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Encyclopedia > Neodymium
60 praseodymiumneodymiumpromethium
-

Nd

U
General
Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60
Chemical series lanthanides
Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f
Appearance silvery white,
yellowish tinge
Standard atomic weight 144.242(3) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f4 6s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 7.01 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 6.89 g·cm−3
Melting point 1297 K
(1024 °C, 1875 °F)
Boiling point 3347 K
(3074 °C, 5565 °F)
Heat of fusion 7.14 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 289 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 27.45 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 1595 1774 1998 (2296) (2715) (3336)
Atomic properties
Crystal structure hexagonal
Oxidation states 3
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.14 (scale Pauling)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 533.1 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1040 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2130 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 185 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 206 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering ferromagnetic
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (α, poly) 643 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 16.5 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (α, poly)
9.6 µm/(m·K)
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 2330 m/s
Young's modulus (α form) 41.4 GPa
Shear modulus (α form) 16.3 GPa
Bulk modulus (α form) 31.8 GPa
Poisson ratio (α form) 0.281
Vickers hardness 343 MPa
Brinell hardness 265 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-00-8
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of neodymium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
142Nd 27.2% Nd is stable with 82 neutrons
143Nd 12.2% Nd is stable with 83 neutrons
144Nd 23.8% 2.29×1015y α 1.905 140Ce
145Nd 8.3% Nd is stable with 85 neutrons
146Nd 17.2% Nd is stable with 86 neutrons
148Nd 5.7% Nd is stable with 88 neutrons
150Nd 5.6% 6.7×1018y β-β- 3.367 150Sm
References

Neodymium (IPA: /ˌniːə(ʊ)ˈdɪmiəm, ˌniə(ʊ)-/) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Nd and atomic number 60. General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... Neodymium table image created for Wikipedia by schnee on June 23, 2003, 11:47 UTC. File links The following pages link to this file: Neodymium User:Femto/elements e8 Categories: GFDL images ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... A table of chemical elements ordered by atomic number and color coded according to type of element. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... The lanthanide series comprises the 15 elements from lanthanum to lutetium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 57 through 71. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... 6 *Lanthanides 7 **Actinides IUPAC has not recommended a specific format for the periodic table, so different conventions are permitted and are often used for the group number of lanthanides and actinides. ... A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the Lanthanides. ... The f-block of the periodic table of elements consists of those elements for which, in the atomic ground state, the highest-energy electrons occupy f-orbitals. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Neodymium sample. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It means that the oxidation number is the... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... Ferromagnetism is a phenomenon by which a material can exhibit a spontaneous magnetization, and is one of the strongest forms of magnetism. ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... K value redirects here. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... This page is about the physical speed of sound waves in a medium. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... In materials science, shear modulus, G, or sometimes S or μ, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; force acts on area ; = shear strain; length changes by amount . ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... A Vickers hardness tester The Vickers hardness test was developed in the early 1920s as an alternative method to measure the hardness of materials. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Neodymium (Nd) Standard atomic mass: 144. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Alpha decay Alpha decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atom emits an alpha particle (two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus) and transforms (or decays) into an atom with a mass number 4 less and atomic number 2... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

Neodymium, a rare earth metal, is present in Misch metal to the extent of about 18%. The metal has a bright, silvery metallic luster, however, as one of the more reactive rare earth metals, it quickly tarnishes in air. The tarnishing forms an oxide layer that falls off, which exposes the metal to further oxidation. Although it belongs to "rare earth metals," neodymium is not rare at all. It constitutes 38 ppm of Earth’s crust. Rare earth ore Rare earth elements and rare earth metals are trivial names sometimes applied to a collection of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, namely scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanides. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Mischmetal (from German: Mischmetall - mixed metals) is a pyrophoric alloy of rare earth elements in various naturally occurring proportions. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...


Applications

  • Neodymium magnets are the strongest permanent magnets known - Nd2Fe14B. These magnets are cheaper, lighter, and stronger than samarium-cobalt magnets. Neodymium magnets appear in high-quality products such as microphones, professional loudspeakers, in-ear headphones, Dokodemo Magnets, guitar and bass guitar pick-ups and computer hard disks where low mass, small volume, or strong magnetic fields are required.
  • Neodymium is a component of didymium used for coloring glass to make welder's and glass-blower's goggles. The sharp absorption bands obliterate the strong sodium emission at 589 nm.
  • Neodymium lamps are incandescent lamps containing neodymium in the glass to filter out yellow light, resulting in a whiter light more like sunlight
  • Didymium glass was used during World War I to send Morse Code across the battlefields. The glass filter caused only imperceptible fluctuation in the overall light intensity, but the intended receiver had a set of binoculars fitted with a spectroscope wherewith to see the neodymium absorption bands flashing on and off.
  • Neodymium colors glass in delicate shades ranging from pure violet through wine-red and warm grey. Light transmitted through such glass shows unusually sharp absorption bands; the glass is used in astronomical work to produce sharp bands by which spectral lines may be calibrated. Neodymium is also used to remove the green colour caused by iron contaminants from glass.
  • Neodymium salts are used as a colourant for enamels.
  • Probably because of similarities to Ca2+, Nd3+ has been reported [1] to promote plant growth. Rare earth element compounds are frequently used in China as fertilizer.
  • Size and strength of volcanic eruption can be predicted by scanning for neodymium isotopes. Small and large volcanic eruptions produce lava with different neodymium isotope composition. From the composition of isotopes, scientists predict how big the coming eruption will be, and use this information to warn residents of the intensity of the eruption.
  • Certain transparent materials with a small concentration of neodymium ions can be used in lasers as gain media for infrared wavelengths (1054-1064 nm), e.g. Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminium garnet), Nd:YLF (yttrium lithium fluoride), Nd:YVO4 (yttrium orthovanadate), and Nd:glass. The current laser at the UK Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), the HELEN 1-TW neodymium-glass laser, can access the midpoints of pressure and temperature regions and is used to acquire data for modeling on how density, temperature and pressure interact inside warheads. HELEN can create plasmas of around 106 K, from which opacity and transmission of radiation are measured.

Neodymium magnet on a bracket from a hard drive A neodymium magnet (also called a Neodymium Iron Boron magnet, or less specifically, called a rare-earth magnet) is a powerful magnet made of a combination of neodymium, iron, and boron — Nd2Fe14B. These magnets are very strong in comparison to their... For other uses, see Magnet (disambiguation). ... Neodymium magnet on a bracket from a hard drive A neodymium magnet or NIB magnet (also, but less specifically, called a rare-earth magnet) is a powerful magnet made of a combination of neodymium, iron, and boron — Nd2Fe14B. They have replaced marginally weaker and significantly more heat-resistant samarium-cobalt... Samarium-cobalt magnets (SmCo5) are composed of samarium and cobalt. ... Neodymium magnet on a bracket from a hard drive A neodymium magnet or NIB magnet (also, but less specifically, called a rare-earth magnet) is a powerful magnet made of a combination of neodymium, iron, and boron — Nd2Fe14B. They have replaced marginally weaker and significantly more heat-resistant samarium-cobalt... “Microphones” redirects here. ... For the Marty Friedman album, see Loudspeaker (album) An inexpensive low fidelity 3. ... In-ear headphones Headphones (also known as earphones, stereophones, headsets, or the slang term cans) is a transducer that receives an electrical signal from a media player or receiver and uses speakers placed in close proximity to the ears (hence the name earphone) to convert the signal into audible sound... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... A sunburst-colored Precision Bass The electric bass guitar (or electric bass) is a bass stringed instrument played with the fingers by plucking, slapping, popping or using a pick. ... Pickup may refer to: Pickup, a device which detects vibrations from music instruments Pickup truck, a light truck with an open-top rear cargo area. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... Didymium is a mixture of the elements praseodymium and neodymium. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ... This article is about the material. ... An absorption band is a range of wavelengths (or, equivalently, frequencies) in the electromagnetic spectrum within which electromagnetic energy is absorbed by a substance. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from an excess or deficiency of photons in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... In a discussion of art technology, enamel (or vitreous enamel, or porcelain enamel in American English) is the colorful result of fusion of powdered glass to a substrate through the process of firing, usually between 750 and 850 degrees Celsius. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... A laser system generally consists of three important parts: An energy source (usually referred to as the pump or pump source); A gain medium or laser medium; A mirror, or system of mirrors, forming an optical resonator. ... Neodymium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride (Nd:YLF) is a lasing medium for arclamp-pumped and diode-pumped solid-state lasers. ... Neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO4) is a crystalline material formed by adding neodymium ions to yttrium orthovanadate. ... AWE plc logo The Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston (formerly the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston) is situated in the UK, just 7 miles north of Basingstoke and approximately 14 miles south-west of Reading, Berkshire, near a village called Aldermaston, bordering with Tadley. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ...

Neodymium glass

Neodymium glass (Nd:Glass) is produced by the inclusion of neodymium oxide (Nd2O3) in the glass melt. In daylight or incandescent light neodymium glass appears lavender, but it appears pale blue under fluorescent lighting. This article is about the material. ... Light bulb redirects here. ... Fluorescent lamps in Shinbashi, Tokyo, Japan Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ...


Neodymium glass solid-state lasers are used in extremely high power (terawatt scale), high energy (megajoules) multiple beam systems for inertial confinement fusion. Nd:Glass lasers are usually frequency tripled to the third harmonic at 351 nm in laser fusion devices. A solid-state laser is a laser that uses a gain medium that is a solid, rather than a liquid such as dye lasers or a gas such as gas lasers. ... (Redirected from 1 E11 W) This page lists examples of the power in watts produced by various different sources of energy. ... A megajoule (abbreviation: MJ) is a unit of energy equal to 1000000 joules. ... Inertial confinement fusion using lasers rapidly progressed in the late 1970s and early 1980s from being able to deliver only a few joules of laser energy (per pulse) to a fusion target to being able to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. ... Nonlinear optics is the branch of optics that describes the behaviour of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light. ... An optical frequency multiplier is a nonlinear optical device, in which photons interacting with a nonlinear material are effectively combined to form new photons with greater energy, and thus higher frequency (and shorter wavelength). ...

Neodymium doped glass slabs used in extremely powerful lasers for inertial confinement fusion.
Neodymium doped glass slabs used in extremely powerful lasers for inertial confinement fusion.

Neodymium glass is becoming widely used in incandescent light bulbs, to provide a more "natural" light. History of neodymium laser glass development at LLNL Template:PD US-Gov File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... History of neodymium laser glass development at LLNL Template:PD US-Gov File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Inertial confinement fusion using lasers rapidly progressed in the late 1970s and early 1980s from being able to deliver only a few joules of laser energy (per pulse) to a fusion target to being able to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. ... Light bulb redirects here. ...


Neodymium glass has been patented for use in automobile rear-view mirrors, to reduce the glare at night.


The first commercial use of purified neodymium was in glass coloration, starting with experiments by Leo Moser in November 1927. The resulting "Alexandrite" glass remains a signature color of the Moser glassworks to this day. Neodymium glass was widely emulated in the early 1930's by American glasshouses, most notably Heisey, Fostoria ("wisteria"), Cambridge ("heatherbloom"), and Steuben ("wisteria"), and elsewhere (e.g. Lalique, in France, or Murano). Tiffin's "twilight" remained in production from about 1950 to about 1980. Current sources include glassmakers in the Czech Republic, the USA, and China; Caithness Glass in Scotland has also used the colorant extensively. The sharp absorption bands of neodymium cause the glass color to change under different lighting conditions, being reddish-purple under daylight or yellow incandescent light, but blue under white fluorescent lighting, or greenish under trichromatic lighting. This color-change phenomenon is highly prized by collectors. Neodymium in combination with praseodymium gave Moser's "Heliolite" glass. In combination with gold or selenium, beautiful red colors result, such as Moser's "Royalite" or Tiffin's "Wistaria" or some of the colors achieved by Fenton. Since neodymium coloration depends upon "forbidden" f-f transitions deep within the atom, there is relatively little influence on the color from the chemical environment, so the color is impervious to the thermal history of the glass. However, for the best color, iron-containing impurities need to be minimized in the silica used to make the glass. The same "forbiddenness" of the f-f transitions makes rare earth colorants less intense than those provided by most d-transition elements, so more has to be used in a glass to achieve the desired color intensity. The original Moser recipe used about 5% of neodymium oxide in the glass melt, a sufficient quantity such that Moser referred to these as being "Rare Earth Doped" glasses. Being a strong base, that level of neodymium would have affected the melting properties of the glass, and the lime content of the glass might have had to be adjusted accordingly.


History

Neodymium was discovered by Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach, an Austrian chemist, in Vienna in 1885. He separated neodymium, as well as the element praseodymium, from a material known as didymium by means of fractional crystallization of the double ammonium nitrate tetrahydrates from nitric acid, while following the separation by spectroscopic analysis; however, it was not isolated in relatively pure form until 1925. The name neodymium is derived from the Greek words neos, new, and didymos, twin. Neodymium is frequently misspelled as neodynium. Carl Auer von Welsbach ( 9 September 1858 - 8 April 1929) was an Austrian scientist and inventor who had a talent for not only discovering advances, but turning them into commercially successful products. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... Didymium is a mixture of the elements praseodymium and neodymium. ... Spectroscopy is the study of spectra, ie. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Misspelling generator be merged into this article or section. ...


Double nitrate crystallization was the means of commercial neodymium purification until the 1950's. The Lindsay Chemical Division of American Potash and Chemical Corporation, at one time the largest producer of rare earths in the world, offered neodymium oxide purified in this manner in grades of 65%, 85% and 95% purity, at prices ranging from approximately 2 to 20 dollars per pound (in 1960 dollars). Lindsay was the first to commercialize large-scale ion-exchange purification of neodymium, using the technology developed by Frank Spedding at Iowa State University/Ames Laboratory; one pound of their 99% oxide was priced at $35 in 1960; their 99.9% grade only cost 5 dollars more. Starting in the 1950's, high purity (e.g. 99+%) neodymium was primarily obtained through an ion exchange process from monazite sand ((Ce,La,Th,Nd,Y)PO4), a material rich in rare earth elements. The metal itself is obtained through electrolysis of its halide salts. Currently, most neodymium is extracted from bastnaesite, (Ce,La,Nd,Pr)CO3F, and purified by solvent extraction. Ion-exchange purification is reserved for preparing the highest purities (typically >4N). (When Molycorp first introduced their 98% grade of neodymium oxide in 1965, made by solvent extraction from Mountain Pass California bastnaesite, it was priced at 5 dollars per pound, for small quantities. Lindsay soon discontinued operations.) The evolving technology, and improved purity of commercially available neodymium oxide was reflected in the appearance of neodymium glass made therefrom, that resides in collections today. Early Moser pieces, and other neodymium glass made in the 1930's, have a more reddish or orange tinge than modern versions, which are more cleanly purple, due to the difficulties in removing the last traces of praseodymium, when the fractional crystallization technology had to be relied on. Ion exchange is defined as an exchange of ions between two electrolytes. ... Monazite powder In geology, the mineral monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate containing rare earth metals and an important source of thorium, lanthanum, and cerium. ... This article is about the chemical process. ... A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, or astatide compound. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ...


Occurrence

Neodymium is never found in nature as the free element; rather, it occurs in ores such as monazite sand ((Ce,La,Th,Nd,Y)PO4) and bastnäsite ((Ce,La,Th,Nd,Y)(CO3)F) that contain small amounts of all the rare earth metals. Neodymium can also be found in Misch metal; it is difficult to separate it from other rare earth elements. Monazite powder In geology, the mineral monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate containing rare earth metals and an important source of thorium, lanthanum, and cerium. ... The mineral bastnäsite is one of a family of three carbonate-fluoride minerals. ... Mischmetal (from German: Mischmetall - mixed metals) is a pyrophoric alloy of rare earth elements in various naturally occurring proportions. ...


Compounds

Neodymium compounds include

  • Halides
  • Oxides
    • Nd2O3
  • Sulfides
    • NdS
    • Nd2S3
  • Nitrides
    • NdN
See also: Category:Neodymium compounds

Properties Neodymium(III) chloride hexahydrate under fluorescent light Neodymium(III) chloride hexahydrate in fume cupboard light Neodymium(III) chloride hexahydrate in sunlight Neodymium(III) chloride, also known as neodymium trichloride, is a compound of neodymium and chlorine. ...

Isotopes

Main article: Isotopes of neodymium

Naturally occurring Neodymium is composed of 5 stable isotopes, 142Nd, 143Nd, 145Nd, 146Nd and 148Nd, with 142Nd being the most abundant (27.2% natural abundance), and 2 radioisotopes, 144Nd and 150Nd. In all, 31 radioisotopes of Neodymium have been characterized up to now, with the most stable being naturally occurring isotopes 144Nd (alpha decay, a half-life (T½) of 2.29×1015 years) and 150Nd (double beta decay, T½ of 7×1018 years). All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 11 days, and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 70 seconds. This element also has 13 known meta states with the most stable being 139mNd (T½ 5.5 hours), 135mNd (T½ 5.5 minutes) and 133m1Nd (T½ ~70 seconds). Neodymium (Nd) Standard atomic mass: 144. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Alpha decay Alpha decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atom emits an alpha particle (two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus) and transforms (or decays) into an atom with a mass number 4 less and atomic number 2... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In the process of beta decay unstable nuclei decay by converting a neutron in the nucleus to a proton and emitting an electron and anti-neutrino. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atom caused by the excitation of a proton or neutron in its nucleus so that it requires a change in spin before it can release its extra energy. ...


The primary decay modes before the most abundant stable isotope, 142Nd, are electron capture and positron decay, and the primary mode after is beta minus decay. The primary decay products before 142Nd are element Pr (praseodymium) isotopes and the primary products after are element Pm (promethium) isotopes. In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... Positron emission is a type of beta decay, sometimes referred to as beta plus (β+). In beta plus decay, a proton is converted to a neutron via the weak nuclear force and a beta plus particle (a positron) and a neutrino are emitted. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


Precautions

Neodymium metal dust is a combustion and explosion hazard.


Neodymium compounds, like all rare earth metals, are of low to moderate toxicity; however its toxicity has not been thoroughly investigated. Neodymium dust and salts are very irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes, and moderately irritating to skin. Breathing the dust can cause lung embolisms, and accumulated exposure damages the liver. Neodymium also acts as an anticoagulant, especially when given intravenously. The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... An embolism occurs when an object (the embolus, plural emboli) migrates from one part of the body (through circulation) and cause(s) a blockage (occlusion) of a blood vessel in another part of the body. ... An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ...


Neodymium magnets have been tested for medical uses such as magnetic braces and bone repair, but biocompatibility issues have prevented widespread application. Biocompatibility is the ability of a material to perform with an appropriate host response in a specific application. ...


See also

Neodymium magnet (NIB or NdFeB) Neodymium magnet on a bracket from a hard drive A neodymium magnet or NIB magnet (also, but less specifically, called a rare-earth magnet) is a powerful magnet made of a combination of neodymium, iron, and boron — Nd2Fe14B. They have replaced marginally weaker and significantly more heat-resistant samarium-cobalt...


References

  • Los Alamos National Laboratory - Neodymium
  • "The Industrial Chemistry of the Lanthanons, Yttrium, Thorium and Uranium", by R.J. Callow, Pergamon Press 1967.
  • Lindsay Chemical Division, American Potash and Chemical Corporation, Price List, 1960.
  • "Chemistry of the Lanthanons", by R.C. Vickery, Butterworths 1953.

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  Results from FactBites:
 
What Are Neodymium Magnets? (470 words)
Neodymium magnets are also known as Neodymium-Iron-Boron or Nd-Fe-B or NIB super magnets since they are composed of these elements.
Neodymium magnets, unlike previous high strength magnets like tiny cobalt-samarium magnets, are priced very low and can be afforded by educators and experimenters on their limited budgets.
Neodymium magnets are very corrosive and hence have to be handled carefully.
Neodymium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (648 words)
Neodymium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Nd and atomic number 60.
Neodymium salts are used as a colourant for enamels.
He separated neodymium, as well as the element praseodymium, from a material known as didymium by means of spectroscopic analysis; however, it was not isolated in relatively pure form until 1925.
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