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Encyclopedia > Neolithic Europe
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Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BC
Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BC
Europe in ca. 4500-4000 BC
Europe in ca. 4500-4000 BC
Europe in ca. 4000-3500 BC
Europe in ca. 4000-3500 BC
Simple map of the major late 4th millennium BC "Old European" cultures. Green is the Funnelbeaker culture (TRB). Blue is the Linear Ceramic culture (LBK). Orange is the Lengyel culture, purple the Vincha culture, red the Cucuteni culture and yellow the western part of the Yamna culture.
Simple map of the major late 4th millennium BC "Old European" cultures. Green is the Funnelbeaker culture (TRB). Blue is the Linear Ceramic culture (LBK). Orange is the Lengyel culture, purple the Vincha culture, red the Cucuteni culture and yellow the western part of the Yamna culture.

Neolithic Europe refers to the time between the Mesolithic and Bronze Age periods in Europe, roughly from 7000 BCE (the time of the first farming societies in Greece) to 1700 BCE (the beginning of the Bronze Age in northwest Europe). The duration of the Neolithic varies from place to place: in southeast Europe it is approximately 4000 years (i.e., 7000–3000 BCE); in northwest Europe it is just under 3000 years (ca. 4500–1700 BCE). Irrespective of specific chronology, many European Neolithic groups share basic characteristics such as living in small-scale, presumably egalitarian, family-based communities, subsisting on domestic plants and animals supplemented with the collection of wild plant foods and hunting, and producing hand-made pottery. There are also many differences, with for example some Neolithic communities in southeastern Europe living in heavily fortified settlements of 3,000-4,000 people (e.g., Sesklo in Greece) whereas Neolithic groups in England were small (possibly 50-100 people) and highly mobile cattle-herders. Schematic map of Neolithic expansion in Europe. ... Schematic map of Neolithic expansion in Europe. ... (8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – other millennia) // Events Circa 7000 BC – Agriculture and settlement at Mehrgarh in South Asia. ... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ... Download high resolution version (1320x663, 100 KB)Map of the second half European Middle Neolithic at the apogee of Danubian and Mediterranean expansion (c. ... Download high resolution version (1320x663, 100 KB)Map of the second half European Middle Neolithic at the apogee of Danubian and Mediterranean expansion (c. ... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4860 BC - Mount Mazama in Oregon collapses, forming a caldera that later fills with water and becomes Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... Download high resolution version (1320x663, 100 KB)Map of the European Late Neolithic (c. ... Download high resolution version (1320x663, 100 KB)Map of the European Late Neolithic (c. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... (36th century BC - 35th century BC - 34th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events ? - Formation of the Sahara Desert 3450 (?) - Stage IId of the Naqada culture in Egypt Significant persons Inventions, discoveries, introductions ? _ Irrigation in Egypt ? - First use of Cuneiform (script) Categories... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Neolithic Europe ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Neolithic Europe ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) // Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... The Funnelbeaker culture is the archeological designation for a late Neolithic culture in what is now northern Germany, the Netherlands, southern Scandinavia and Poland. ... The Linear Ceramic Culture (German: Linearbandkeramik-Kultur, or LBK) was a Neolithic culture of central Europe. ... The Lengyel culture was a 5th millennium BC culture located in the area of modern-day Hungary and the Czech Republic. ... The Vinča culture was an early culture of Europe (between the 6th and the 3rd millennium BC), stretching around the course of Danube in Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria and former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, although traces of it can be found all around the Balkans. ... The Cucuteni culture (also Cucuteni-Tripolie, after the Romanian Cucuteni and the Ukrainian Trypillia villages) is an early 5th millennium BC neolithic culture of Central Europe, in the area of modern-day Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine, in the Dniestr-Dnjepr region. ... Typical Yamna burial with the skeleton in supine position, with bent knees. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age) is the period between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... World map showing Europe (geographically) When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... North-West Europe is not a well defined term. ... The Neolithic, (Greek neos=new, lithos=stone, or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Egalitarianism is the moral doctrine that equality ought to prevail among some group along some dimension. ... A domestic goat Domestic can refer to: An animal or plant that has been domesticated A domestic worker Something pertaining to home Domestic policy is that policy relevant within a country A lobby term for women or girls This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that... Sesklo, rarely Sesclo (Greek: Σέσκλο) was a village nearby the city of Volos, in Thessaly (central Greece), in the prefecture of Magnesia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK...


The details of the origin, chronology, social organization, subsistence practices and ideology of the peoples of Neolithic Europe are obtained from archaeology. Since the 1970s population genetics has provided data on the population history of Neolithic Europe, including migration events and genetic relationships with peoples in Southwest Asia. Linguistics has contributed information on early European languages, in particular the relationship between Indo-European and Neolithic peoples. Many archaeologists believe that the expansion of Neolithic peoples from southwest Asia into Europe coincided with the introduction of Indo-European speakers, whereas many linguists prefer to see Indo-European languages introduced during the succeeding Bronze Age. Importance and applicability Most of human history is not described by any written records. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the five evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, migration and nonrandom mating. ... Jump to: navigation, search Southwest Asia (PDF) Southwest Asia (often called the Middle East) is the southwestern part of Asia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Broadly conceived, linguistics is the scientific study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...

Contents


Origins

Food-producing societies first emerged in the Levantine region of southwest Asia in the early Holocene and developed into a number of regionally-distinctive cultures by the 8th millennium BCE. By 6500 BCE, food producing societies are evident in Greece, at Knossos, Franchthi Cave, and at a number of sites in Thessaly. Neolithic groups appear soon after in the Balkans and south-central Europe. The Neolithic cultures of southeastern Europe, i.e. the Balkans, Italy, the Aegean, show some continuity with groups in southwest Asia and Anatolia (e.g., Çatalhöyük). Some archaeologists and ethnographers refer to these cultures as Old Europe, and, with the background of the assumption that the Bronze age coincided with the immigration of Indo-European peoples, they are also called Pre-Indo-European cultures. The Levant or Sham (Arabic root word related to the term Semite) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in Southwest Asia south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, and the north Arabian Desert and Mesopotamia to the east. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Holocene Epoch is a geologic period that extends from the present back about 10,000 radiocarbon years. ... Knossos Knossos (35°18′ N 25°10′ E; alternative spellings Knossus, Cnossus, Gnossus, Greek Κνωσσός) is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete, probably the ceremonial and political center of the Minoan culture. ... Franchthi Cave (Greek Σπήλαιον Φράγχθη) is a cave overlooking the Argolic Gulf that has yielded large numbers of artifacts relating to Neolithic Greece. ... Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe of the Aimos peninsula (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... The Neolithic, (Greek neos=new, lithos=stone, or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Jump to: navigation, search The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe of the Aimos peninsula (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Jump to: navigation, search Aegean civilization is the general term for the prehistoric civilizations in Greece and the Aegean. ... Jump to: navigation, search Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Excavations at the South Area of Çatal Höyük Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without accent marks -- Çatal is Turkish for fork and Höyük is Turkish for mound) was a very large Neolithic and... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = nation and graphe = writing) refers to the qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on months or years of fieldwork. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ...


Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza has summarized the study of prehistoric European population genetics and demographics in The Great Human Diasporas: The History of Diversity and Evolution (written with his son Francesco). Categories: People stubs | 1922 births | Italian people | Population geneticists ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the five evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, migration and nonrandom mating. ... Demographics is a shorthand term for population characteristics. Demographics include age, income, mobility (in terms of travel time to work or number of vehicles available), educational attainment, home ownership, employment status, and even location. ...


Old Europe

The term "Old Europe" was introduced by Marija Gimbutas, in The Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe: 6500–3500 B.C. (1974). Using evidence from pottery and sculpture, and combining the tools of archaeology, comparative mythology, linguistics, and, most controversially, folklore, Gimbutas invented a new interdisciplinary field, archaeomythology — (though it should be noted that Nicolae Densusianu, 1846–1911, used the same set of tools over a 40-year career to investigate the pre-historic times of Romania, as detailed in his book, Dacia Preistorica, published posthumously in 1913). Marija investigated the Neolithic period (which she termed "Old Europe") in order to understand cultural developments in settled village culture in the southern Balkans, which she characterized as peaceful and matrilineal, before the Indo-European influences which she broadly characterized as nomadic and patrilineal. She associated the Indo-European immigrants with the Bronze Age "Kurgan culture" that she identified. Marija Gimbutas (Vilnius, Lithuania January 23, 1921 – Los Angeles February 2, 1994) researched the Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures of Old Europe, a term she introduced, in works published between 1946 and 1971, that opened new views by combining traditional spadework, linguistics and mythology. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... Importance and applicability Most of human history is not described by any written records. ... Jump to: navigation, search The word mythology (from the Greek μυϑολογία mythología, from μυϑολογειν mythologein to relate myths, from μυϑος mythos, meaning a narrative, and λογος logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to... Jump to: navigation, search Broadly conceived, linguistics is the scientific study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... Folklore is the ethnographic concept of the tales, legends, or superstitions current among a particular population, a part of the oral history of a particular culture. ... Nicolae Densusianu (1846–1911) was a Romanian ethnologist and collector of Romanian folklore (Vechi cîntece si traditii populare românesti : texte poetice din raspunsurile la Chestionarul istoric, 1893-1897). ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, a subtribe of the Getae, was a large district of Central Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa (Tisza river, in Hungary), on the east by the Tyras... Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Kurgan (кургáн) is the Russian word (of Turkic origin) for tumulus, a type of burial mound or barrow, heaped over a burial chamber, often of wood. ...


Pre-Indo-European peoples

According to the Kurgan model, Indo-European peoples arrived in the 4th millennium BC, across the plains north of the Black Sea. Their ultimate origins did not concern the culture of "Old Europe." Kurgan (кургáн) is the Russian word (of Turkic origin) for tumulus, a type of burial mound or barrow, heaped over a burial chamber, often of wood. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) // Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... Map of the Black Sea. ...


In historical times, some ethnonyms are believed to correspond to Pre-Indo-European peoples, assumed to be the descendants of the earlier Old European cultures: the Pelasgians, Minoans, Leleges, Iberians and Basques. Two of the three pre-Greek peoples of Sicily, the Sicans and the Elymians, may also have been pre-Indo-European. The status of the Etruscans is disputed, they are considered either Pre-Indo-European, or speakers of an Anatolian language. The term Pre-Indo-European is sometimes extended to refer to Asia Minor, Central Asia and India, in which case the Hurrians, Urartians, Dravidians and the Uralic peoples may also be counted among them. Technically speaking, the Basques of the Pyrenees, and if we include them the wider-spread Uralic peoples, are "Pre-Indo-European" only inasmuch as they were replaced; in areas where they persist, they are of course not Pre- but simply Non-Indo-European. Ancient Greek writers used the name Pelasgian to refer to groups of people who preceded the Greeks and dwelt in several locations in mainland Greece, Crete, and other regions of the Aegean as neighbors of the Hellenes. ... The Minoans were an ancient pre-Hellenic civilization on what is now Crete (in the Mediterranean), during the Bronze Age, prior to classical Greek culture. ... The Leleges were one of the aboriginal peoples of Greece, the Aegean and southwest Anatolia (compare Pelasgians), who were found there when the Indo-European Hellenes arrived. ... The Iberian language describes a linguistic group identified with the Iberian civilization (7th century BC – 1st century BC), formed in the eastern and south-eastern regions of the Iberian peninsula. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Basques are an indigenous people who inhabit parts of both Spain and France. ... The Sicani (or Sikanoi) were an ancient people of Italy who dwelt along the Tiber river. ... The Elymian people (Greek Elymoi, Latin Elymi) were an ancient civilization located in Sicily. ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct languages, either Indo-European or (in some classifications) closely related to Indo-European, which were spoken in Asia Minor, including Hittite. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Hurrians were a people of the Ancient Near East, who lived in northern Mesopotamia and areas to the immediate east and west, beginning approximately 2500 BC. They probably originated in the Caucasus and entered from the north, but this is not certain. ... Jump to: navigation, search Urartu map Urartu (a. ... Dravidian may refer to: in the spiritualistic interpretations: the people who are the drav i. ... Geographical distribution of Finnic, Ugric, Samoyed and Yukaghir languages The Uralic languages form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... Jump to: navigation, search Central Pyrenees The Pyrenees (French: Pyrénées; Spanish: Pirineos; Occitan: Pirenèus or Pirenèas; Catalan Pirineus; Aragonese: Perinés; Basque: Pirinioak) are a range of mountains in southwest Europe that form a natural border between France and Spain. ...


Some theories consider the ancient Picts (q.v.) of what is now Scotland to be Pre-Indo-European. Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jump to: navigation, search Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Scotlands location within the UK Languages with Official Status1 English Gaelic Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK...


Pre-Indo-European languages

How many pre-IE languages existed is not known, nor whether the ancient names of peoples believed, then or now, to have descended from the pre-IE population referred to speakers of distinct languages. Marija Gimbutas, observing a unity of symbols marked especially on pots, but also on other objects, concluded to a possible single language (The Language of the Goddess, 1989) spoken in Old Europe. She thought that decipherment would have to wait for the discovery of bilingual texts. Marija Gimbutas (Vilnius, Lithuania January 23, 1921 – Los Angeles February 2, 1994) researched the Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures of Old Europe, a term she introduced, in works published between 1946 and 1971, that opened new views by combining traditional spadework, linguistics and mythology. ...


The idea of a pre-IE language in the region precedes Gimbutas. It went by other names, such as "Pelasgian" or "Mediterranean." Apart from the pot marks, the main evidence concerning it (or them) is the names: toponyms, ethnonyms, etc., and roots in other languages believed to be derived from one or more prior languages, possibly unrelated. Reconstruction from the evidence is an accepted, though somewhat speculative, field of study.


For example, Sorin Paliga defined a possible Old European language, which he termed "Urian" or "Urbian." (Proto-Indo-European, Pre-Indo-European, Old European; etc.; see below.) Proto-IE ought not to include a root corresponding to Latin urbs, as the Proto-IE were nomadic or semi-nomadic (in the Kurgan model and most reconstructions of IE society from the roots). Therefore, a reconstructed *OR/UR- or *OL/UL-, "huge, big, elevated", used also to refer to an urban settlement, may well be the root of a cross-cultural repertory of words, such as Latin urbs, "city", Thracian Az-oros, Uri (Swiss location), Basque uri, iri "township" and Greek lab-yr-inthos and Sumerian Urbillum today the city of Irbil in Iraq. Kurgan (кургáн) is the Russian word (of Turkic origin) for tumulus, a type of burial mound or barrow, heaped over a burial chamber, often of wood. ... Jump to: navigation, search Latin is an Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, Romania, northeastern Greece, European Turkey and northwestern asiatic Turkey, eastern Serbia and parts of Republic of Macedonia). ... Uri is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Arbil (Arabic: , arbīl; also written Erbil or Irbil), or Hewlêr (Kurdish), is one of the large cities in Iraq. ...


Competing theories

Few details of these cultures are widely agreed upon, and even the date of the Indo-European arrival in Old Europe is questioned, whether in a Late Neolithic or a Bronze Age context. One major reappraisal of the evidence by the archaeologist Colin Renfrew proposes that the Indo-European 'invasion' is instead linked to the relatively rapid spread of farming from Anatolia into Europe from about 6500 BC. The Neolithic, (Greek neos=new, lithos=stone, or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Andrew Colin Renfrew, Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn (born 25 July 1937), English archaeologist, notable for his work on the radiocarbon revolution, the prehistory of languages, archaeogenetics, and the prevention of looting of archaeological sites. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Jump to: navigation, search Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... World map showing Europe (geographically) When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... (8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – other millennia) Events circa 7000 BC – Agriculture and settlement at Mehrgarh in South Asia circa 6500 BC – English Channel formed circa 6100 BC – The Storegga Slide, causing a megatsunami in the Norwegian Sea circa 6000 BC – Neolithic Age in Korea circa...


Renfrew's views are rejected by a majority of linguists who hold that the common Proto-Indo-European language is unlikely to date before 5000 BC, but some purely lexico-statistical studies have also supported Renfrew. Even less support is enjoyed by theories that assume formation of Indo-European in Europe, see Paleolithic Continuity Theory. The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ... The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) suggests that the Indo-European languages originated in Europe and have existed there since the Paleolithic. ...


List of cultures

  • Early Neolithic
    • Starcevo-Criş culture (Starčevo I, Körös, Criş, Central Balkans, 7th to 5th millennia)
    • Dudeşti culture (6th millennium)
  • Middle Neolithic

The Starčevo-Körös culture is the name given by archaeologists to a widespread early Neolithic archaeological culture from Eastern Europe and the Balkans. ... The DudeÅŸti culture is an farming / herding culture occupied part of Romania in the 6th millenium BC, typified by underground habitations on the edges of low plateaus. ... The Vinča culture was an early culture of Europe (between the 6th and the 3rd millennium BC), stretching around the course of Danube in Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria and former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, although traces of it can be found all around the Balkans. ... The Linear Pottery culture or (German) Linearbandkeramik (abbr. ... The Comb Ceramic Culture was a North-East European stone age culture, ca 4200 BC - 2000 BC. The name is derived from the most common decoration on the ceramic finds that look like the imprints of a comb. ... Map of European Neolithic at the apogee of Danubian expansion, c. ... The Cucuteni culture (also Cucuteni-Tripolie, after the Romanian Cucuteni and the Ukrainian Trypillia villages) is an early 5th millennium BC neolithic culture of Central Europe, in the area of modern-day Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine, in the Dniestr-Dnjepr region. ... The Lengyel culture was a 5th millennium BC culture located in the area of modern-day Hungary and the Czech Republic. ... Jump to: navigation, search Historical lands and provinces in Central Europe Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Jump to: navigation, search Reconstruction of circular ditches at Heldenberg, Lower Austria About 150 arrangements of prehistoric circular ditches are known to archaeologists spread over Germany, Austria and Slovakia and the Czech Republic. ... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ... The Funnelbeaker culture is the archeological designation for a late Neolithic culture in what is now northern Germany, the Netherlands, southern Scandinavia and Poland. ... The Beaker culture (ca. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...

References

  • Gimbutas, Marija (1991). The Civilization of the Goddess. HarperSanFrancisco. ISBN 0-06-250337-5.
  • Gimbutas, Marija (1989). The Language of the Goddess. Harper & Row, Publishers. ISBN 0-06-250356-1.
  • Paliga, Sorin (Fall/Winter 1989). "Proto-Indo-European, Pre-Indo-European, Old European: Archaeological Evidence and Linguistic Investigation". The Journal of Indo-European Studies 17 (3&4).

See also

The Germanic substrate hypothesis is a hypothesis that some have ventured that attempts to explain the distinctiveness of the Germanic languages within the Indo-European language family. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age. ... The Aryan invasion theory is a historical theory first put forth by the German Indologist Friedrich Max Müller and others in the mid nineteenth century in order to provide a historical explanation for the existence of Indo-European languages in India. ... A clay vessel unearthed in Vinča, found at depth of 8. ...

External links

  • Balkan pre-history summary
  • culture.gouv.fr: Life along the Danube 6500 years ago
  • Map of the cultures of Balkans - 4000 BC
  • Kathleen Jenks, "Old europe": further links

  Results from FactBites:
 
Neolithic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1659 words)
Map showing distribution of some of the main culture complexes in Neolithic Europe, ca.4500 BC The Neolithic (or "New" Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age.
Early Neolithic farming is limited to a narrow range of crops (both wild and domestic) and the keeping of sheep and goats, but by about 7000 BC it included the domestication of cows and pigs, the establishment of permanently or semi-permanently inhabited settlements and the use of pottery.
These structures (and their later Neolithic equivalents such as causewayed enclosures, burial mounds, and henges) required considerable time and labour to construct, which suggests that some influential individuals were able to organise and direct human labour.
Neolithic Europe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1569 words)
Neolithic Europe refers to the time between the Mesolithic and Bronze Age periods in Europe, roughly from 7000 BC (the approximate time of the first farming societies in Greece) to ca.
Regardless of specific chronology, many European Neolithic groups share basic characteristics, such as living in small-scale, presumably egalitarian, family-based communities, subsisting on domestic plants and animals supplemented with the collection of wild plant foods and with hunting, and producing hand-made pottery, that is, made without the potter's wheel.
Their reasoning is first, that the spread of the Neolithic toolkit is more likely to occur through demic diffusion than through cultural diffusion, and second, that a sedentary population relying on domesticated plants and animals will grow much faster than a nomadic, foraging population.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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