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Encyclopedia > Neopallium

The neopallium (Latin for "new mantle") is a part of the brain of mammals. It is the top layer of the cerebral hemispheres, about 2 mm thick, and is involved in higher functions such as sensory perception, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning, and in humans, language and conscious thought. Other names for the neopallium include neocortex ("new bark" or "new rind"), isocortex ("equal rind") and homotypical cortex. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Comparative brain sizes In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ... Orders Subclass Multituberculata (extinct) Plagiaulacida Cimolodonta Subclass Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Subclass Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Eutheria (includes extinct ancestors)/Placentalia (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata (extinct) Perissodactyla Pholidota Plesiadapiformes... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10-3 m and 10-2 m (1 mm and 1 cm). ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... // Early work on motor cortex function Back in the 1940s, Canadian neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield wanted to know which bits of epileptics brains he could suck out without them noticing. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise such key features as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Bark is the outermost layer of stems and roots of woody plants such as trees. ... In botany, a rind is the thick outer skin of various structures such as fruit. ...

Contents


Anatomy

The neopallium consists of grey matter surrounding the deeper white matter of the cerebrum. While the neopallium is smooth in rats and some other small mammals, it has deep grooves (sulci) and wrinkles (gyri) in primates and several other mammals. These folds serve to increase the area of the neopallium considerably. In humans it accounts for about 80% of the brain's weight. Grey matter[1] is a category of nervous tissue with many nerve cell bodies and few myelinated axons. ... White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. ... For other articles about other subjects named brain see brain (disambiguation). ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... A sulcus (pl. ... Grays FIG. 726– Lateral surface of left cerebral hemisphere, viewed from the side. ... Families 15, See classification A primate (L. prima, first) is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are biologically classified as bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or thinking man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ...


The structure of the neopallium is relatively uniform (whence the names "iso" and "homotypical"): it consists of six horizontal layers segregated by cell type, neuronal input, or cell density. The neurons are arranged in structures called neocortical columns. These are patches of the neocortex with a diameter of about 0.5 mm (and a depth of 2 mm). Each column typically responds to a sensory stimulus representing a certain body part or region of sound or vision.These columns are similar and can be thought of as the basic repeating functional units of the neocortex. In humans, the neocortex consists of millions of these columns, and each column has up to 100,000 neurons per square millimeter. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of cells in the pigeon cerebellum. ... A cortical column is a group of neurons in the brain cortex which can be successively penetrated by a probe inserted perpendicularly to the cortical surface, and which have nearly identical receptive fields. ... A schematic representation of hearing. ... Vision may mean: Visual perception via the visual system, one of the senses. ...


The neocortex is divided into several lobes, and different regions of the neocortex have different functions. See cerebral cortex and cerebrum for the details. Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ... For other articles about other subjects named brain see brain (disambiguation). ...


Evolution

With respect to evolution, the neopallium is the newest part of the cerebral cortex (whence the name "neo"); the other parts of the cerebral cortex are the paleocortex and archicortex, collectively known as the allocortex. The cellular organization of the allocortex is different from the six-layer structure mentioned above. In humans, 90% of the cerebral cortex is neopallium. A speculative phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. ... Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ... Archicortex is basically categorized under allocortex. ... Ö“üÅ[[]]→óùÄŒ ...


The six-layer neopallium appears to be a distinguishing feature of mammals: It has been found in the brains of all mammals but not in any other animals. There is some debate[1][2], however, as to the cross-species nomenclature for neocortex. In avians, for instance, there are clear examples of cognitive processes that are thought to be neocortical in nature, despite the lack of the distinctive six-layer neocortical structure. In a similar manner, reptiles, such as turtles, have primary sensory cortices. A consistent, alternative name has yet to be agreed upon. In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ... Orders Many - see section below. ... Orders See text. ...


See also

Human brain image constructed from MRI data // Brain (neural tube) Brainstem (rhombencephalon),(mesencephalon) Rhombencephalon (hindbrain) Metencephalon pons fourth ventricle cerebellum cerebellar vermis cerebellar hemispheres anterior lobe posterior lobe flocculonodular lobe cerebellar nuclei fastigial nucleus globose nucleus emboliform nucleus dentate nucleus Myelencephalon medulla oblongata medullary pyramids Mesencephalon (midbrain) tectum inferior colliculi... Blue Brain is the promotional name for the IBM project to simulate a human brain on the molecular level. ...

References

  1.   Jarvis ED, Gunturkun O, Bruce L, Csillag A, Karten H, Kuenzel W, Medina L, Paxinos G, Perkel DJ, Shimizu T, Striedter G, Wild JM, Ball GF, Dugas-Ford J, Durand SE, Hough GE, Husband S, Kubikova L, Lee DW, Mello CV, Powers A, Siang C, Smulders TV, Wada K, White SA, Yamamoto K, Yu J, Reiner A, Butler AB; Avian Brain Nomenclature Consortium. Avian brains and a new understanding of vertebrate brain evolution. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2005;6(2):151-9. PMID 15685220
  2.   Reiner A, Perkel DJ, Bruce LL, Butler AB, Csillag A, Kuenzel W, Medina L, Paxinos G, Shimizu T, Striedter G, Wild M, Ball GF, Durand S, Gunturkun O, Lee DW, Mello CV, Powers A, White SA, Hough G, Kubikova L, Smulders TV, Wada K, Dugas-Ford J, Husband S, Yamamoto K, Yu J, Siang C, Jarvis ED; Avian Brain Nomenclature Forum. Revised nomenclature for avian telencephalon and some related brainstem nuclei. J Comp Neurol. 2004;473(3):377-414. PMID 15116397

  Results from FactBites:
 
Neopallium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (486 words)
The neopallium (Latin for "new mantle") is a part of the brain of mammals.
The structure of the neopallium is relatively uniform (whence the names "iso" and "homotypical"): it consists of six horizontal layers segregated by cell type, neuronal input, or cell density.
With respect to evolution, the neopallium is the newest part of the cerebral cortex (whence the name "neo"); the other parts of the cerebral cortex are the paleocortex and archicortex, collectively known as the allocortex.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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