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Encyclopedia > Neoclassical architecture
The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius.
The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius.

Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, both as a reaction against the Rococo style of anti-tectonic naturalistic ornament, and an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque. In its purest form it is a style principally derived from the architecture of Classical Greece. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x703, 90 KB) Cathedral in Vilna Taken by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii in 1912 File links The following pages link to this file: Vilnius ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x703, 90 KB) Cathedral in Vilna Taken by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii in 1912 File links The following pages link to this file: Vilnius ... Cathedral of Vilnius Vilnius Cathedral is the main Roman Catholic Cathedral of Lithuania. ... Laurynas Gucevicius (Lithuanian: Laurynas Gucevičius (Laurynas Stuoka-Gucevičius), Polish: Wawrzyniec Gucewicz; 1753 - December 10, 1798) was the first professional Lithuanian architect, a representative of Lithuanian classicism. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ... Parthenon This article is on the term Classical Greece itself. ...

Contents

Origins

Siegfried Giedion, whose first book (1922) had the suggestive title Late Baroque and Romantic Classicism, asserted later[1] "The Louis XVI style formed in shape and structure the end of late baroque tendencies, with classicism serving as its framework." In the sense that neoclassicism in architecture is evocative and picturesque, a recreation of a distant, lost world, it is, as Giedion suggests, framed within the Romantic sensibility. Sigfried Giedon (April 14, 1888, Prague – April 10, 1968, Zürich) was a Bohemia-born Swiss historian of architecture, and critic for architecture. ...


Intellectually Neoclassicism was symptomatic of a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, the more vague perception ("ideal") of Ancient Greek arts and, to a lesser extent, sixteenth-century Renaissance Classicism, the source for academic Late Baroque. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ...


Many neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée and Claude Nicolas Ledoux. The many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are links between Boullée's ideas and Edmund Burke's conception of the sublime. Ledoux addressed the concept of architectural character, maintaining that a building should immediately communicate its function to the viewer. Étienne-Louis Boullée (February 12, 1728 - February 6, 1799) was a French neoclassical architect whose work greatly influenced contemporary architects and is still influential today. ... Portrait of Ledoux with his son. ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublimis (exalted)) is the quality of transcendent greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual or artistic. ...


There is an anti-Rococo strain that can be detected in some European architecture of the earlier 18th century, most vividly represented in the Palladian architecture of Georgian Britain and Ireland, but also recognizable in a classicizing vein of Late Baroque architecture in Paris (Perrault's east range of the Louvre), in Berlin, and even in Rome, in Alessandro Galilei's facade for S. Giovanni in Laterano. It is a robust architecture of self-restraint, academically selective now of "the best" Roman models, which were increasingly available for close study through the medium of architectural engravings of measured drawings of surviving Roman architecture. This article is about building architecture. ... Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from the designs of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580). ... Though Claude Perrault (Paris, 1613 - Paris, 1688) is best known as the architect of the eastern range of the Louvre in Paris, he also achieved success as physician and anatomist, and as an author, who wrote treatises on physics and natural history. ... This article is about the museum. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Alessandro Galilei (1691 - 1736) was a Florentine architect and theorist. ... The late Baroque façade of the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano was completed by Alessandro Galilei in 1735 after winning a competition for the design. ... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ...


Appearance and development

At the Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh (1822-26), William Henry Playfair employs a Greek Doric octastyle portico
At the Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh (1822-26), William Henry Playfair employs a Greek Doric octastyle portico

Neoclassicism first gained influence in Paris, through a generation of French art students trained at the French Academy in Rome and influenced by the presence of Charles-Louis Clérisseau and the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann, and in London, through the examples of Paris-trained Sir William Chambers, Clérisseau's pupil Robert Adam and James "Athenian" Stuart, later British architects such as Henry Holland, George Dance, Jr., James Wyatt, Thomas Harrison and Sir John Soane developed the style in Britain. It was quickly adopted by progressive circles in Sweden as well. In Paris, many of the first generation of neoclassical architects received training in the classic French tradition through a series of exhaustive and practical lectures that was offered for decades by Jacques-François Blondel. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 424 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2123 × 2999 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 424 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2123 × 2999 pixel, file size: 3. ... Pulteney Bridge, Bath Pulteney Bridge is a bridge that crosses the River Avon, located in Bath, England and completed in 1773. ... Bath is a city in Somerset, England most famous for its baths fed by three hot springs. ... Robert Adam Robert Adam (3 July 1728 - 3 March 1792) was a Scottish architect, interior designer and furniture designer, born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. ... Download high resolution version (800x671, 108 KB)The Royal Scottish Academy Building on the Mound in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Download high resolution version (800x671, 108 KB)The Royal Scottish Academy Building on the Mound in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Categories: Stub | Edinburgh ... Old College, University of Edinburgh, courtyard facade: detail by Playfair William Henry Playfair (1790-1857) was one of the greatest Scottish architects of the 19th Century. ... The Doric order was one of the orginal pokersthree orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... This article is about the capital of France. ... Falls of the Aniene at Tivoli, gouache, 1769 (Victoria and Albert Museum) Charles-Louis Clérisseau (August 28, 1721–January 9, 1820), the French architectural draughtsman, antiquary, and artist, occupies a unique position in the genesis of neoclassical architecture during the second half of the 18th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The central courtyard of Chambers Somerset House in London. ... Robert Adam Robert Adam (3 July 1728 - 3 March 1792) was a Scottish architect, interior designer and furniture designer, born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. ... James Stuart has been the name of several historical figures. ... Henry Holland ( July 20, 1745 - June 17, 1806) was an architect to the English nobility who trained under Capability Brown and later married his daughter. ... George Dance the Younger (1741 - 14 January 1825) was an English architect and surveyor. ... Fonthill Abbey. ... Thomas Harrison (1740-1829) was an English provincial architect and civil engineer of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. ... Sir John Soane (10 September 1753 - 20 January 1837) was a British architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical tradition. ... Jacques-François Blondel (January 17, 1705-January 9, 1774) was a French architect. ...


At first, in the 1760s and 70s, classicizing decor was grafted onto familiar European forms, as in Gatchina's interiors for Catherine II's lover Count Orlov, designed by an Italian architect with a team of Italian stuccadori (stucco workers). A second neoclassic wave, more severe, more studied (through the medium of engravings) and more consciously archaeological, is associated with the height of the Napoleonic Empire. Gatchina is the city of 84900 inhabitants in the Leningrad oblast of the Russian Federation, 45 km south of St Petersburg by the road leading to Pskov. ... Count Grigory Orlov Orlov is the name of a Russian noble family which produced several distinguished statesmen, diplomatists and soldiers. ... Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water which is applied wet, and hardens when it dries. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


In France, the first phase of neoclassicism is expressed in the "Louis XVI style" of architects like Ange-Jacques Gabriel (Petit Trianon, 1762–68); the second phase, in the styles we call "Directoire" or "Empire", might be characterized by Jean Chalgrin's severe astylar Arc de Triomphe (designed in 1806). In England the two phases might be characterized first by the structures of Robert Adam, the second by those of Sir John Soane. Château of the Petit Trianon in the park at Versailles Ange-Jacques Gabriel (October 23, 1698 – January 4, 1782) was the most prominent French architect of his generation. ... The Petit Trianon, Versailles The Petit Trianon, situated at a short distance from the Grand Trianon in Versailles, France, was designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel by order of Louis XV for his long-term mistress, Madame de Pompadour, and was constructed between 1762-1768. ... Empire is an early 19th century style of architecture and furniture design that and originates from Napoleons rule of France. ... Chalgrins Arc de Triomphe Jean-François-Thérèse Chalgrin (1739–1811) was a French architect, best known for his design for the Arc de Triomphe, Paris. ... This article is about the monument in Paris. ... Robert Adam Robert Adam (3 July 1728 - 3 March 1792) was a Scottish architect, interior designer and furniture designer, born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. ... Sir John Soane (10 September 1753 - 20 January 1837) was a British architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical tradition. ...


Regional trends

Spain

Prado Museum in Madrid, by Juan de Villanueva
Prado Museum in Madrid, by Juan de Villanueva

Spanish Neoclassicism counted with the figure of Juan de Villanueva, who adapted Burke's achievements about the sublime and the beauty to the requirements of Spanish clime and history. He built the Prado Museum, that combined three programs- an academy, an auditorium and a museum- in one building with three separated entrances. This was part of the ambitious program of Charles III, who intended to make Madrid the Capital of Art and Science. Very close to the museum, Villanueva built the Astronomical Observatory. He also designed several summer houses for the kings in El Escorial and Aranjuez and reconstructed the Major Square of Madrid, among other important works. Villanuevas´ pupils expanded the Neoclassical style in Spain. Image:Madrid-prado. ... Image:Madrid-prado. ... The Museo del Prado is a world class museum and art gallery located in Madrid, Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Prado Museum. ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... The Museo del Prado is a world class museum and art gallery located in Madrid, Spain. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... // El Escorial, the Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo El Real (also known as the Monasterio de El Escorial or simply El Escorial) is located about 45 kilometres (28 miles) northwest of the Spanish capital, Madrid. ... Aranjuez is a town in the southern part of Autonomous Community of Madrid in central Spain and is the southernmost, and 48 km south of the city of Madrid. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ...


Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

The center of Polish classicism was Warsaw under the rule of the last Polish king Stanisław August Poniatowski. Vilnius University was another important center of the Neoclassical architecture in the Eastern Europe, lead by notable professors of architecture Marcin Knackfus, Laurynas Gucevičius and Karol Podczaszyński. The style was expressed in the main public buildings, such as the University's Observatory, Cathedral and the town hall of Vilnius. The best known architects and artists, who worked in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth were Dominik Merlini, Jan Chrystian Kamsetzer, Szymon Bogumił Zug, Jakub Kubicki, Antonio Corazzi, Efraim Szreger, Christian Piotr Aigner and Bertel Thorvaldsen. Classicism came to Poland in the 18th century. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... For other persons named StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski, see StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski. ... The Grand Courtyard of Vilnius University and the Church of St. ... Vilnius University Observatory, the earliest Neoclassical building in Lithuania Marcin Knackfus (before 1742-after 1821) was a Polish architect, notable for his numerous Neoclassical buildings in Vilnius, Lithuania. ... Laurynas Gucevicius (Lithuanian: Laurynas Gucevičius (Laurynas Stuoka-Gucevičius), Polish: Wawrzyniec Gucewicz; 1753 - December 10, 1798) was the first professional Lithuanian architect, a representative of Lithuanian classicism. ... Karol PodczaszyÅ„ski (b. ... Cathedral of Vilnius Vilnius Cathedral is the main Roman Catholic Cathedral of Lithuania. ... Vilnius Town Hall Town Hall is a square in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania. ... Not to be confused with Vilnius city municipality. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Domenico Merlini (Polish: Dominik Merlini) (February 22, 1730 - February 20, 1797) was a Polish-Italian architect, whose works were mostly in classicist style. ... Romanticist stone arch in the garden of Arkadia Zugs Protestant Church in Warsaw Szymon BogumiÅ‚ Zug (born Simon Gottlieb Zug, also known as Zugk; 1733-1807) was a renown Polish classicist architect and designer of gardens. ... Jakub Kubicki (1758-1833) was a renown Polish classicist architect and designer. ... Antonio Corazzi (Livorno 1792 - 1877) was an Italian architect who designed a number of buildings in Warszawa, the capital of Poland. ... Bertel Thorvaldsen. ...


Other countries

Karl Friedrich Schinkel's Elisabethkirche in Berlin (1832-1834)

Neoclassical architecture was exemplified in Karl Friedrich Schinkel's buildings, especially the Old Museum in Berlin, Sir John Soane's Bank of England in London and the newly-built "capitol" in Washington, DC. The Scots architect Charles Cameron created palatial Italianate interiors for the German-born Catherine II the Great in Russian St. Petersburg: the style was international. Italy clung to Rococo until the Napoleonic regimes brought the new archaeological classicism, which was embraced as a political statement by young, progressive, urban Italians with republican leanings. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1008x719, 347 KB) Berlin, Germany: Elisabethkirche (by Karl Friedrich Schinkel, 1832-1834). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1008x719, 347 KB) Berlin, Germany: Elisabethkirche (by Karl Friedrich Schinkel, 1832-1834). ... The Old Museum in Berlin Karl Friedrich Schinkel (March 13, 1781 - October 9, 1841) was a German architect and painter. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The Old Museum in Berlin Karl Friedrich Schinkel (March 13, 1781 - October 9, 1841) was a German architect and painter. ... Berlin, Old Museum, June 2003 The Altes Museum or Old Museum (until 1845 Royal Museum) located on Berlins Museum Island was built between 1825 and 1828 by the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the neoclassical style to house the Prussian Royal familys art collection. ... Sir John Soane (10 September 1753 - 20 January 1837) was a British architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical tradition. ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the location for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Charles Cameron (born October 31, 1927 in Edinburgh, Scotland - January 1, 2001) was a professional Magician specialized in a style known as bizarre magic. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from...


Interior design

Finnish towns were built of wood, often in the Neoclassical style. (Studio of W Runeberg on Porvoo)
Finnish towns were built of wood, often in the Neoclassical style. (Studio of W Runeberg on Porvoo)

Indoors, neoclassicism made a discovery of the genuine Roman interior, inspired by the rediscoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum, which had started in the late 1740s, but only achieved a wide audience in the 1760s, with the first luxurious volumes of tightly-controlled distribution of Le Antichità di Ercolan. The antiquities of Herculaneum showed that even the most classicizing interiors of the Baroque, or the most "Roman" rooms of William Kent were based on basilica and temple exterior architecture, turned outside in: pedimented window frames turned into gilded mirrors, fireplaces topped with temple fronts, now all looking quite bombastic and absurd. The new interiors sought to recreate an authentically Roman and genuinely interior vocabulary, employing flatter, lighter motifs, sculpted in low frieze-like relief or painted in monotones en camaïeu ("like cameos"), isolated medallions or vases or busts or bucrania or other motifs, suspended on swags of laurel or ribbon, with slender arabesques against backgrounds, perhaps, of "Pompeiian red" or pale tints, or stone colors. The style in France was initially a Parisian style, the "Goût grec" ("Greek style") not a court style. Only when the young king acceded to the throne in 1771 did Marie Antoinette, his fashion-loving Queen, bring the "Louis XVI" style to court. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 422 KB) [edit] Studio of Walter Runeberg The studio of Walter Magnus Runeberg, son of Johan Ludvig Runeberg. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 422 KB) [edit] Studio of Walter Runeberg The studio of Walter Magnus Runeberg, son of Johan Ludvig Runeberg. ... Johan Ludvig Runeberg (Portrait by Albert Edelfelt) J.L. Runebergs autograph Johan Ludvig Runeberg (5 February 1804, Jakobstad – 6 May 1877,BorgÃ¥) was a Finland-Swedish poet, and is held to be the national poet of Finland. ... Founded 1346 Province Southern Finland Region Eastern Uusimaa Sub-region Porvoo Area - Of which land - Rank 663. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) is an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... William Kent William Kent (born in Bridlington, Yorkshire, c. ... St. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of a triangular section or gable found above the horizontal superstructure (entablature) which lies immediately upon the columns. ... A gilded Tibetan Vajrasattva Gilding is the art of applying metal leaf (most commonly gold or silver leaf) to a surface. ... Frieze of the Tower of the Winds. ... Bucranium (plural bucrania) is the Latin word for the skull of an ox. ... Goût grec (or Greek taste) is the term applied to the earliest expression of the neoclassical style in France, it refers specifically to the decorative arts and architecture of the mid-1750s to the late 1760s. ... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ...


Late phase

From about 1800 a fresh influx of Greek architectural examples, seen through the medium of etchings and engravings, gave a new impetus to neoclassicism that is called the Greek Revival. The Tower of the Winds, Athens from The Antiquities of Athens, 1762. ...

The Alexander Column in Palace Square, St Petersburg, Russia, viewed from an open window of the Hermitage Museum in the Winter Palace.
The Alexander Column in Palace Square, St Petersburg, Russia, viewed from an open window of the Hermitage Museum in the Winter Palace.

Neoclassicism continued to be a major force in academic art through the 19th century and beyond— a constant antithesis to Romanticism or Gothic revivals— although from the late 19th century on it had often been considered anti-modern, or even reactionary, in influential critical circles. By the mid-19th century, several European cities - notably St Petersburg, Athens, Berlin and Munich - were transformed into veritable museums of Neoclassical architecture. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 376 KB) Photographer: Walter Smith from Seattle, WA, USA Title: square Description: From an open window in the Hermitage. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 376 KB) Photographer: Walter Smith from Seattle, WA, USA Title: square Description: From an open window in the Hermitage. ... The Alexander Column in the Palace Square The Alexander Column (Russian: , Aleksandrovskaya Kolonna), is the focal point of Palace Square in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Palace Square is the central city square of St Petersburg and of the former Russian Empire. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ... Birth of Venus, Alexandre Cabanel, 1863 Academic art is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies or universities. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...


In Scotland and the north of England, where the Gothic Revival was less strong, architects continued to develop the neoclassical style of William Henry Playfair. The works of Cuthbert Brodrick and Alexander Thomson show that by the end of the nineteenth century the results could be powerful and eccentric. This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Old College, University of Edinburgh, courtyard facade: detail by Playfair William Henry Playfair (1790-1857) was one of the greatest Scottish architects of the 19th Century. ... Cuthbert Broderick is the man who designed and built Leeds Town Hall and Leeds Corn Exchange. ... Alexander Thomson, c. ...


In American architecture, neoclassicism was one expression of the American Renaissance movement, ca 1880-1917. One of the pioneers of this style was English-born Benjamin Henry Latrobe, who is often noted as America's first professional architect and the father of American architecture. The Baltimore Basilica, the first Roman Catholic Cathedral in America, is considered by many experts to be Latrobe's masterpiece. American Renaissance painted decor: gilded stencilling on an olive green ground in the Office of the Secretary of the Navy in the Executive Office Building, 1879 (now the Vice Presidents Ceremonial Office) In the history of American architecture and the arts, the American Renaissance was the period ca 1876... Benjamin Henry Latrobe (May 1, 1764 - September 3, 1820) was an architect best known for his design of the United States Capitol. ... Photo of the newly renovated Exterior of the Basilica taken after the first Mass celebrated in there on October 29, 2006. ...


Its last manifestation was in Beaux-Arts architecture, and its very last, large public projects were the Lincoln Memorial, the National Gallery in Washington, D.C., and the American Museum of Natural History's Roosevelt Memorial. Beaux-Arts architecture[1] denotes the academic classical architectural style that was taught at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. ... The Lincoln Memorial, in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ... The West building of the National Gallery of Art with the East building visible behind and to to the left The National Gallery of Art is an art museum, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museum was established in 1937 by the Congress, with funds for... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In Britain, the writings of Albert Richardson were responsible for reawakening an interest in pure neoclassical design in the early twentieth century. Vincent Harris, Bradshaw Gass & Hope and Percy Thomas were among those who designed public buildings in the neoclassical style between the world wars. In the Raj, Sir Edwin Lutyens' monumental city planning for New Delhi marks the glorious sunset of neoclassicism. Sir Albert Edward Richardson (19 May 1880-3 February 1964) was a leading English architect, teacher and writer about architecture during the first half of the 20th century. ... Emanuel Vincent Harris (June 26, 1876 - August 1, 1971) was an English architect who was most notably responsible for the design of several important public buildings. ... English firm of Architects founded in 1862 by John Jonas Bradshaw (1837-1912). ... City and County of Swansea Guildhall (1930-34) Sir Percy Thomas OBE 1883-1969 was a Welsh architect and twice RIBA president (1935-37 & 1943-46). ... Edwin Lutyens Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, OM, KCIE, PRA (29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944) was a leading 20th century British architect who is known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ...


Neoclassicism today

In the United States public buildings in neoclassical style are still built today. A good recent example is Schermerhorn Symphony Center. The Schermerhorn Symphony Center is a symphony center in downtown Nashville, Tennessee. ...

The Maitland Robinson Library at Downing College, designed by Quinlan Terry.
The Maitland Robinson Library at Downing College, designed by Quinlan Terry.

In Britain a number of architects are active in the neoclassical style. Two new university Libraries, Quinlan Terry's Maitland Robinson Library at Downing College and Robert Adam Architects'[1] Sackler Library illustrate that the approach taken can range from the traditional, in the former case, to the unconventional, in the latter case. The majority of new neoclassical buildings in Britain are private houses. Firms like Francis Johnson & Partners specialise in new country houses [2]. Downing College, Cambridge. ... Downing College, Cambridge. ... Full name Downing College Motto Quaerere Verum Seek the truth Named after Sir George Downing Previous names - Established 1800 Sister College Lincoln College Master Prof. ... Quinlan Terry (born 1937) is a notable British architect. ... Quinlan Terry (born 1937) is a notable British architect. ... Full name Downing College Motto Quaerere Verum Seek the truth Named after Sir George Downing Previous names - Established 1800 Sister College Lincoln College Master Prof. ... The Sackler Library holds a large portion of the classical, art history, and archaeological works belonging to the University of Oxford. ... Francis Johnston (1760 - 1829) was an Irish architect. ...


Neoclassical architecture is usually now classed under the umbrella term of "traditional architecture" and is practised by a number of members of the Traditional Architecture Group.


See also

Central Pavilion, Tontine Crescent, Boston, 1793-1794, by Charles Bulfinch Federal style architecture occurred in the United States between 1780 and 1830, particularly from 1785 to 1815. ... American Federal Period sofa with lyre arm design circa 1790 A lyre arm is an element of design in furniture, architecture or the decorative arts, wherein a shape is employed to emulate the geometry of a lyre;[1] the original design of this element is from the Classical Greek period... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // 250 years 1000 years - The last 250 years (fine grid) is detailed above 8000 years - The last 1000 years (fine grid) is detailed above Voorthuis - Timelines Categories: | | ... Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Neolithic architecture is the architecture of the Neolithic period. ... For at least ten thousand years, the Nile valley has been the site of one of the most influential civilizations in the world which developed a vast array of structures known as Ancient Egyptian architecture. ... Coptic architecture is the architecture of the Copts, who form the majority of Christians in Egypt. ... Dravidian architecture, as unique and spectacular as any Greek, Roman or Egyptian architecture, spans many thousands of years. ... As unique and spectacular as any Greek or Roman architecture, Maya architecture spans many thousands of years. ... The Tigris-Euphrates plain lacked minerals and trees. ... From the point of view of modern times, the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean sometimes seem to blend smoothly into one melange we call the Classical. ... Mesoamerican architecture is the set of architectural traditions produced by pre-Columbian cultures and civilizations of Mesoamerica, traditions which are best known in the form of public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures. ... The restored Stoa of Attalus, Athens Architecture, defined as building executed to an aesthetically considered design, was extinct in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC) to the 7th century BC, when urban life and prosperity recovered to a point where public building could be undertaken. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... A wall in the fortress of Ollantaytambo Inca architecture is the most significant pre-Columbian architecture in South America. ... Sassanid architecture. ... Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... Stupa at Swayambhunath Newari architecture is the architecture developed by Newars. ... Buddhist religious architecture developed in the Indian subcontinent in the third century BCE. Two types of structures are associated with early Buddhism: stupas and viharas. ... Church of the Intercession on the Nerl(1165) - an archetypal example of early Russian architecture. ... Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Interior of San Zanipolo, Venice, photo Giovanni dallOrto. ... Categories: Buildings and structures stubs ... Vijayanagar Raya Gopura Belur, Karnataka The Vijayanagara Architecture of the period (1336 - 1565CE) was a unique building idiom evolved by the imperial Vijayanagar Empire that ruled the whole of South India from their regal capital at Vijayanagara on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in Karnataka, India. ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ... Château de Ferrières 1855 Mentmore Towers English Neo-Renaissance of the 1850s. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. ... Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... 1000 de La Gauchetière, with ornamented and strongly defined top, middle and bottom. ...

References

  1. ^ In Space, Time and Architecture (1961 ed.) p 2.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Neoclassical architecture
  • Hakan Groth. Neoclassicism in the North
  • Hugh Honour, Neoclassicism
  • David Irwin, Neoclassicism (in series Art and Ideas) (Phaidon, paperback 1997)
  • Stanislaw Lorentz. Neoclassicism in Poland (Series History of art in Poland)
  • Thomas McCormick, 1991. Charles-Louis Clérisseau and the Genesis of Neoclassicism (Architectural History Foundation)
  • Mario Praz. On Neoclassicism

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

External links

  • Neo-Classical America
Revival styles in 19th-century architecture
Neo-Classicism: Directoire and EmpireRegencyEgyptian RevivalGreek Revival and Neo-Grec
Neo-Romanesque and Byzantine Revival: Richardsonian Romanesque • Neo-Byzantine • Russo-ByzantineMuscovite Revival
Gothic Revival: Scottish BaronialTudorbethanMoorish Revival • Indo-Saracenic
Neo-Renaissance: ItalianateSecond Empire • Châteauesque • Jacobethan
Neo-Baroque and 18th century: Beaux-ArtsEdwardian BaroqueQueen AnneGeorgian RevivalColonial Revival

Empire is an early 19th century style of architecture and furniture design that and originates from Napoleons rule of France. ... The Regency style of architecture refers primarily to buildings built in Britain during the period in the early 19th century when George IV of the United Kingdom was still Prince Regent, and also to later buildings following the same style. ... Egyptian Revial mausoleum of Maj. ... The Tower of the Winds, Athens from The Antiquities of Athens, 1762. ... Neo-Grec is a term usually used to refer to a particular manifestation of the Neoclassical style in the decorative arts, painting, and architecture of France, during the Second Empire of Napoleon III, lasting approximately between 1848 and 1865. ... Romanesque Revival is a style of building in the late 19th century (roughly 1840 and 1900) inspired by the 11th and 12th century Romanesque style of architecture. ... Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia. ... Richardsonian Romanesque has both French and Spanish Romanesque characteristics, like the First Presbyterian Church in Detroit, Michigan by architechs George D. Mason and Zachariah Rice in 1891 Richardsonian Romanesque is a style of American architecture named after architect Henry Hobson Richardson, whose masterpiece is Trinity Church, Boston in Massachusetts. ... Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia. ... Annunciation church in St. ... Thons Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Moscow, 1839-60 The Russian Revival style (Russian: ) is the generic term for a number of different movements within Russian architecture, that arose in second quarter of the 19th century and was an eclectic melding of pre-Peterine Russian architecture and elements of... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. ... Greenock Sheriff Court displays crow-stepped gables and corbelled corner turrets. ... Ascott House, Buckinghamshire. ... Arc de Triomf, Barcelona, 1888. ... Government Museum in Chennai. ... Château de Ferrières 1855 Mentmore Towers English Neo-Renaissance of the 1850s. ... The canonical example of Second Empire style is the Opéra Garnier, in which Neo-Baroque meets Neo-Renaissance. ... Massandra in Crimea, a château of Tsar Alexander III. Châteauesque is an architectural style based on French châteaux style used in the 1400s in the Loire Valley. ... Anthony Salvins Harlaxton Manor, 1837 – 1855, defines the Jacobethan taste. ... The foyer of the Paris Opera, built by Charles Garnier Neo-baroque is a term used to describe artistic creations which display important aspects of Baroque style, but are not from the Baroque period proper. ... Beaux-Arts architecture[1] denotes the academic classical architectural style that was taught at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. ... It has been suggested that Wrenaissance be merged into this article or section. ... An American Queen Anne style home in Lebanon, Illinois. ... A Georgian house in Salisbury Georgian architecture is the name given in English-speaking countries to the architectural styles current between about 1720 and 1840, named after the four British monarchs named George. ... Colonial Revival home of Henry M. Jackson in Everett, Washington The Colonial Revival was a nationalistic architectural style and interior design movement in the United States. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
A2Z Languages: Pictures and information about the architecture of Paris (1032 words)
From the mid-12th century to the 16th century northern European architecture was characterized by the use of flying buttresses, pointed arches, ribbed vaults, and traceried windows.
Neoclassical architecture, which emerged in about 1740 and remained popular in Paris until well into the 19th century, had its roots in the renewed interest in classical forms.
The spread of neoclassical architecture during the 17th and 18th centuries was due in no small measure to the illustrated books that brought it to the attention of educated patrons.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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