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Neolithic
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Mesolithic

Pre-Pottery Neolithic A
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B
Pottery Neolithic The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... The Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (short PPNA) represents the early neolithic in the Levantine and upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent. ... Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) is a division of the Neolithic developed by Dame Kathleen Kenyon during her archaeological excavations at Jericho in the southern Levant region. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Scotland, Europes most complete Neolithic village. ...

Levant
Tell Halaf
Ubaid period
Europe
Linear Pottery
Vinča culture
China
South Asia
Mehrgarh
Americas

Chalcolithic Hunting scene relief in basalt found at Tell Halaf, dated 850-830 BCE Tell Halaf is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border. ... Pottery jar from Late Ubaid Period The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric chalcolithic culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BC Europe in ca. ... Map of European Neolithic at the apogee of Danubian expansion, c. ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... Paleo-Indians is an English term used to refer to the ancient peoples of America who were present at the end of the last Ice Age. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ...

Uruk period
Yamna culture
Corded Ware
Mesoamerica

farming, animal husbandry
pottery, metallurgy, wheel
circular ditches, henges, megaliths
Neolithic religion The Uruk period (ca. ... Typical Yamna burial with the skeleton in supine position, with bent knees. ... Corded ware is pottery having an ornamental pattern created by a cord impressed in the unfired clay. ... The emergence of metallurgy in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica occurred relatively late in the regions history, with distinctive works of metal apparent in West Mexico by roughly AD 800, and perhaps as early as AD 600 (Hosler, 1988, 1995). ... The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... Shepherd with his sheep in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... For other uses, see Wheel (disambiguation). ... Reconstruction of circular ditches at Heldenberg, Lower Austria About 150 arrangements of prehistoric circular ditches are known to archaeologists spread over Germany, Austria and Slovakia and the Czech Republic. ... A henge is a roughly circular or oval-shaped flat area over 20m in diameter which is enclosed and delimited by a boundary earthwork that usually comprises a ditch with an external bank. ... Megalithic tomb, Mane Braz, Brittany Bronze age wedge tomb in the Burren area of Ireland For the record label, see Megalith Records. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Bronze Age
An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools.
An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools.
Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Scotland, Europe's most complete Neolithic village.
Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Scotland, Europe's most complete Neolithic village.
Skara Brae Scotland. Evidence of home furnishings i.e. shelves.
Skara Brae Scotland. Evidence of home furnishings i.e. shelves.
Map showing distribution of some of the main culture complexes in Neolithic Europe, ca.4500 BC

The Neolithic[1] (from Greek νεολιθικός - neolithikos, from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos, "stone") or "New" Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. The Neolithic era follows the terminal Holocene Epipalaeolithic periods, beginning with the rise of farming, which produced the "Neolithic Revolution" and ending when metal tools became widespread in the Copper Age (chalcolithic) or Bronze Age or developing directly into the Iron Age, depending on geographical region. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1704, 1054 KB) Description Photographie dobjets du néolithique. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1704, 1054 KB) Description Photographie dobjets du néolithique. ... For the music group, see Skara Brae (music). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... This article is about the country. ... Download high resolution version (1320x663, 100 KB)Map of the second half European Middle Neolithic at the apogee of Danubian and Mediterranean expansion (c. ... Download high resolution version (1320x663, 100 KB)Map of the second half European Middle Neolithic at the apogee of Danubian and Mediterranean expansion (c. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BC Europe in ca. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... This article is about modern humans. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period, which began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (about 9600 BC) and continues to the present. ... The Epipalaeolithic (or Epi-Palaeolithic, Epipaleolithic, or Epi-Paleolithic) was a period in the development of human technology that immediately precedes the neolithic period, as an alternative to mesolithic. ... The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... This article is about the instrument. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


Neolithic culture appeared in the Levant (Jericho, modern-day West Bank) about 8500 BC. It developed directly from the Epipaleolithic Natufian culture in the region, whose people pioneered wild cereal use, which then evolved into true farming. The Natufians can thus be called "proto-Neolithic" (11,000–8500 BC). As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, and a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas forced people to develop farming. By 8500–8000 BC farming communities arose in the Levant and spread to Anatolia, North Africa and North Mesopotamia. The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... The Epipalaeolithic (or Epi-Palaeolithic, Epipaleolithic, or Epi-Paleolithic) was a period in the development of human technology that immediately precedes the neolithic period, as an alternative to mesolithic. ... The Natufian culture existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant. ... Three temperature records, the GRIP one clearly showing the Younger Dryas event at around 11 kyr BP The Younger Dryas stadial, named after the alpine / tundra wildflower Dryas octopetala, and also referred to as the Big Freeze [1], was a brief (approximately 1300 ± 70 years [1]) cold climate period following...


Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of crops, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat, millet and spelt and the keeping of dogs, sheep and goats. By about 7000 BC it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, and the use of pottery.[2] Not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order: the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery, and, in Britain, it remains unclear to what extent plants were domesticated in the earliest Neolithic, or even whether permanently settled communities existed. In other parts of the world, such as Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia, independent domestication events led to their own regionally-distinctive Neolithic cultures which arose completely independent of those in Europe and Southwest Asia. Early Japanese societies used pottery before developing agriculture.[3][4][5] Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... Binomial name Triticum boeoticum Boss. ... For other uses, see Millet (disambiguation). ... This article is about the wheat species. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Species See text. ... This article is about the domestic species. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ... Overview map of the ancient Near East The terms ancient Near East or ancient Orient encompass the early civilizations predating classical antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria), during the time roughly spanning... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Jomon Period. ...


Unlike the Palaeolithic, where more than one human species existed, only one human species (Homo sapiens sapiens) reached the neolithic. The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic – lit. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ...

Contents

Periods by pottery phase

In Southwest Asia (i.e., the Middle East), cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing soon after the 10th millennium BC. Early development occurred in the Levant (e.g., Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) and from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are also attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by ca. 8000 BC.  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... The Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (short PPNA) represents the early neolithic in the Levantine and upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent. ... Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) is a division of the Neolithic developed by Dame Kathleen Kenyon during her archaeological excavations at Jericho in the southern Levant region. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ...


The prehistoric Beifudi site near Yixian in Hebei Province, China, contains relics of a culture contemporaneous with the Cishan and Xinglongwa cultures of about 7,000-8,000 BC, neolithic cultures east of the Taihang Mountains, filling in an archaeological gap between the two Northern Chinese cultures. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square meters and the collection of neolithic findings at the site consists of two phases.[6] Location of Hebei Province The Prehistoric Beifudi site (北福地) near Yixian in Hebei Province, China, is the excavation of a recently discovered prehistoric Neolithic village that Chinese archaeologists say is one of the most important sites found so far. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Cishan culture (磁山文化) (6000-5500 BC) was a Neolithic Yellow River culture in northern China, centered primarily around southern Hebei. ... The Xinglongwa culture (興隆洼文化) (6200-5400 BC) was a Neolithic culture in northeastern China, found mainly around the Inner Mongolia-Liaoning border. ... The Taihang Mountains (太行山) are a mountain range running down the eastern edge of the Loess Plateau. ...


Neolithic 1 — Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA)

The Neolithic 1 (PPNA) began in the Levant (Jericho, Palestine & Jbeil (Byblos), Lebanon) around 8500 to 8000 BC. The actual date is not established with certainty due to different results in carbon dating by scientists in the British Museum and Philadelphia laboratories. The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ...


The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming. In the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, and perhaps early seed selection and re-seeding occurred. The grain was ground into flour. Emmer wheat was domesticated, and animals were herded and domesticated (animal husbandry and animal breeding). Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... The Natufian culture existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant. ... Binomial name triticum dicoccoides Emmer Grain is an ancient grain officially known as Triticum dicoccoides. ... Shepherd with his sheep in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ...


Settlements became more permanent with circular houses, much like those of the Natufians, with single rooms. However, these houses were for the first time made of mudbricks. The husband had one house, while each of his wives lived with their children in surrounding houses. The settlement had a surrounding stone wall and perhaps a stone tower (like Jericho). The wall served as protection from nearby groups, as protection from floods, or to keep animals penned. There are also some enclosures that suggest grain and meat storage.


Neolithic 2 — Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB)

The Neolithic 2 (PPNB) began around 7500 to 7000 BC in the Levant (Jericho, Palestine). Like the PPNA dates there are two versions from the same laboratories noted above. But this terminological structure is not agreeable for SouthEast Anatolia and Middle Anatolia Basin settlements.


Settlements have rectangular mudbrick houses where the family lived together in single or multiple rooms. Burial findings suggest an ancestor cult where people preserved skulls from the dead which were plastered with mud to make facial features. The rest of the corpse may have been left outside the settlement to decay until only the bones were left, then the bones were buried inside the settlement underneath the floor or between houses.


Neolithic 3 — Pottery Neolithic (PN)

The Neolithic 3 (PN) began around 6000 to 5500 BC in the Fertile Crescent. By then distinctive cultures emerged, with pottery like the Halafian (Turkey, Syria, Northern Mesopotamia) and Ubaid (Southern Mesopotamia). This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... Hunting scene relief in basalt found at Tell Halaf, dated 850-830 BCE Tell Halaf is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border. ... The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ...


The Chalcolithic period began about 4500 BC, then the Bronze Age began about 3500 BC, replacing the Neolithic cultures. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...


Periods by region

In the Fertile Crescent

Halafian ware
Halafian ware

Around 9,000 BC the first fully developed Neolithic cultures belonging to the phase Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) appeared in the fertile crescent. Around 8,000 BC during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) the world's first town Jericho appeared in the Levant and was surrounded by a stone wall and contained a population of 2000-3000 people and a massive stone tower.[7]. Around (5,500 BC) the Halafian culture appeared in the Levant, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Anatolia, Northern Mesopotamia and subsisted on dryland agriculture. The Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (short PPNA) represents the early neolithic in the Levantine and upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (short PPNA) represents the early neolithic in the Levantine and upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent. ... This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... Hunting scene relief in basalt found at Tell Halaf, dated 850-830 BCE Tell Halaf is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border. ...


Southern Mesopotamia

Alluvial plains (Sumer/Elam). Little rainfall, makes irrigation systems necessary. Ubaid culture from 5500 BC. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Pottery jar from Late Ubaid Period The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric chalcolithic culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ...


Europe

Reconstruction of Neolithic house in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

In southeast Europe agrarian societies first appeared by ca. 7000 BC,[8] and in Central Europe by ca. 5500 BC. Among the earliest cultural complexes of this area are included the Starčevo-Körös (Cris), Linearbandkeramic, and Vinča. Through a combination of cultural diffusion and migration of peoples, the Neolithic traditions spread west and northwards to reach northwestern Europe by around 4500 BC. The Vinča culture may have created the earliest system of writing the Vinča signs though it is almost universally accepted amongst archeologists that the Sumerian cuneiform script was the earliest true form of writing and the Vinča signs most likely represented pictograms and ideograms rather than a truly developed form of writing. For other uses, see Tuzla (disambiguation). ... Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BC Europe in ca. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... The Starčevo-Körös culture is the name given by archaeologists to a widespread early Neolithic archaeological culture from Eastern Europe and the Balkans. ... Sherds of the late Linearbandkeramik, Rhine-Main area The Linearbandkeramic (abbreviated LBK) is the earliest neolithic culture of Central Europe. ... Map of European Neolithic at the apogee of Danubian expansion, c. ... In anthropology, cultural diffusion refers to the spread of ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior to different societies (Wintrop 1991:82) Since cultures have never been completely isolated from each other, diffusion has happened throughout history, and continues on today. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... Map of European Neolithic at the apogee of Danubian expansion, c. ... A drawing of a clay vessel unearthed in Vinča, found at depth of 8. ... A drawing of a clay vessel unearthed in Vinča, found at depth of 8. ... Pictogram for public toilets A pictogram or pictograph is a symbol which represents an object or a concept by illustration. ... A Chinese character. ...


South and East Asia

The oldest Neolithic site in South Asia is Mehrgarh from 7000 BC on the "Kachi plain of Baluchistan, Pakistan It is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and herding (cattle, sheep and goats) in South Asia."[9] Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ...


One of the earliest Neolithic sites in India is Lahuradewa, at Middle Ganges region, C14 dated around 7th millennium BC.[10]. Recently another site near the confluence of Ganges and Yamuna rivers called Jhusi yielded a C14 dating of 7100 BC for its Neolithic levels.[11] Ganga redirects here. ... Ganga redirects here. ... Not to be confused with the nearby Jamuna River a tributary of the Meghna River, which is sometimes confused both in older historical literature, and by translations of the local dialects. ... Jhusi is a town and a nagar panchayat in Allahabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ...


In South India the Neolithic began by 3000 BC and lasted until around 1400 BC when the Megalithic transition period began. South Indian Neolithic is characterized by Ashmounds since 2500 BC in Karnataka region, expanded later to Tamil.


Comparative excavations carried out in Adichanallur in Tuticorin District of Southern India (now part of Tamilnadu state) have provided evidence of a southward migration of the Megalithic culture [12] The earliest clear evidence of the presence of the megalithic urn burials are those dating from around 1000 BC, which have been discovered at various places in Tamil Nadu, notably at Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, where archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 12 urns with Tamil Brahmi script on them containing human skulls, skeletons and bones, plus husks, grains of rice, charred rice and Neolithic celts, giving evidence confirming it of the Neolithic period 2800 years ago. This proved that Tirunelveli area has been the abode for human habituation since the Neolithic period about 3,000 years ago. Adhichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies.[13], [14] Adichanallur is an archaeological site near 24 Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu, India. ... Megalithic tomb, Mane Braz, Brittany A megalith is a large stone which has been used to construct a structure or monument either alone or with other stones. ... , Tirunelveli (Tamil: ) is a Municipal Corporation, sixth largest city in Tamil Nadu(After Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Trichy and Salem)in southern India and the district headquarter of Tirunelveli district. ... The Archaeological Survey of India is an Indian government agency in the Department of Culture that is responsible for archaeological studies and the preservation of cultural monuments. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas used in South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... Celt (pron. ...


We have to keep in mind that Adhichanallur is a Megalithic period site, not a Neolithic place.


In East Asia the earliest sites include Pengtoushan culture around 7500 BC to 6100 BC, Peiligang culture around 7000 BC to 5000 BC. This article is about the geographical region. ... The Pengtoushan culture (彭頭山文化) (7500-6100 BC [1]) was a Neolithic culture centered primarily around the central Yangtze River region in northwestern Hunan, China. ... The Peiligang culture (裴李崗文化) is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Neolithic communities who lived in the Yiluo river valley in Henan Province, China. ...


America

In Mesoamerica a similar set of events (i.e., crop domestication and sedentary lifestyles) occurred by around 4500 BC, but possibly as early as 11,000–10,000 BC, although here the term Pre-Classic (or Formative) is used instead of mid-late Neolithic, Archaic Era for the Early Neolithic, and Paleo-Indian for the preceding period though these cultures are usually not referred to as belonging to the Neolithic. Mesoamerican chronology The chronology of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica is usually divided into the following eras: Paleo-Indian Period c. ... Paleo-Indians is an English term used to refer to the ancient peoples of America who were present at the end of the last Ice Age. ...


Social organization

Anthropomorphic Neolithic figurine
Anthropomorphic Neolithic figurine

During most of the Neolithic people lived in small tribes of 150-2000 members that were composed of multiple Bands or lineages.[15] There is little scientific evidence for developed social stratification in the majority of Neolithic societies; social stratification is more closely associated with the later Bronze Age.[16] Although some late Neolithic societies formed complex stratified chiefdoms similar to Polynesian societies such as the Ancient Hawaiians most Neolithic societies were relatively simple and egalitarian[17] although Neolithic cultures were noticeably more hierarchical than the Paleolithic cultures that preceded them and Hunter-gatherer cultures in general[18][19] The domestication of animals (c. 7000 BC) resulted in a dramatic increase in social inequality as livestock -which were often regarded as a form of capital amongst more complex pastoral Neolithic societies allowed competition between households to result in inherited inequalities of wealth as Neolithic pastoralists who controlled large herds of goats and cows gradually acquired more livestock which allowed economic inequalities to become more pronounced.[20] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1704, 1066 KB) Description Photographie dobjets du néolithique. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1704, 1066 KB) Description Photographie dobjets du néolithique. ... http://www. ... The scientific method or process is fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ... social stratification is the division of people of a particular society on the basis if occupation, income, power, prestige, authority, status, dignity, education, class, castle, gender, race and ethnicity In sociology, social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes and strata within a society. ... social stratification is the division of people of a particular society on the basis if occupation, income, power, prestige, authority, status, dignity, education, class, castle, gender, race and ethnicity In sociology, social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes and strata within a society. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Early Polynesians settled in Hawaiʻi circa A.D. 7th century, having traveled from Tahiti and Marquesas on double-hulled voyaging canoes Ancient Hawaiʻi refers to the period of Hawaiian history preceding the unification of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi by Kamehameha the Great in 1810. ... Egalitarianism is the moral doctrine that equality ought to prevail among some group along some dimension. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ...

A Neolithic artifact from Romania.
A Neolithic artifact from Romania.

Evidence of social inequality is still disputed however, as settlements such as Catalhoyuk reveal a striking lack of difference in the size of homes and burial sites, suggesting more egalitarian societies with no evidence to suggest any concept of capital though some homes appear slightly larger or more elaborately decorated than others. Families and households were still largely economically independent and the household was probably the center of life in the Neolithic. Excavations in Central Europe have, however, revealed that early Neolithic Linear Ceramic cultures ("Linearbandkeramik") were building large arrangements of circular ditches between 4800 BC and 4600 BC. These structures (and their later Neolithic equivalents such as causewayed enclosures, burial mounds, and henges) required considerable time and labour to construct, which could suggest that some influential individuals were able to organise and direct human labour--though non-hierarchical voluntary work remains a strong possibility. There is a large body of evidence for fortified settlements at Linearbandkeramik sites along the Rhine, as at least some villages were fortified for some time with a palisade and outer ditch.[21][22] An earlier view saw the Linear Pottery Culture as living a "peaceful, unfortified lifestyle."[23] Since then settlements with palisades and weapon-traumatized bones have been discovered, such as at Herxheim,[24] which, whether the site of a massacre or of a martial ritual, demonstrates "...systematic violence between groups." and warfare was probably much more common during the Neolithic than in the preceding Paleolithic period.[25] Control of labour and inter-group conflict is characteristic of corporate-level or 'tribal' groups, headed by a charismatic individual; whether a 'big man', or proto-chief or a matriarch, functioning as a lineage-group head, or whether a non-hierarchical system of organization existed is debatable and there is no evidence that explicitly suggests that Neolithic societies functioned under any dominating class or individual, as has been the case in the chiefdoms of the European Early Bronze Age[26]. Theories to explain the apparent egalitarianism of Neolithic (and more importantly Paleolithic) societies have arisen, notably the Marxist concept of primitive communism. Excavations at the South Area of Çatal Höyük Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without accent marks -- Çatal is Turkish for fork and Höyük is Turkish for mound) was a very large Neolithic and... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... The Linear Ceramic Culture (German: Linearbandkeramik-Kultur, or LBK) was a Neolithic culture of central Europe. ... Reconstruction of circular ditches at Heldenberg, Lower Austria About 150 arrangements of prehistoric circular ditches are known to archaeologists spread over Germany, Austria and Slovakia and the Czech Republic. ... Causewayed enclosures are a type of large prehistoric earthworks common to the early Neolithic Europe. ... Alternate meanings of barrow: see Barrow_in_Furness for the town of Barrow in Cumbria, England; also Barrow, Alaska in the U.S.; also River Barrow in Ireland. ... A henge is a roughly circular or oval-shaped flat area over 20m in diameter which is enclosed and delimited by a boundary earthwork that usually comprises a ditch with an external bank. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... ... A chiefdom is any community led by an individual known as a chief. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Primitive communism, according to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is the original society of humanity. ...


Dancing and formal rituals may have been used to retain collective discipline and social cohesion in pre-state levantene neolithic socieities.


Shelter

The shelter of the early people changed dramatically from the paleolithic era to the neolithic era. In the paleolithic, people did not normally live in permanent constructions. In the neolithic, mud brick houses started appearing that were coated with plaster.[27] The growth of agriculture made permanent houses possible. Doorways were made on the roof, with ladders positioned both on the inside and outside of the houses.[27] The roof was supported by beams from the inside. The rough ground was covered by platforms, mats, and skins on which residents slept.[citation needed]


Farming

Main article: Neolithic Revolution

A significant and far-reaching shift in human subsistence and lifestyle was to be brought about in areas where crop farming and cultivation were first developed: the previous reliance upon an essentially nomadic hunter-gatherer subsistence technique or pastoral transhumance was at first supplemented, and then increasingly replaced by, a reliance upon the foods produced from cultivated lands. These developments are also believed to have greatly encouraged the growth of settlements, since it may be supposed that the increased need to spend more time and labor in tending crop fields required more localized dwellings. This trend would continue into the Bronze Age, eventually giving rise to towns, and later cities and states whose larger populations could be sustained by the increased productivity from cultivated lands. The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... The following is a list of subsistence techniques: Hunting and Gathering, also known as Foraging freeganism involves gathering of discarded food in the context of an urban environment gleaning involves the gathering of food that traditional farmers have left behind in their fields Cultivation Horticulture - plant cultivation, based on the... For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Subsistence means living in a permanently fragile equilibrium between alimentary needs and the means for satisfying them. ... Transhumance is the seasonal movement of livestock between mountainous and lowland pastures. ... Ronda, Spain Main street in Bastrop, Texas, United States, a small town A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ...


The profound differences in human interactions and subsistence methods associated with the onset of early agricultural practices in the Neolithic have been called the Neolithic Revolution, a term first coined by the Australian archaeologist Vere Gordon Childe. The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... Vere Gordon Childe (April 14, 1892, Sydney, New South Wales–October 19, 1957, Mt. ...


One potential benefit of the development and increasing sophistication of farming technology was an ability (if conditions allowed) to produce a crop yield which would be surplus to the immediate needs of the community. When such surpluses were produced they could be preserved and sequestered for later use during times of seasonal shortfalls, traded with other communities (giving rise to a nascent non-subsistence economy), and in general allowed larger populations to be sustained. The storage site might need to be defended from marauders, increasing the cultural investment in a particular site. Media:Example. ...


However, it should be noted that early farmers were also adversely affected in times of famine, such as may be caused by drought or pestilence. In instances where agriculture had become the predominant way of life the sensitivity to these shortages could be particularly acute, affecting agrarian populations to an extent which otherwise may not have been routinely experienced by prior hunter-gatherer communities.[28] Nevertheless, despite what must have been ??, agrarian communities generally proved successful, and their growth and the expansion of territory under cultivation continued. <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... A crop duster applies low-insecticide bait that is targeted against Western corn rootworms Pest control refers to the regulation or management of another species defined as a pest, usually because it is believed to be detrimental to a persons health, the ecology or the economy Pest control is...


Another significant change undergone by many of these newly-agrarian communities was one of diet. Pre-agrarian diets varied by region, season, available local plant and animal resources and degree of pastoralism and hunting. Post-agrarian diet was restricted to a limited package of successfully cultivated cereal grains, plants and to a variable extent domesticated animals and animal products. Supplementation of diet by hunting and gathering was to variable degrees precluded by the increase in population above the carrying capacity of the land and a high sedentary local population concentration. In some cultures there would have been a significant shift toward increased starch and plant protein. The relative nutritional benefits and disadvantages of these dietary changes, and their overall impact on early societal development is still the subject of some debate. In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ...


In addition, increased population density, decreased population mobility, increased continuous proximity to domesticated animals, and continuous occupation of comparatively population-dense sites would have altered patterns of disease and sanitary needs. This article is about the medical term. ... E. Coli bacteria under magnification Sanitation is the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste, as well as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. ...


Technology

Neolithic peoples were skilled farmers, manufacturing a range of tools necessary for the tending, harvesting and processing of crops (such as sickle blades and grinding stones) and food production (e.g. pottery, bone implements). They were also skilled manufacturers of a range of other types of stone tools and ornaments, including projectile points, beads, and statuettes. But it was the polished stone axe above all other tools which made forest clearance on a large scale feasible. Together with the adze, fashioning wood for shelter, structures and canoes for example, that enabled them to exploit their newly won farmland. Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... In archaeology, a projectile point is an object that was hafted and used either as knife or projectile tip or both. ... Ancient stone tools Flint tools were made by stone age peoples worldwide. ... Adze The tool known as the adze [pronounced adds] serves for smoothing rough-cut wood in hand woodworking. ...


Neolithic peoples in the Levant, Anatolia, Syria, northern Mesopotamia and Central Asia were also accomplished builders, utilising mud-brick to construct houses and villages. At Çatalhöyük, houses were plastered and painted with elaborate scenes of humans and animals. In Europe, long houses built from wattle and daub were constructed. Elaborate tombs for the dead were also built. These tombs are particularly numerous in Ireland, where there are many thousand still in existence. Neolithic people in the British Isles built long barrows and chamber tombs for their dead and causewayed camps, henges, flint mines and cursus monuments. It was also important to figure out ways of preserving food for future months, such as fashioning relatively airtight containers, and using substances like salt as preservatives. The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Excavations at the South Area of Çatal Höyük Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without diacritics; çatal is Turkish for fork, höyük for mound) was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Neolithic long house was a long, narrow timber dwelling built by the first farmers in Europe around 7,000 years ago. ... Categories: Stub | Construction ... A long barrow is a prehistoric monument dating to the Neolithic period. ... A chamber tomb is a tomb for burial used in many different cultures. ... Causewayed enclosures are a type of large prehistoric earthworks common to the early Neolithic in southern Britain. ... A henge is a roughly circular or oval-shaped flat area over 20m in diameter which is enclosed and delimited by a boundary earthwork that usually comprises a ditch with an external bank. ... Cursus was a name given by early British archaeologists such as William Stukeley to the large parallel lengths of banks with external ditches which they thought were early Roman athletics tracks, hence the Latin name Cursus, meaning Circus. Cursus monuments are now understood to be Neolithic structures and may have... This article is about common table salt. ...


With limited exceptions (a few copper hatchets and spear heads in the Great Lakes region), the peoples of the Americas and the Pacific retained the Neolithic level of tool technology up until the time of European contact. There are numerous examples (Inca, Maya, Native Hawaiians, Aztec, Iroquois, Mississippian, Maori), however, of development of complex socio-political organization, building technology, scientific knowledge and linguistic culture in these regions that parallel post-neolithic developments in Africa and Eurasia. A carpenters hatchet See Hatchet (novel) for the young adult novel. ... Spears were one of the most common personal weapons from the late Bronze Age until the advent of firearms. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes on or near the United States-Canadian border. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... For other uses, see Aztec (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 to 1500 A.D., varying regionally. ... Te Puni, Māori Chief Māori is the name of the indigenous people of New Zealand, and their language. ...


Clothing

Finds of large numbers of bone and antler pins (ideal for fastening leather, but not cloth) indicate that most clothing was manufactured from animal skins - although finds of perforated stones, which (depending on size) may have served as spindle whorls or loom weights, might suggest that woolen cloth and linen became available during the British Neolithic. Though obviously not British and not Neolithic (Ötzi the Iceman belonged to the later Copper age) , Ötzi the Iceman may give an idea of the kind of clothing worn in the Neolithic Age. “Ötzi” redirects here. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period or Copper Age period (also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic)), is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... “Ötzi” redirects here. ...


Early settlements

Neolithic settlements include: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This is a list of archaeological sites is sorted by country. ...

The world's oldest known engineered roadway, the Sweet Track in England, dates from 3800 BC. The Tabon Caves are a set of caves in Palawan, Philippines. ... Quezon is a 1st class municipality in the province of Palawan, Philippines. ... Spirit Cave may refer to Spirit Cave, Nevada Spirit Cave, Thailand Category: ... Franchthi Cave (Greek Σπήλαιον Φράγχθη) is a cave overlooking the Argolic Gulf that has yielded large numbers of artifacts relating to Neolithic Greece. ... Göbekli Tepe is an early Neolithic site in southeastern Turkey. ... This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... The Epipalaeolithic (or Epi-Palaeolithic, Epipaleolithic, or Epi-Paleolithic) was a period in the development of human technology that immediately precedes the neolithic period, as an alternative to mesolithic. ... The Natufian culture existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant. ... Nevali Cori is an early Neolithic settlement in the upper Euphrates valley, eastern Turkey, around 490 m high. ... Excavations at the South Area of Çatal Höyük Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without diacritics; çatal is Turkish for fork, höyük for mound) was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern... The Pengtoushan culture (彭頭山文化) (7500-6100 BC [1]) was a Neolithic culture centered primarily around the central Yangtze River region in northwestern Hunan, China. ... General Layout of Ain Ghazal, © 1996 Smithsonian Institution Ain Ghazal is a neolithic site located in North-Eastern Jordan, on the outskirts of Amman. ... Jhusi is a town and a nagar panchayat in Allahabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Sesklo, rarely Sesclo (Greek: Σέσκλο) was a village nearby the city of Volos, in Thessaly (central Greece), in the prefecture of Magnesia. ... The Dispilio Tablet, a wooden tablet bearing markings dated to 5250 BC, from the Dispilio lake settlement The Dispilio Tablet (also known as the Dispilio Scripture or Disk) is a wooden tablet bearing inscribed markings (charagmata), Carbon 14-dated to c7300 years b. ... 9000 years old Jiahu playable Flutes. ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... Knossos Knossos (alternative spellings Knossus, Cnossus, Gnossus, Greek Κνωσσός) is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete, probably the ceremonial and political center of the Minoan culture. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ... The Hemudu culture (河姆渡文化) was a Neolithic culture that fluorished just south of the Hangzhou Bay in Jiangnan in modern Yuyao, Zhejiang, China. ... Trypillian culture is the culture of the Neolithic people identified on the territory of modern Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania, which existed between 5400 BC and 2700 BC. The name derives from the village of Trypillia (Трипiлля) near Kiev, Ukraine, where it was discovered by archeologists in 1897. ... At Knap of Howar on the Orkney island of Papa Westray a Neolithic farmstead has been wonderfully well preserved, and is claimed to be the oldest stone house in northern Europe, with radiocarbon dating showing that it was occupied from 3500 BC to 3100 BC, earlier than the very similar... For the music group, see Skara Brae (music). ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex and dramatic past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history. ... Brú na Bóinne (English: Palace of the Boyne) is an internationally important complex of Neolithic chamber tombs, standing stones, henges and other prehistoric enclosures located in a wide meander of the River Boyne in Ireland. ... The north end of Lough Gur reaches up to a maintained lawn at the visitor area at the lake. ... This page is related to transport; you may be looking for the 2002 Bollywood movie Road. ... The Sweet Track is an ancient causeway in the Somerset Levels, England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ The name was invented by Sir John Lubbock in 1800 as a refinement of the three-age system.[dubious ] The term is more commonly used in the Old World, as its application =) to cultures in the Americas and Oceania that did not fully develop metal-working technology raises problems. The term "Neolithic" thus does not refer to a specific chronological period, but rather to a suite of behavioural and cultural characteristics including the use of (both wild and domestic) crops and the use of domesticated animals. Some archaeologists have long advocated replacing "Neolithic" with a more descriptive term, such as Early Village Communities, although this has not gained wide acceptance.
  2. ^ The potter's wheel was a later refinement that revolutionized the pottery industry.
  3. ^ Habu, Junko (2004). Ancient Jomon of Japan. Cambridge University Press, page 3. ISBN 0521772133 (HB), ISBN 0521776708 (PB). 
  4. ^ Japan Echo, Inc. (June 22, 1999). Jomon Fantasy: Resketching Japan's Prehistory. Trends in Japan. Retrieved on 2008-04-14.
  5. ^ Keally, Charles T. (2004). "'Fakery' at the Beginning, the Ending and the Middle of the Jomon Period" (html). Bulletin of the International Jomon Culture Conference 1. Retrieved on 2008-04-14. 
  6. ^ New Archaeological Discoveries and Researches in 2004 -- The Fourth Archaeology Forum of CASS. Institue of Archaeology - Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Retrieved on 2007-09-18.
  7. ^ "Jericho", Encyclopedia Britannica
  8. ^ Female figurine, circa 6000 BC, Nea Nikomidia, Macedonia, Veroia, (Archaeological Museum), Greece
  9. ^ Hirst, K. Kris. 2005. "Mehrgarh". Guide to Archaeology
  10. ^ Fuller, Dorian 2006. "Agricultural Origins and Frontiers in South Asia: A Working Synthesis" in Journal of World Prehistory 20, p.42 "Ganges Neolithic"
  11. ^ Tewari, Rakesh et al. 2006. "Second Preliminary Report of the excavations at Lahuradewa,District Sant Kabir Nagar, UP 2002-2003-2004 & 2005-06" in Pragdhara No. 16 "Electronic Version p.28"
  12. ^ Sastri K.A.N., A History of South India, pp. 49–51
  13. ^ Subramanian T.S. (May 26, 2004 )Skeletons, script found at ancient burial site in Tamil Nadu, The Hindu, retrieved 7/31/2007 [1]
  14. ^ 'The most interesting pre-historic remains in Tamil India were discovered at Adichanallur.There is a series of urn burials. seem to be related to the megalithic complex. - Zvelebil, K.A., Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature - pp21–22, Brill Academic Publishers.
  15. ^ Leonard D. Katz Rigby (2000). Evolutionary Origins of Morality: Cross-disciplinary Perspectives. United kingdom: Imprint Academic, 352.  Page 158
  16. ^ Killen, pg 422.
  17. ^ Leonard D. Katz Rigby (2000). Evolutionary Origins of Morality: Cross-disciplinary Perspectives. United kingdom: Imprint Academic, 352.  Page 158
  18. ^ "Stone Age," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007 © 1997-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Contributed by Kathy Schick, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. and Nicholas Toth, B.A., M.A., Ph.D.
  19. ^ Guthrie, pg 420.
  20. ^ Bahn, Paul (1996) "The atlas of world archeology" Copyright 2000 The brown Reference Group plc
  21. ^ Idyllic Theory of Goddess Creates Storm
  22. ^ Krause (1998) under External links, places.
  23. ^ Gimbutas (1991) page 143.
  24. ^ Orschiedt (2006) under External links, Places.
  25. ^ Guthrie, pg 422
  26. ^ Ian Kuijt (2000) "Life in Neolithic Farming Communities: Social Organization, Identity, and differentiation" page 317 Springer press
  27. ^ a b Shane, Orrin C. III, and Mine Küçuk. "The World's First City." Archaeology 51.2 (1998): 43-47.
  28. ^ Bahn, Paul (1996) "The atlas of world archeology" Copyright 2000 The brown Reference Group plc
  29. ^ a b Developed Neolithic period, 5500 BC

John Lubbock. ... The three-age system is a system of classifying human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age The system is most apt in describing the progression of European society, although it has been used... For other uses, see Old World (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... Classic potters kick-wheel at Erfurt, Germany The potters wheel is a machine used in the shaping of round ceramic wares. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still...

Bibliography

  • Bellwood, Peter. (2004). First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies. Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-20566-7

See also

Megalithic tomb, Mane Braz, Brittany Bronze age wedge tomb in the Burren area of Ireland For the record label, see Megalith Records. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BC Europe in ca. ... The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... “Ötzi” redirects here. ... The table gives a rough picture of the relationships between the various principal cultures of Prehistory outside the Americas, Antarctica, Australia and Oceania. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • McNamara, John (2005). Neolithic Period (html). World Museum of Man. Retrieved on 2008-04-14.
  • Rincon, Paul (Thursday, 11 May 2006). Brutal lives of Stone Age Britons (html). BBC News. Retrieved on 2008-04-14.
  • Vincha Neolithic Script
  • UB Préhistoire - Enseignements sur le Néolithique

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


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Neolithic Age in Anatolia and Asia Minor (676 words)
Neolithic age was the scene of many major developments and changes that the Human achieved after the relatively static Mesolithic period.
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