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Encyclopedia > Neologism

A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or "coined"), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. Neologisms are especially useful in identifying inventions, new phenomena, or old ideas that have taken on a new cultural context. The term "e-mail", as used today, is an example of a neologism. For other uses, see Word (disambiguation). ... Terminology is the study of terms and their use — of words and compound words that are used in specific contexts. ... Look up phrase in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In music, an invention is a short composition with two or three part counterpoint. ... A phenomenon (plural: phenomena) is an observable event, especially something special (literally something that can be seen from the Greek word phainomenon = observable). ... For a thought or concept, see idea. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Etymology: Greek νεολογισμός [neologismos], from νέος [neos] new + λόγος [logos] word, speech, discourse + suffix -ισμός [-ismos] -ism The English suffix -ism was first used to form a noun of action from a verb. ...


Neologisms are by definition "new", and as such are often directly attributable to a specific individual, publication, period or event. The term "neologism" was itself coined around 1800, so in the early 19th century, the word "neologism" was itself a neologism. // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The term can also refer to an existing word or phrase that has acquired a new meaning.


In psychiatry, the term is used to describe the creation of words which only have meaning to the person who uses them, independent of its common use meaning. It is considered normal in children, but a symptom of thought disorder (indicative of a psychotic mental illness, such as schizophrenia) in adults. Usage of neologisms may also be related to aphasia acquired after brain damage resulting from a stroke or head injury.[citation needed] People with autism may also use neologisms.[citation needed] An MRI scan of a human brain and head. ... In psychiatry, thought disorder or formal thought disorder is a term used to describe a pattern of disordered language use that is presumed to reflect disordered thinking. ... Psychosis is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a loss of contact with reality. Stedmans Medical Dictionary defines psychosis as a severe mental disorder, with or without organic damage, characterized by derangement of personality and loss of contact with reality and causing deterioration... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... For other uses, see Aphasia (disambiguation). ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI), traumatic injuries to the brain, also called intracranial injury, or simply head injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes brain damage. ... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ...


In theology, a neologism is a relatively new doctrine (for example, rationalism). In this sense, a neologist is an innovator in the area of a doctrine or belief system, and is often considered heretical or subversive by the mainstream clergy or religious institution(s). Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ...

Contents

Changing culture

Neologisms tend to occur more often in cultures which are rapidly changing, and also in situations where there is easy and fast propagation of information.[citation needed] They are often created by combining existing words (see compound noun and adjective) or by giving words new and unique suffixes or prefixes. Those which are portmanteaux are shortened. Neologisms can also be created through abbreviation or acronym, by intentionally rhyming with existing words, or simply through playing with sounds. A compound is a word composed of more than one free morphemes. ... Look up Suffix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In linguistics, a prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. ... A portmanteau (IPA: ) is a word or morpheme that fuses two or more words or word parts to give a combined or loaded meaning. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar terminal sounds in two or more different words (i. ...


Neologisms often become popular through memetics – by way of mass media, the Internet, word of mouth (including academic discourse, renowned for its jargon, with recent coinages such as Fordism, Taylorism, Disneyfication and McDonaldization now in everyday use).[citation needed] (See also Wiktionary's Neologisms:unstable or Protologism pages for a wiki venue of popularizing newly coined words). Every word in a language was, at some time, a neologism, ceasing to be such through time and acceptance. Memetics is an approach to evolutionary models of information transfer based on the concept of the meme. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... For other uses, see Word of mouth (disambiguation). ... Fordism, named after Henry Ford, has different meanings in the United States and Europe. ... Taylorism or Scientific management is the name of the approach to management and Industrial/Organizational Psychology initiated by Frederick Winslow Taylor in his 1911 monograph The Principles of Scientific Management. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... McDonaldization is a term used by sociologist George Ritzer in his book The McDonaldization of Society. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...


Neologisms often become accepted parts of the language. Other times, however, they disappear from common usage. Whether a neologism continues as part of the language depends on many factors, probably the most important of which is acceptance by the public. Acceptance by linguistic experts and incorporation into dictionaries also plays a part, as does whether the phenomenon described by a neologism remains current, thus continuing to need a descriptor.[citation needed] It is unusual, however, for a word to enter common use if it does not resemble another word or words in an identifiable way. (In some cases, however, strange new words succeed because the idea behind them is especially memorable or exciting.)[citation needed] When a word or phrase is no longer "new," it is no longer a neologism. Neologisms may take decades to become "old," however. Opinions differ on exactly how old a word must be to no longer be considered a neologism; cultural acceptance probably plays a more important role than time in this regard.


Evolution of neologisms

Newly created words entering a language tend to pass through stages that can be described as:[citation needed]

  • Unstable - Extremely new, being proposed, or being used only by a small subculture (also known as protologisms).
  • Diffused - Having reached a significant audience, but not yet having gained widespread acceptance.
  • Stable - Having gained recognizable and probably lasting acceptance.
  • Dated - The point where the word has ceased holding novelty and has passed into cliché, formal linguistic acceptance, or become culturally dated in its use

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Sources of neologism

For a list of topically arranged protologisms (very-recently-coined terms), see Wiktionary:List of protologisms by topic.


Science

Words or phrases created to describe new scientific hypotheses, discoveries, or inventions. Examples:

For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Black hole (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Meme (disambiguation). ... A prion (IPA: [1] ) — short for proteinaceous infectious particle (-on by analogy to virion) — is a type of infectious agent composed only of protein. ... In agriculture, a beetle bank is a strip of grass or perennials in a field that provide habitat which fosters and provides cover for insects hostile to pests. ...

Science fiction

Concepts created to describe new, futuristic ideas. Examples:

Scene from Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope depicting the inside of the Millenium Falcon when entering hyperspace. ... Robotics is the science and technology of robots, their design, manufacture, and application. ... A cut-away diagram of an idealized Dyson shell—a variant on Dysons original concept—1 AU in radius. ... An ansible is a hypothetical machine, capable of superluminal communication, and used as a plot device in science fiction literature. ... In Star Trek a Phaser is a fictional weapon commonly used by the protagonists. ... Ringworld is a Hugo and Nebula award-winning 1970 science fiction novel by Larry Niven, set in his Known Space universe. ... This article is about characters from Blade Runner. ... Xenocide (1991) is the third novel in the Enders Game series of books by Orson Scott Card. ... The term metaverse comes from Neal Stephenson’s 1992 novel Snow Crash, and is now widely used to describe the vision behind current work on fully immersive 3D virtual spaces. ...

Literature more generally

See "Neologisms in literature" topic below.


Politics

Words or phrases created to make some kind of political or rhetorical point, sometimes perhaps with an eye to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. Examples: In linguistics, the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (SWH) states that there is a systematic relationship between the grammatical categories of the language a person speaks and how that person both understands the world and behaves in it. ...

For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the social movement. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church, a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... For other uses, see Californication. ... Issues of discussion Pro-choice describes the political and ethical view that a woman should have complete control over her fertility and pregnancy. ... Heterosexism is the presumption that everyone is straight or heterosexual (i. ... Glocalization (or glocalisation), a portmanteau of globalization and localization, entails one, two or three of the following: Using electronic communications technologies, such as the Internet, to provide local services on a global or transregional basis. ... Sie and hir are inflected forms of a proposed gender-neutral third person singular personal pronoun for the English language (see gender-neutral pronouns). ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. ... Republicrat or Demopublican (or the shorter Demolican or Democan) are portmanteaus of the names of the two main political parties in the United States, the Republicans and the Democrats. ... Astroturfing is a term for formal public relations campaigns in politics and advertising that seek to create the impression of being spontaneous, grassroots behavior. ... Dog-whistle politics is a term used to describe a type of political campaigning which is only heard by a specific intended audience. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... In North American social, cultural and political discourse, soccer mom (and less used soccer dad for the male equivalent) refers broadly to a demographic group of middle- or upper-middle class women with school-age children. ... ... Red states and blue states are those U.S. states having residents who predominantly vote for the Republican Party or Democratic Party, respectively, in elections in the United States. ... This article is about the US political term. ... Corporatocracy (sometimes corporocracy) is a neologism coined by proponents of the Global Justice Movement to describe a government bowing to pressure from corporate entities. ... This article is about the term Islamofascism; See the broader treatment of possible relations between religion and fascism in Clerical fascism and Neofascism and religion. ... Chindia is a portmanteau that refers to China and India together in general, and their economies in particular. ... Former NASCAR driver Richard Petty with U.S. President George W. Bush at the Victory Junction Gang Camp. ... The 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict photographs controversies refers to allegations that photojournalism from the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict was distorted in favor of Hezbollah and against Israel and the Israel Defense Forces, mostly by misrepresenting scenes of death and destruction in Lebanon caused by Israeli air attacks. ...

Pop-culture

Words or phrases evolved from mass media content or used to describe popular culture phenomena (these may be considered a variety of slang as well as neologisms). Examples: For other uses, see Slang (disambiguation). ...

For other uses, see Badonkadonk (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The infamous moment when Fonzie jumps over a shark while on water skis. ... Plus-size model is a term internationally applied to a woman who is engaged primarily in modeling garments that are designed and marketed specifically for larger body sizes and types (see plus-size clothing). ... See also the image-editing technique posterization North American slang (exact origin unknown) derived from an action in the game of basketball, in which the offensive player dunks (see slam dunk) over a defending player in a play that is spectacular and athletic enough to warrant reproduction in a printed... A prequel is a work that portrays events which include the structure, conventions, and/or characters of a previously completed narrative, but occur at an earlier time. ... Queercore is a cultural and social movement that began in the mid 1980s as an offshoot of punk. ... Wardrobe malfunction is an euphemism used to describe the accidental exposure of an intimate part or parts of the body due to a defect in an article or articles of clothing. ... A Webinar is a seminar which is conducted over the World Wide Web. ... Doh! is the comical catch phrase of Homer Simpson, from the long running animated series The Simpsons. ... This article contains speculation and may try to argue its points. ...

Commerce and advertising

Genericised trademarks. Examples: A genericized trademark (Commonwealth English genericised trade mark), sometimes known as a generic trade mark, generic descriptor or proprietary eponym, is a trademark or brand name which is often used as the colloquial description for a particular type of product or service as a result of widespread popular or cultural...

This article is about the drug. ... Crock-pot - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... A laundromat in California powered by solar panels on the roof. ... A linoleum kitchen floor Linoleum is a floor covering made from solidified linseed oil (linoxyn) in combination with wood flour or cork dust over a burlap or canvas backing. ... Kleenex logo This article is about the Kleenex brand. ... Band Aid can refer to: BAND-AID, a brand of adhesive bandage Band Aid, a musical ensemble raising money for famine relief. ... For a list of generic and genericized trademarks in languages other than English, see List of non-English generic and genericized trademarks. ...

Linguistics

Words or phrases created to describe new language constructs. Examples:

A retronym is a type of neologism coined for an old object or concept whose original name has come to be used for something else, is no longer unique, or is otherwise inappropriate or misleading. ... A backronym (or bacronym) is a phrase that is constructed after the fact from a previously existing abbreviation, the abbreviation being an initialism or an acronym. ... Aptronym, a word allegedly coined by United States newspaper columnist Franklin P. Adams, refers to a name that is aptly suited to its owner. ... Franklin Pierce Adams (November 15, 1881 – March 23, 1960), was an American columnist (under the pen name F.P.A.), writer, and wit, part of the famous Algonquin Round Table of the 1920s and 1930s. ... A snowclone is a type of formula-based cliché which uses an old idiom in a new context. ...

Other

Miscellaneous sources. Examples:

  • nonce words — words coined and used only for a particular occasion, usually for a special literary effect.

A nonce word is a word used only for the nonce—to meet a need that is not expected to recur. ...

A note about paleologisms

By contrast, a paleologism is (in this context) a word or phrase that is alleged to be a neologism but turns out to be a long-used (if obscure) term. An example is "truthiness" (which was "re-coined" as an ironic usage by Stephen Colbert). Stephen Colbert announces that The Wørd of the night is truthiness, during the premiere episode of The Colbert Report. ... This article is about Stephen Colbert, the actor. ...


Neologisms in literature

Many neologisms have come from popular literature, and tend to appear in different forms. Most commonly, they are simply taken from a word used in the narrative of a book; a few representative examples are: "grok" (to achieve complete intuitive understanding), from Stranger in a Strange Land by Robert A. Heinlein; "McJob", from Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture by Douglas Coupland; "cyberspace", from Neuromancer by William Gibson. Sometimes the title of the book will become the neologism, for instance, Catch-22 (from the title of Joseph Heller's novel). Also worthy of note is the case in which the author's name becomes the neologism, although the term is sometimes based on only one work of that author. This includes such words as "Orwellian" (from George Orwell, referring to his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four) and "Ballardesque" (from J.G. Ballard, author of Crash). Kurt Vonnegut's Cat's Cradle was the container of the Bokononism family of nonce words. Another category is words derived from famous characters in literature, such as "quixotic" (referring to the titular character in Don Quixote de la Mancha by Cervantes), a "scrooge" (from the main character in Dickens's A Christmas Carol), or a "pollyanna" (from Eleanor H. Porter's book of the same name). For other uses, see Grok (disambiguation). ... Intuitive understanding is comprehension without any necessary contemplation or explanation. ... For other uses, see Stranger in a Strange Land (disambiguation). ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... McJob is slang for a low-paying, low-prestige job that requires few skills and offers very little chance of intracompany advancement. ... Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture, published in 1991, is the first novel by Douglas Coupland. ... Douglas Coupland (born December 30, 1961) is a major Canadian fiction writer as well as a playwright and visual artist. ... It has been suggested that Virtual world be merged into this article or section. ... For the 1988 video game, see Neuromancer (video game). ... For other persons named William Gibson, see William Gibson (disambiguation). ... Catch 22 can refer to: A book by Joseph Heller, or the movie based on the book; see Catch-22. ... Joseph Heller (May 1, 1923 – December 12, 1999) was an American satirical novelist and playwright. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 [1] [2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ... James Graham Ballard (born November 18, 1930 in Shanghai) is a British novelist. ... Crash is a novel by English author J. G. Ballard, first published in 1973. ... Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... For the string game, see Cats cradle. ... Bokononism is the fictional religion practiced by many of the characters in Kurt Vonneguts novel Cats Cradle. ... Look up Quixotic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the fictional character and novel. ... Statues of Don Quixote (left) and Sancho Panza (right) Don Quixote de la Mancha (IPA: ) is a novel by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ... Cervantes can refer to: Miguel de Cervantes, author of Don Quixote Francisco Cervantes de Salazar, 16th-century man of letters Cervantes, Ilocos Sur, a municipality in the Philippines Cervantes, a town in Western Australia Cervantes de Leon, a character in the Soul Calibur series of fighting games This is a... Scrooge is the surname of Ebenezer Scrooge, the selfish and miserly protagonist of Charles Dickens 1843 novella A Christmas Carol. ... Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (February 7, 1812 – June 9, 1870), pen-name “Boz”, was an English novelist of the Victorian era. ... A Christmas Carol in Prose, Being a Ghost Story of Christmas (commonly known as A Christmas Carol ) is what Charles Dickens described as his little Christmas Book and was first published on December 19, 1843 with illustrations by John Leech. ... Pollyanna is a 1913 novel by Eleanor H. Porter that has become a classic of childrens literature. ... Eleanor H. Porter Eleanor Hodgman Porter (December 19, 1868 – May 21, 1920) was an American novelist. ...


Lewis Carroll's poem "Jabberwocky" has been called[attribution needed] "the king of neologistic poems" as it incorporated some dozens of invented words. The early modern English prose writings of Sir Thomas Browne are the source of many neologisms as recorded by the OED. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: ) (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll (), was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ... For other uses, see Jabberwocky (disambiguation). ... Sir Thomas Browne (October 19, 1605 – October 19, 1682) was an English author of varied works that disclose his wide learning in diverse fields including medicine, religion, science and the esoteric. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...


Quotation

"Yesterday's neologisms, like yesterday's jargon, are often today's essential vocabulary."
– Academic Instincts, 2001[1]

For the glossary of hacker slang, see Jargon File. ...

See also

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Daffynition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Doublespeak is language deliberately constructed to disguise or distort its actual meaning, often resulting in a communication bypass. ... Theodor Seuss Geisel (March 2, 1904 – September 24, 1991) was an American writer and cartoonist best known for his classic childrens books under the pen name Dr. Seuss, including The Cat in the Hat, Green Eggs and Ham, How the Grinch Stole Christmas and One Fish Two Fish Red... In language, both dysphemism (from the Greek “dys” δυς = non and “pheme” φήμη = speech) and cacophemism (in Greek “cacos” κακός = bad) refer to the usage of an intentionally harsh word or expression instead of a polite one; they are rough opposites of euphemism. ... An eponym is the name of a person, whether real or fictitious, who has (or is thought to have) given rise to the name of a particular place, tribe, discovery, or other item. ... Etymologies redirects here. ... Euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... For the glossary of hacker slang, see Jargon File. ... Newspeak is a fictional language in George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. ... This article or section seems to contain too many examples (or examples of poor quality) for an encyclopedia entry. ... A nonce word is a word used only for the nonce—to meet a need that is not expected to recur. ... For the supervillain, see Onomatopoeia (comics). ... A portmanteau (IPA: ) is a word or morpheme that fuses two or more words or word parts to give a combined or loaded meaning. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... A retronym is a type of neologism coined for an old object or concept whose original name has come to be used for something else, is no longer unique, or is otherwise inappropriate or misleading. ... The phrase Siamese twins in the context of the English language refers to a pair or grouping of words that is often used together as an idiomatic expression and usually conjoined by the words and or The expression take it or leave it is an example of Siamese twins. ... A sniglet is defined as a word that should be in the dictionary, but isnt. While Rich Hall invented the word sniglet itself, sniglets are actually a long-running popular joke in which people make up their own humorous words to describe things or concepts that have no official... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

References

External links

English

  • Fowler, H.W., "The King's English," Chapter I. Vocabulary, Neologism, 2nd ed. 1908.

Information

Wiktionary

Look up Neologism in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Wiktionary: Neologisms
  • Wiktionary: Neologisms unstable
  • Wiktionary: Neologisms diffused
  • Wiktionary: Neologisms stable
  • protologism

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

Indices


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Neologism (1372 words)
Neologisms are especially useful in identifying inventions, new phenomena, or old ideas which have taken on a new cultural context.
Neologisms are by definition "new", and as such are often directly attributable to a specific individual, publication, period or event.
Some neologisms, especially those dealing with sensitive subjects, are often objected to on the grounds that they obscure the issue being discussed, and that such a word's novelty often leads a discussion away from the root issue and onto a sidetrack about the meaning of the neologism itself.
Neologism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1230 words)
Neologisms are especially useful in identifying inventions, new phenomena, or old ideas which have taken on a new cultural context.
Neologisms are by definition "new", and as such are often directly attributable to a specific individual, publication, period or event.
Some neologisms, especially those dealing with sensitive subjects, are often objected to on the grounds that they obscure the issue being discussed, and that such a word's novelty often leads a discussion away from the root issue and onto a sidetrack about the meaning of the neologism itself.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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