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Encyclopedia > Neon sign
Neon signs are often used to advertise for hotels, bars and entertainment venues.

Neon signs are produced by the craft of bending glass tubing into shapes. A worker skilled in this craft is known as a glass bender, neon or tube bender. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2000x1497, 1251 KB) Please note: This image was originally uploaded to commons licensed as noted below, per the uploader. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2000x1497, 1251 KB) Please note: This image was originally uploaded to commons licensed as noted below, per the uploader. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Contents

History

The neon sign is an evolution of the earlier Geissler tube (also called a Crookes tube), which is a glass tube for demonstrating the principles of electrical discharge. Neon signs are used for many purposes. The Geissler tube is a glass tube for demonstrating the principles of electrical discharge. ... Sir William Crookes, OM, FRS (17 June 1832 – 4 April 1919) was an English chemist and physicist. ...


At the 1893 World's Fair, the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois, Nikola Tesla's neon lamp signs were displayed. The development of neon signs is credited to Georges Claude and the first public display of a neon sign was of two 38-foot long tubes in December of 1910 at the Paris Expo. The first commercial sign was sold by Jaques Fonseque, Claude’s associate, in 1912 to a Paris barber. Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ... One-third scale replica of The Republic, which once stood in the great basin at the exposition, Chicago, 2004 The World Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago Worlds Fair), a Worlds fair, was held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbuss discovery... Nickname: Motto: “Urbs in Horto” (Latin: “City in a Garden”), “I Will” Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country United States State Illinois Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ... Lighting neon lamp, two 220/230 volt and 110 V neon lamps and a screwdriver with neon lamp inside A neon lamp is a gas discharge lamp containing primarily neon gas at low pressure. ... Inspired in part by Daniel McFarlan Moores invention, Moore’s Lamp, Paris born chemist and inventor, Georges Claude invented the neon light by passing an electric current through inert gases made them light very brightly. ... A boy visiting a barber A barber (from the Latin barba, beard) is someone whose occupation is to cut any type of hair, give shaves, and trim beards. ...


Manufacturing process

Lead glass tubing in external diameters ranging from about 8 to 15 mm is most commonly used. The tube is heated in sections using several types of burners that are selected according to the amount of glass to be heated for each bend. These burners include ribbon, cannon, or crossfires, as well as a variety of torches that run on a simple combination of natural gas (butane or propane work better, however natural gas is cheapest) and air. Neon sign at night. ... Neon sign at night. ... Lead glass is potassium silicate glass which has been impregnated with lead oxide (from 12% to 28% by weight) in its fabrication. ... A burning torch, discarded on the road in the wake of the Lewes Bonfire Night celebrations. ...


A section of the glass is heated until it is malleable; then it is bent into shape and aligned to a pattern containing the graphics or lettering that the final product will ultimately conform to.


An electrode is melted (or "welded") to each end of the tube as it is finished. The electrodes are also lead glass and contain a small metal shell with two wires protruding through the glass to which the sign wiring will later be attached. All welds and seals must be perfectly leak-proof before proceeding further. An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a metallic part of a circuit (e. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ...


The tube is attached to a manifold which is itself attached to a high-quality vacuum pump. The tube is then evacuated of air until it reaches near-vacuum. During evacuation, a high current is forced through the tube via the wires protruding from each electrode (in a process known as "bombarding"). The current depends on the specific electrodes used and the diameter of the tube, but is typically in the 500mA to 1000mA range, at an applied voltage usually between 15,000 to 25,000V. The bombarding transformer acts as an adjustable constant current source, and the voltage produced depends on the length and pressure of the tube. Typically the operator will maintain the pressure as high as the bombarder will allow to ensure maximum power dissipation and heating. This very high power dissipation in the tube heats the glass to a temperature of several hundred degrees Celsius, and any dirt and impurities within are drawn off in the gasified form by the vacuum pump. The current also heats the electrode metal to over 600 degrees Celsius, which activates a special coating that scavenges unwanted contaminants in the tube and reduces the work function of the electrode for cathodic emission. When completed properly, this process results in a very clean interior at a high vacuum. Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up current in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The work function is the minimum energy (usually measured in electron volts) needed to remove an electron from a solid to a point immediately outside the solid surface. ...


While still attached to the manifold, the tube is allowed to cool while pumping down to the lowest pressure the system can achieve. It is then filled to a pressure of a few torr with one of the noble gases. The required pressure depends on the gas used and the diameter of the tube, with optimal values ranging from 6 torr (for a long 20mm tube filled with argon/mercury) to 27 torr (for a short 8mm diameter tube filled with pure neon). Neon or argon are the most common gases used; krypton, xenon, and helium are used by artists for special purposes but are not used alone in normal signs. A premixed combination of argon and helium is often used in lieu of pure argon when a tube is to be installed in a cold climate, since the helium increases voltage drop (and thus power dissipation), warming the tube to operating temperature faster. Neon glows bright red or reddish orange when lit. When argon or argon/helium is used, a tiny droplet of mercury is added. Argon by itself is very dim pale lavender when lit, but the droplet of mercury fills the tube with mercury vapor when sealed, which then emits ultraviolet light upon electrification. This ultraviolet emission allows finished argon/mercury tubes to glow with a variety of bright colors when the tube has been coated on the interior with ultraviolet-sensitive phosphors after being bent into shape. Plain argon/mercury fill in clear glass is used for a bright but pale blue (or bluish white) color often seen in signs where cost was a major factor. For the standard botanical author abbreviation Torr. ... The noble gases are a chemical series. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neon, Ne, 10 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 2, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 20. ... General Name, Symbol, Number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, Symbol, Number krypton, Kr, 36 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 4, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 83. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... “UV” redirects here. ... Green screen A phosphor is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of phosphorescence (sustained glowing after exposure to light or energised particles such as electrons). ...


The finished glass pieces are illuminated by either a transformer or a switching power supply running at voltages ranging between 3,000 and 15,000 volts and currents between 20 and 60 mA. These power supplies operate as constant-current sources (a high voltage supply with a very high internal impedance), since the tube has a negative characteristic electrical impedance. The most common current rating is 30mA for general use, with 60mA used for high-brightness applications like channel letters or architectural lighting. 120mA sources are occasionally seen in illuminating applications, but are uncommon since special electrodes are required to withstand the current, and an accidental shock from a 120mA transformer is much more likely to be fatal than from the lower current supplies. Neon signs are a type of cold cathode lighting. Figure 1:Three-phase pole-mounted step-down transformer. ... A switched-mode power supply, or SMPS, is an electronic power supply unit (PSU) that incorporates a switching regulator — an internal control circuit that switches the load current rapidly on and off in order to stabilise the output voltage. ... Electrical impedance, or simply impedance, is a measure of opposition to a sinusoidal alternating electric current. ... Note: Principles are mostly the same for cold cathode ion sources as in particle accelerators to create electrons. ... Lighting includes both artificial light sources such as lamps and natural illumination of interiors from daylight. ...


Applications

The light-emitting tubes form colored lines with which a text can be written or a picture drawn, including various decorations, especially in advertising and commercial signage. By programming sequences of switching parts on and off, there are many possibilities for dynamic light patterns that form animated images. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Commercialism redirects here. ... Multiple logos on the Virgin Megastore in San Francisco, California . Los Angeles famous Hollywood sign, now a symbol the entertainment industry, originally said Hollywoodland, and advertised a real estate development. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ...


Images

See also

See also: Other events of 1911 List of years in science . ... General Name, Symbol, Number neon, Ne, 10 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 2, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 20. ... Lighting neon lamp, two 220/230 volt and 110 V neon lamps and a screwdriver with neon lamp inside A neon lamp is a gas discharge lamp containing primarily neon gas at low pressure. ... Neon Message Board A Neon Message Board is an erasable neon whiteboard-like writing pad that enables users to leave messages for others. ... Timeline of lighting technology Since the world began, people used the sun as their main source of light. ... The noble gases are a chemical series. ... Section of a split-flap display board at Frankfurt (Main) Hauptbahnhof (taken April 2005). ... The flip-disc display is a display technology used for large outdoor signs, normally those that will be exposed to direct sunlight. ... A prototype electronic paper display, using E Inks Electrophoretic Imaging Film Electronic paper, also sometimes called e-paper or electronic ink, is a display technology designed to mimic the appearance of regular ink on paper. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A vacuum fluorescent display (VFD) is a type of display used primarily on consumer-electronics equipment such as video cassette recorders. ... Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. ... Planar Systems plasma display Composition of plasma display panel A plasma display panel (PDP) is a type of flat panel display now commonly used for large TV displays (typically above 37 or 940 mm). ... A 3. ... Blue, green and red LEDs. ... Laser TV is a new technology using optoelectronics. ... Reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal display. ... The DLP Logo Digital Light Processing (DLP) is a technology used in projectors and video projectors. ... Liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS or LCoS) is a micro-projection or micro-display technology typically applied in projection televisions. ... A surface-conduction electron-emitter display (SED) is a flat panel display technology that uses surface conduction electron emitters for every individual display pixel. ... A field emission display (FED) is a type of flat panel display using phosphor coatings as the emissive medium. ... A 3D display prototype by Philips A 3D display is any display device capable of conveying three-dimensional images to the viewer. ... Stereo card image modified for crossed eye viewing. ... A volumetric display device is a graphical display device that forms a visual representation of an object in three physical dimensions, as opposed to the planar image of traditional screens that simulate depth through a number of different visual effects. ... Copper Bromide laser in operation. ... 35 mm Kinoton movie projector in operation. ... [carousel slide projector, the most common form of projector] A slide projector is an opto-mechanical device to view photographic slides. ... Holography (from the Greek, όλος-hòlòs whole + γραφή-grafè writh) is the science of producing holograms; it is an advanced form of photography that allows an image to be recorded in three dimensions. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Neon signs

  Results from FactBites:
 
Neon sign - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (644 words)
The neon sign is an evolution of the earlier Geissler tube (also called a Crookes tube), which is a glass tube for demonstrating the principles of electrical discharge.
The development of neon signs is credited to Georges Claude and the first public display of a neon sign was of two 38-foot long tubes in December of 1910 at the Paris Expo.
Neon or argon are the most common; krypton, xenon, and helium are used by artists for special purposes.
Custom Neon Signs and Neon Sign lighting in the Chicago area. Wholesale and Retail. (3719 words)
The signs were quite artistic and even the posts of supports were elaborately worked in wrought iron or in wood carvings as tradesmen competed with each other for better and more distinctive identification for their place of business.
Sign companies today are providing the same service to our country's retail, financial and industrial places of business as did the sign producers of ancient times, medieval centuries and the early days of the twentieth century.
Signs from earlier days are now recognized and valued as antique artifacts reflecting the American scene, just as many of today's signs will one day be important to those who cherish the symbols of our 20th century culture.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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