leiomyomata) is a benign smooth muscle neoplasm that is not premalignant. ... Nevus (or naevus) is a general term that refers to a number of different, usually benign, pigmented lesions of the skin. ...


Interestingly, there is not a complete consensus in the biomedical community as to the exact biological definition of a neoplasm, although the statement of the British oncologist R.A. Willis is widely cited:

A neoplasm is an abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissues, and persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of the stimulus which evoked the change.[1]

Neoplastic tumors often contain more than one type of cell, but their initiation and continued growth is usually dependant on a single population of neoplastic cells which are clonal - that is, they are descended from a single progenitor cell. The neoplastic cells typically bear common genetic or epigenetic abnormalities which are not seen in the non-neoplastic stromal cells and blood-vessel forming cells, whose growth is dependant on molecular stimuli from the neoplastic cells. The demonstration of clonality is now considered by many to be necessary (though not sufficient) to define a cellular proliferation as neoplastic. It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene regulation that occur without a change in DNA sequence (genotype). ... Stromal Cells Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ...

Contents

Other uses

Neoplasia is also the name of a scientific journal for oncology research or a name of a Computer Demo Group, formed in 1995 (NPL). There is also a movie (Link), inspired by the releases of the demogroup. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Oncology is the branch of medicine that studies tumors (cancer) and seeks to understand their development, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. ...


See also

Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Tumor or tumour literally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... A paraneoplastic phenomenon is a disease or symptom that is the consequence of the presence of cancer in the body, but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. ... Dysplasia (latin for bad form) is an abnormality in the appearance of cells indicative of an early step towards transformation into a neoplasia. ... Oncology is the branch of medicine that studies tumors (cancer) and seeks to understand their development, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. ...

External links

The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ...

References

  1. ^ Willis RA: The Spread of Tumors in the Human Body. London, Butterworth & Co, 1952

  Results from FactBites:
 
Neoplasia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (272 words)
Neoplasia (new growth in Greek) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass.
Neoplasia is the correct, scientific term for diseases commonly called "cancer", "tumor" or "growth".
Neoplasia is also the name of a scientific journal for oncology research.
Neoplasia (1317 words)
Neoplasia is interested in studies describing new molecular and genetic findings relating to the neoplastic phenotype and in laboratory and clinical studies demonstrating creative applications of advances in the basic sciences to risk assessment, prognostic indications, detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
Neoplasia is committed to ensuring a thorough, fair, and rapid review and publication schedule to further its mission of serving both the scientific and clinical communities by disseminating important data and ideas in cancer research.
Neoplasia encourages the free exchange of all clones, cell lines, and biological reagents described in its pages to facilitate the progress of research in order to ultimately provide those fighting neoplastic diseases with new diagnostic, preventative and therapeutic options.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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