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Encyclopedia > Neoclassicism
Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756)
Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756)

Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw upon Western classical art and culture (usually that of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome). These movements were dominant at various times between the 18th and 20th centuries. This article addresses what these "neoclassicisms" have in common. G.P. Pannini, Roman ruins and sculpture, (Louvre) 1758 Source: http://www. ... G.P. Pannini, Roman ruins and sculpture, (Louvre) 1758 Source: http://www. ... The interior of the Pantheon, Rome Giovanni Paolo Pannini or Panini (Piacenza, June 17, 1691 – Rome, October 21, 1765) was an Italian painter and architect. ... A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. ... The decorative arts are traditionally defined as ornamental and functional works in ceramic, wood, glass, metal, or textile. ... Many times, the term art is used to refer to the visual arts. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... // Music is an art form consisting of sound and silence expressed through time. ... Section of the dome of Florence Cathedral. ... The Temple of Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...

Contents

Overview

What any "neo"-classicism depends on most fundamentally is a consensus about a body of work that has achieved canonic status (illustration, below). These are the "classics." Ideally— and neoclassicism is essentially an art of an ideal— an artist, well-schooled and comfortably familiar with the canon, does not repeat it in lifeless reproductions, but synthesizes the tradition anew in each work. This sets a high standard, clearly; but though a neoclassical artist who fails to achieve it may create works that are inane, vacuous or even mediocre, gaffes of taste and failures of craftsmanship are not commonly neoclassical failings. Novelty, improvisation, self-expression, and blinding inspiration are not neoclassical virtues; neoclassicism exhibits perfect control of an idiom. It does not recreate art forms from the ground up with each new project, as modernism demanded. "Make it new" was the modernist credo of the poet Ezra Pound. The Western canon is a canon of books and art (and specifically one with very loose boundaries) that has allegedly been highly influential in shaping Western culture. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ...


Speaking and thinking in English, "neoclassicism" in each art implies a particular canon of "classic" models. Virgil, Raphael, Nicolas Poussin, Haydn. Other cultures have other canons of classics, however, and a recurring strain of neoclassicism appears to be a natural expression of a culture at a certain moment in its career, a culture that is highly self-aware, that is also confident of its own high mainstream tradition, but at the same time feels the need to regain something that has slipped away: Apollonius of Rhodes is a neoclassic writer; Ming ceramics pay homage to Sung celadon porcelains; Italian 15th century humanists learn to write a "Roman" hand we call italic (a.k.a. Carolingian); Neo-Babylonian culture is a neoclassical revival, and in Persia the "classic" religion of Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism, is revived after centuries, to "re-Persianize" a culture that had fallen away from its own classic Achaemenean past. Within the direct Western tradition, the earliest movement motivated by a neoclassicial inspiration is a Roman style that was first distinguished by the German art historian Friedrich Hauser (Die Neuattische Reliefs Stuttgart 1889), who identified the style-category he called "Neo-Attic" among sculpture produced in later Hellenistic circles during the last century or so BCE and in Imperial Rome; the corpus that Hauser called "Neo-Attic" consists of bas reliefs molded on decorative vessels and plaques, employing a figural and drapery style that looked for its canon of "classic" models to late 5th and early 4th century Athens and Attica. Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or Vergil, was a classical Roman poet, the author of the Eclogues, the Georgics and the substantially completed Aeneid, the last being an epic poem of twelve books that became... This page is about the artist. ... Les Bergers d’Arcadie, set in Ancient Greece. ... Portrait by Thomas Hardy, 1792 Franz Joseph Haydn[1] (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was one of the most prominent composers of the Classical period, and is called by some the Father of the Symphony and Father of the String Quartet. A life-long resident of Austria, Haydn spent... Apollonius of Rhodes, also known as Apollonius Rhodius (Latin; Greek Apollōnios Rhodios), early 3rd century BC - after 246 BC, was an epic poet, scholar, and director of the Library of Alexandria. ... Ming China under the Yongle Emperor Capital Nanjing (1368-1421) Beijing (1421-1644) Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1368-1398 Hongwu Emperor  - 1627-1644 Chongzhen Emperor History  - Established in Nanjing January 23, 1368  - Fall of Beijing 1644  - End of the Southern Ming April, 1662 Population  - 1393 est. ... Alternate meaning: Celadon (color) Celadon funerary jar from the Three Kingdoms period Celadon is a type of pottery having a pale green glaze. ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Example from 10th century manuscript Carolingian or Caroline minuscule is a script developed as a writing standard in Europe so that the Roman alphabet could be easily recognized by the small literate class from one region to another. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Friedrich Hauser (Stuttgart 1859–Baden-Baden, 1917) was a German classical archaeologist and art historian. ... Neo-Attic is a sculptural style of the 2nd c. ...


Neoclassicism in architecture and in the decorative and visual arts

For more details on this topic, see Neoclassical architecture.
The Academy, designed by Theophil Freiherr von Hansen and completed in 1885, in Athens, Greece.
The Academy, designed by Theophil Freiherr von Hansen and completed in 1885, in Athens, Greece.

In the visual arts the European movement called "neoclassicism" began after ca 1765, as a reaction against both the surviving Baroque and Rococo styles, and as a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, the more vague perception ("ideal") of Ancient Greek arts (where almost no western artist had actually been) and, to a lesser extent, 16th century Renaissance Classicism. The neoclassical movement that produced Neoclassical architecture began in the mid-18th century, both as a reaction against the Rococo style of anti-tectonic naturalistic ornament, and an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque. ... Athens Academy: Designed by Theofil Hansen and completed in 1887. ... Athens Academy: Designed by Theofil Hansen and completed in 1887. ... Theophil Edvard Freiherr von Hansen (original Danish name: Theophilus Hansen) (July 13, 1813 in Copenhagen - February 17, 1891 in Vienna) was a Danish architect. ... Athens (Ancient Greek: αἱ Ἀθῆναι (plural), evolving into the modern Αθήναι in Greek until recently, and Αθήνα nowadays (IPA ); is both the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... Many times, the term art is used to refer to the visual arts. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Temple of Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ...

Serbian Railway HQ,Belgrade

Contrasting with the Baroque and the Rococo, Neo-classical paintings are devoid of pastel colors and haziness; instead, they have sharp colors with Chiaroscuro. In the case of Neo-classicism in France, a prime example is Jacques Louis David whose paintings often use Greek elements to extol the French Revolution's virtues (state before family). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Location of Belgrade within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District City of Belgrade Municipalities 17 Government  - Mayor Nenad Bogdanović (DS) (since 2004)  - Ruling parties DS/DSS/G17+ Area  - City 3,222. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tenebrism. ... Self portrait Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 - December 29, 1825), most usually known as David (pronounced Dah-veed rather than Day-vid), was a French painter. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...

Henry Fuseli, The artist moved to despair at the grandeur of antique fragments, 1778–79
Henry Fuseli, The artist moved to despair at the grandeur of antique fragments, 1778–79

Each "neo"- classicism selects some models among the range of possible classics that are available to it, and ignores others. The neoclassical writers and talkers, patrons and collectors, artists and sculptors of 1765 - 1830 paid homage to an idea of the generation of Pheidias, but the sculpture examples they actually embraced were more likely to be Roman copies of Hellenistic sculptures. They ignored both Archaic Greek art and the works of Late Antiquity. The Rococo art of ancient Palmyra came as a revelation, through engravings in Wood's The Ruins of Palmyra. Even in all-but-unvisited Greece, a rough backwater of the Ottoman Empire, dangerous to explore, neoclassicists' appreciation of Greek architecture was mediated through drawings and engravings, which subtly smoothed and regularized, "corrected' and "restored" the monuments of Greece, not always consciously. As for painting, Greek painting was utterly lost: neoclassicist painters imaginatively revived it, partly through bas-relief friezes, mosaics, and pottery painting and partly through the examples of painting and decoration of the High Renaissance of Raphael's generation, frescos in Nero's Domus Aurea, Pompeii and Herculaneum and through renewed admiration of Nicholas Poussin. Much "neoclassical" painting is more classicisizing in subject matter than in anything else. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (850x1001, 133 KB)Henry Fuseli, The Artist Moved to Despair by the Grandeur of Antique Fragments 1778-79 Red chalk on sepia wash, Kunsthaus, Zürich File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (850x1001, 133 KB)Henry Fuseli, The Artist Moved to Despair by the Grandeur of Antique Fragments 1778-79 Red chalk on sepia wash, Kunsthaus, Zürich File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev... Fuseli talking to Johann Jakob Bodmer, 1778-1781. ... Phidias, (or Pheidias), son of Charmides, (circa 490 BC - circa 430 BC) was an ancient Greek sculptor, universally regarded as the greatest of Greek sculptors. ... A general view of the site Palmyra was in the ancient times an important city of central Syria, located in an oasis 215 km northeast of Damascus and 120 km southwest of the Euphrates. ... This page is about the artist. ... The Domus Aurea (Latin for Golden House) was a large landscaped portico villa, designed to take advantage of artificially created landscapes, rather than a monumental palace,[1] built in the heart of Ancient Rome by the Roman emperor Nero after Great fire of Rome, which devastated Rome in 64 AD... Pompeii is a ruined Roman city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. ... Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. ... Et in Arcadia ego by Nicolas Poussin. ...

Façade of the Larger Marble Palace built by Luigi Vanvitelli's pupil Antonio Rinaldi.
Façade of the Larger Marble Palace built by Luigi Vanvitelli's pupil Antonio Rinaldi.

There is an anti-Rococo strain that can be detected in some European architecture of the earlier 18th century, most vividly represented in the Palladian architecture of Georgian Britain and Ireland, but also recognizable in a classicizing vein of architecture in Berlin. It is a robust architecture of self-restraint, academically selective now of "the best" Roman models. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 65 KB) This file was downloaded from the site walks. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 65 KB) This file was downloaded from the site walks. ... The Marble Palace is in North Calcutta and still residence of a family. ... Luigi Vanvitelli (Naples, May 12, 1700 – March 1, 1773, Caserta), an engineer as well as the most prominent 18th-century Italian architect, practiced a sober classicizing academic Late Baroque style that made an easy transition to Neoclassicism. ... Rinaldis cathedral in a provincial Russian town, 1764 Antonio Rinaldi (1710-1794) was an Italian architect, trained by Luigi Vanvitelli, who worked mainly in Russia. ... Section of the dome of Florence Cathedral. ... Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from the designs of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


Neoclassicism first gained influence in England and France, through a generation of French art students trained in Rome and influenced by the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann, and it was quickly adopted by progressive circles in Sweden. At first, classicizing decor was grafted onto familiar European forms, as in the interiors for Catherine II's lover Count Orlov, designed by an Italian architect with a team of Italian stuccadori: only the isolated oval medallions like cameos and the bas-relief overdoors hint of neoclassicism; the furnishings are fully Italian Rococo (illustration, left). Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Count Grigory Orlov Orlov is the name of a Russian noble family which produced several distinguished statesmen, diplomatists and soldiers. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ...

G.B. Piranesi's design for a vase on stand, Rome ca 1780, appealed more to his English and French patrons. Similar gilt-bronze vases were made in London and Paris, from ca. 1768 onwards.
G.B. Piranesi's design for a vase on stand, Rome ca 1780, appealed more to his English and French patrons. Similar gilt-bronze vases were made in London and Paris, from ca. 1768 onwards.

But a second neoclassic wave, more severe, more studied (through the medium of engravings) and more consciously archaeological, is associated with the height of the Napoleonic Empire. In France, the first phase of neoclassicism is expressed in the "Louis XVI style", the second phase in the styles we call "Directoire" or Empire. Italy clung to Rococo until the Napoleonic regimes brought the new archaeological classicism, which was embraced as a political statement by young, progressive, urban Italians with republican leanings. Deign for a perfumeburner in the form of a vase on a tripod stand, GB Piranesi, in The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... Deign for a perfumeburner in the form of a vase on a tripod stand, GB Piranesi, in The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... Giovanni Battista (also Giambattista) Piranesi (4 October 1729 - 9 November 1778) was an Italian artist famous for his etchings of Rome and of fictitious and atmospheric prisons (Carceri dInvenzione). ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Empire is an early 19th century style of architecture and furniture design that and originates from Napoleons rule of France. ...

David's Oath of the Horatii (1784) is not just neoclassical in subject.
David's Oath of the Horatii (1784) is not just neoclassical in subject.

The high tide of neoclassicism in painting is exemplified in early paintings by Jacques-Louis David (illustration, left) and Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres' entire career. David's Oath of the Horatii was painted in Rome and made a splash at the Paris Salon of 1784. Its central perspective is perpendicular to the picture plane, made more emphatic by the dim arcade behind, against which the heroic figures are disposed as in a frieze, with a hint of the artificial lighting and staging of opera, and the classical coloring of Nicholas Poussin. In sculpture, the most familiar representatives are the Italian Antonio Canova, the Englishman John Flaxman and the Dane Bertel Thorvaldsen. The European neoclassical manner also took hold in the United States, where its prominence peaked somewhat later and is exemplified in the sculptures of William Henry Rinehart (1825-1874). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 774 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1292 × 1001 pixel, file size: 154 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 774 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1292 × 1001 pixel, file size: 154 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Oath of the Horatii (1784) is a painting by Jacques-Louis David, painted before the French Revolution, depicting the Roman salute. ... Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 – December 29, 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the prominent painter of the era. ... Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (pronounced (Ang, rhymes with bang, with a hint of the r, but the final es is not pronounced) (August 29, 1780 - January 14, 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter. ... Oath of the Horatii (1784) is a painting by Jacques-Louis David, painted before the French Revolution, depicting the Roman salute. ... Honoré Daumier satirized the bourgeoises scandalized by the Salons Venuses, 1864 The Paris Salon (French: Salon de Paris) is the official art exhibition of the Académie des beaux-arts in Paris, France. ... Frieze of the Tower of the Winds. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... Et in Arcadia ego by Nicolas Poussin. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional object, which for the purposes of this article is man-made and selected for special recognition as art. ... Self-portrait by Canova, 1792. ... John Flaxman (July 6, 1755 - December 7, 1826), was an English sculptor and draughtsman. ... Bertel Thorvaldsen. ... William Henry Rinehart, American sculptor, was born in Maryland in 1825 and died in 1874. ...


In the decorative arts, neoclassicism is exemplified in Empire furniture made in Paris, London, New York, Berlin; in Biedermeier furniture made in Austria; in Karl Friedrich Schinkel's museums in Berlin, Sir John Soane's Bank of England in London and the newly built "capitol" in Washington, DC; and in Wedgwood's bas reliefs and "black basaltes" vases. The Scots architect Charles Cameron created palatial Italianate interiors for the German-born Catherine II the Great in Russian St. Petersburg: the style was international. In Central Europe, Biedermeier refers to work in the fields of literature, music, the visual arts and interior design in the period between the years 1815 (Vienna Congress), the end of the Napoleonic Wars, and 1848, the year of the European revolutions and contrasts with the Romantic era which preceded... The Old Museum in Berlin Karl Friedrich Schinkel (March 13, 1781 - October 9, 1841) was a German architect and painter. ... Sir John Soane (10 September 1753 - 20 January 1837) was a British architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical tradition. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Josiah Wedgwood Josiah Wedgwood (July 12, 1730 – January 3, 1795, born Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent) was an English potter, credited with the industrialization of the manufacture of pottery. ... Bas-relief (pronounced bah-relief, French for low relief) is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal creating a sculpture portrayed as a picture. ... Chinese vase A vase with a sunflower pattern A modern designed vase The vase is an open container, often used to hold cut flowers. ... Charles Cameron (born October 31, 1927 in Edinburgh, Scotland - January 1, 2001) was a professional Magician specialized in a style known as bizarre magic. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from...


Indoors, neoclassicism made a discovery of the genuine classic interior, inspired by the rediscoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum, which had started in the late 1740s, but only achieved a wide audience in the 1760s, with the first luxurious volumes of tightly controlled distribution of Le Antichità di Ercolano. The antiquities of Herculaneum showed that even the most classicizing interiors of the Baroque, or the most "Roman" rooms of William Kent were based on basilica and temple exterior architecture, turned outside in: pedimented window frames turned into gilded mirrors, fireplaces topped with temple fronts, now all looking quite bombastic and absurd. The new interiors sought to recreate an authentically Roman and genuinely interior vocabulary, employing flatter, lighter motifs, sculpted in low frieze-like relief or painted in monotones en camaïeu ("like cameos"), isolated medallions or vases or busts or bucrania or other motifs, suspended on swags of laurel or ribbon, with slender arabesques against backgrounds, perhaps, of "Pompeiian red" or pale tints, or stone colors. The style in France was initially a Parisian style, the Goût grec, not a court style. Only when the plump, young king acceded to the throne in 1774 did his fashion-loving Queen bring the "Louis XVI" style to court. Pompeii is a ruined Roman city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. ... Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. ... Events and Trends The War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748) rages. ... Events and Trends King George III ascends the British throne in 1760. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... William Kent William Kent (born in Bridlington, Yorkshire, c. ... St. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of a triangular section or gable found above the horizontal superstructure (entablature) which lies immediately upon the columns. ... A gilded Tibetan Vajrasattva Gilding is the art of applying metal leaf (most commonly gold or silver leaf) to a surface. ... Frieze of the Tower of the Winds. ... It is requested that an image(s) should be included, to improve the articles quality. ... Bucranium (plural bucrania) is the Latin word for the skull of an ox. ... Goût grec (or Greek taste) is the term applied to the earliest expression of the neoclassical style in France, it refers specifically to the decorative arts and architecture of the mid-1750s to the late 1760s. ...

At the Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh, William Henry Playfair employs a Greek Doric octastyle portico.
At the Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh, William Henry Playfair employs a Greek Doric octastyle portico.

From about 1800 a fresh influx of Greek architectural examples, seen through the medium of etchings and engravings, gave a new impetus to neoclassicism that is called the Greek Revival. Download high resolution version (800x671, 108 KB)The Royal Scottish Academy Building on the Mound in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Download high resolution version (800x671, 108 KB)The Royal Scottish Academy Building on the Mound in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Categories: Stub | Edinburgh ... Old College, University of Edinburgh, courtyard facade: detail by Playfair William Henry Playfair (1790-1857) was one of the greatest Scottish architects of the 19th Century. ... The Doric order was one of the three orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two canonic orders being the Ionic and the Corinthian. ... Personal residence of Catherine the Great Greek Revival was a style of classical architecture which became fashionable in Europe in the 18th century, and in the United Kingdom and United States in the early 19th century. ...


Neoclassicism continued to be a major force in academic art through the 19th century and beyond—a constant antithesis to Romanticism or Gothic revivals— although from the late 19th century on it had often been considered anti-modern, or even reactionary, in influential critical circles. By the mid-19th century, several European cities—notably St Petersburg and Munich—were transformed into veritable museums of Neoclassical architecture. Birth of Venus, Alexandre Cabanel, 1863 Academic art is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies or universities. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the Industrial Revolution. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...


In American architecture, neoclassicism was one expression of the American Renaissance movement, ca 1890-1917; its last manifestation was in Beaux-Arts architecture, and its very last, large public projects were the Lincoln Memorial (highly criticized at the time), The National Gallery in Washington, DC (also heavily criticized by the architectural community as being backward thinking and old fashioned in its design), and the American Museum of Natural History's Roosevelt Memorial. These were white elephants when they were built. In the British Raj, Sir Edwin Lutyens' monumental city planning for New Delhi marks the glorious sunset of neoclassicism. World War II was to shatter most longing for - and imitation of - mythical, heroic times. American Renaissance painted decor: gilded stencilling on an olive green ground in the Office of the Secretary of the Navy in the Executive Office Building, 1879 (now the Vice Presidents Ceremonial Office) In the history of American architecture and the arts, the American Renaissance was the period ca 1876... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Beaux-Arts architecture[1] denotes the academic classical architectural style that was taught at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. ... The monument, which is on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ... The West building of the National Gallery of Art with the East building visible behind and to to the left The National Gallery of Art is an art museum, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museum was established in 1937 by the Congress, with funds for... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A white elephant For other uses, see White elephant (disambiguation). ... Edwin Lutyens Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, OM, KCIE, PRA (29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944) was a leading 20th century British architect who is known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ...


Covert neoclassicism in Modern styles

Meanwhile, conservative modernist architects like Charles Perret in France kept the rhythms and spacing of columnar architecture even in factory buildings. Where a colonnade would have been decried as "reactionary," a building's pilaster-like fluted panels under a repeating frieze looked "progressive." Pablo Picasso experimented with classicizing motifs in the years immediately following World War I, and the Art Deco style that peaked in the 1925 Paris Exposition des Arts Décoratifs often drew on neoclassical motifs without expressing them overtly: severe, blocky commodes by E. J. Ruhlmann or Sue et Mare; crisp, extremely low-relief friezes of damsels and gazelles in every medium; fashionable dresses that were draped or cut on the bias to recreate Grecian lines; the art dance of Isadora Duncan; the Streamline Moderne styling of US post offices and county court buildings built as late as 1950; and the Roosevelt dime. Neoclassic themes can even be detected in the Smith Tower, Seattle. Enormous colonnade of the Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg. ... In architecture, pilasters comprise slightly-projecting pseudo-columns built into or onto a wall, with capitals and bases. ... Pablo Ruiz Picasso (October 25, 1881 – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Asheville City Hall. ... Émile-Jacques Ruhlmann (28 August 1879, Paris - 1933), his first names often seen reversed as Jacques-Émile, was a renowned French designer of furniture and interiors, epitomising for many the glamour of the French Art Deco style of the 1920s. ... Isadora Duncan Isadora Duncan (May 27, 1877 – September 14, 1927) was an American dancer. ... Bathers building, now a Maritime Museum at San Franciscos Aquatic Park, 1937, evokes a streamlined double–ended ferryboat Judges tower at San Franciscos Aquatic Park The Bauhaus style, also kown as Art Moderne, the International Style or Streamline Moderne succeeded the closely related Art Deco style... Smith Tower construction, February 1913 The Smith Tower, located in Pioneer Square, is the oldest skyscraper in Seattle, Washington. ...


Neoclassicism Part II: Between the Wars

There was an entire 20th century movement in the Arts which was also called Neo-classicism. It encompassed at least music, philosophy, and literature. It was between the end of World War I and the end of World War II. For information on the musical aspects, see 20th century classical music#Neoclassicism and Neoclassicism (music). For information on the philosophical aspects, see Great Books. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... 20th century classical music, the classical music of the 20th century, was extremely diverse, beginning with the late Romantic style of Sergei Rachmaninoff, Impressionism of Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel, and continuing through the Neoclassicism of middle-period Igor Stravinsky, and ranging to such distant sound-worlds as the complete... For the subgenre of darkwave, see Neoclassical (Dark Wave). ... Great Books refers to a curriculum and a book list. ...


This literary neo-classical movement rejected the extreme romanticism of (for example) dada, in favour of restraint, religion (specifically Christianity) and a reactionary political program. Although the foundations for this movement in English literature were laid by T.E. Hulme, the most famous neoclassicists were T.S. Eliot and Wyndham Lewis. In Russia, the movement crystallized as early as 1910 under the name of Acmeism, with Anna Akhmatova and Osip Mandelshtam as the leading representatives. Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... Thomas Ernest Hulme (September 16, 1883 - 28 September 1917) was an English writer, who during his informal tenure from 1909 as critic for The New Age, edited by A. R. Orage, exerted a notable influence on London modernism. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot (September 26, 1888 - January 4, 1965), was a major Modernist Anglo-American poet, dramatist, and literary critic. ... Wyndham Lewis in 1916 Percy Wyndham Lewis (November 18, 1882 – March 7, 1957) was a Canadian-born British painter and author. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Acmeism, or the Guild of Poets, was a poetic school which emerged in 1910 in Russia under leadership of Nikolai Gumilyov and Sergei Gorodetsky. ... Akhmatova in the 1920s Anna Akhmatova (Russian: , real name А́нна Андре́евна Горе́нко) (June 23, 1889 [O.S. June 11] — March 5, 1966) was the pen name of Anna Andreevna Gorenko, the leader and the heart and soul of St Petersburg tradition of Russian poetry in the course of half a century. ...


Neoclassicism today

In the United States public buildings in neoclassical style are still built today. A good recent example is Schermerhorn Symphony Center. The Schermerhorn Symphony Center is a symphony center in downtown Nashville, Tennessee. ...


In Britain a number of architects are active in the neoclassical style. Two new university Libraries, Quinlan Terry's Maitland Robinson Library at Downing College and Robert Adam Architects'[1] Sackler Library illustrate that the the approach taken can range from the traditional, in the former case, to the unconventional, in the latter case. The majority of new neoclassical buildings in Britain are private houses. Firms like Francis Johnson & Partners specialise in new country houses [2]. Quinlan Terry (born 1937) is a notable British architect. ... Full name Downing College Motto Quaerere Verum Seek the truth Named after Sir George Downing Previous names - Established 1800 Sister College Lincoln College Master Prof. ... The Sackler Library holds a large portion of the classical, art history, and archaeological works belonging to the University of Oxford. ... Francis Johnston (1760 - 1829) was an Irish architect. ...


Neoclassical architecture is usually now classed under the umbrella term of "traditional architecture" and is practised by a number of members of the Traditional Architecture Group.


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Neoclassicism

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... // The origin of Asian theatre can be traced to over 3500 years ago, beginning with early Main article: Sanskrit Plays The origin of theatre in ancient India or rather folk theatre and dramatics can be traced to the religious ritualism of the Vedic Aryans. ... Classicism door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic Teatr Wielki in Warsaw Church La Madeleine in Paris Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ... The Adam style (or Adamesque) is a style of neoclassical architecture and design as practised by Scottish architect Robert Adam (1728_ 1792) and his brothers. ... Empire is an early 19th century style of architecture and furniture design that and originates from Napoleons rule of France. ... Pierre François Léonard Fontaine (1762–1853) was a neoclassical French architect, interior decorator and designer, who worked in such close partnership with Pierre François Léonard Fontaine, originally his friend from student days, from 1794 onwards, that it is fruitless to disentangle artistic responsibilities in their work. ... Charles Percier (Paris, August 22, 1764 - Paris, September 5, 1838) was a neoclassical French architect, interior decorator and designer, who worked in such close partnership with Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine, originally his friend from student days, from 1794 onwards, that it is fruitless to disentangle artistic responsibilities in... Central Pavilion, Tontine Crescent, 1793-1794, by Charles Bulfinch Federal style architecture occurred in the United States between 1780 and 1830, particularly from 1785 to 1815. ... 1811 dance dress 1811 illustration of underclothes, showing one form of Regency stays In the period 1795-1820 in European and European-influenced countries, fashionable womens clothing styles were based on the Empire silhouette — dresses were closely-fitted to the torso just under the breasts, falling loosely below. ... American Empire is a French-inspired Neo-classical style of American furniture and decoration that was initiated just before 1800 and is most famously exemplified by the furniture of Duncan Phyfe and Paris-trained Honoreacute Lannuier. ... Neo-Grec is a term usually used to refer to a particular manifestation of the Neoclassical style in the decorative arts, painting, and architecture of France, during the Second Empire of Napoleon III, lasting approximately between 1848 and 1865. ... Germany pavilion at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne in Paris, 1937. ... Unrealised design for the Palace of Soviets, Moscow, by Boris Iofan, 1933 Stalinist architecture (also referred to as Stalins Empire style or Socialist Classicism) is a term given to constructions that were built in the Soviet Union between 1933, when Boris Iofans draft for Palace of Soviets was...

External links

  • Neoclassicism in the "History of Art"

Further reading

See also the References at Neoclassical architecture The neoclassical movement that produced Neoclassical architecture began in the mid-18th century, both as a reaction against the Rococo style of anti-tectonic naturalistic ornament, and an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque. ...

  • Walter Friedlaender, 1952. David to Delacroix, (Originally published in German; reprinted 1980)
  • Fritz Novotny, 1971. Painting and Sculpture in Europe, 1780-1880, 2nd edition. (reprinted 1980)
  • Hugh Honour, 1968. Neo-classicism (Reprinted 1977) .
  • Robert Rosenblum, 1967. Transformations in Late Eighteenth Century Art
  • David Irwin, 1966. English Neoclassical Art: Studies in Inspiration and Taste
  • Svend Eriksen, Early Neoclassicism in France 1974.
Western art movements
Renaissance · Mannerism · Baroque · Rococo · Neoclassicism · Romanticism · Realism · Pre-Raphaelite · Academic · Impressionism · Post-Impressionism
20th century
Modernism · Cubism · Expressionism · Abstract expressionism · Abstract · Neue Künstlervereinigung München · Der Blaue Reiter · Die Brücke · Dada · Fauvism · Art Nouveau · Bauhaus · De Stijl · Art Deco · Pop art · Futurism · Suprematism · Surrealism · Color Field · Minimalism · Lyrical Abstraction · Post-Modernism · Conceptual art

  Results from FactBites:
 
Neoclassicism Art - Artists, Artworks and Biographies (314 words)
The term Neoclassicism refers to the classical revival in European art, architecture, and interior design that lasted from the mid-eighteenth to the early nineteenth century.
Neoclassicism emphasized rationality and the resurgence of tradition.
The height of Neoclassicism was displayed in the paintings of Jacques-Louis David and Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres.
History of Art: Neoclassicism (6976 words)
Neoclassicism was a widespread and influential movement in painting and the other visual arts that began in the 1760s, reached its height in the 1780s and '90s, and lasted until the 1840s and '50s.
Neoclassicism was given great impetus by new archaeological discoveries, particularly the exploration and excavation of the buried Roman cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii (the excavations of which began in 1738 and 1748, respectively).
Neoclassicism as manifested in painting was initially not stylistically distinct from the French Rococo and other styles that had preceded it.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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