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Encyclopedia > Neoclassic design
The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius.

Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, both as a reaction against the Rococo style of anti-tectonic naturalistic ornament, and an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x703, 90 KB) Cathedral in Vilna Taken by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii in 1912 File links The following pages link to this file: Vilnius ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x703, 90 KB) Cathedral in Vilna Taken by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii in 1912 File links The following pages link to this file: Vilnius ... Cathedral of Vilnius Vilnius Cathedral is the main Roman Catholic Cathedral of Lithuania. ... Laurynas Gucevicius (Lithuanian: Laurynas Gucevičius (Laurynas Stuoka-Gucevičius), Polish: Wawrzyniec Gucewicz; 1753 - December 10, 1798) was the first professional Lithuanian architect, a representative of Lithuanian classicism. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ...

Contents

Origins

Siegfried Giedion, whose first book (1922) had the suggestive title Late Baroque and Romantic Classicism, asserted later[1] "The Louis XVI style formed in shape and structure the end of late baroque tendencies, with classicism serving as its framework." In the sense that neoclassicism in architecture is evocative and picturesque, a recreation of a distant, lost world, it is, as Giedion suggests, framed within the Romantic sensibility. Sigfried Giedon (April 14, 1888, Prague – April 10, 1968, Zürich) was a Bohemia-born Swiss historian of architecture, and critic for architecture. ...


Intellectually Neoclassicism was symptomatic of a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, the more vague perception ("ideal") of Ancient Greek arts (where almost no Western artist had actually been) and, to a lesser extent, sixteenth-century Renaissance Classicism, the source for academic Late Baroque. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Many neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée and Claude Nicolas Ledoux. The many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are links between Boullée's ideas and Edmund Burke's conception of the sublime. Ledoux addressed the concept of architectural character, maintaining that a building should immediately communicate its function to the viewer. Étienne-Louis Boullée (February 12, 1728 - February 6, 1799) was a French neoclassical architect whose work greatly influenced contemporary architects and is still influential today. ... Portrait of Ledoux with his son. ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublimis (exalted)) is the quality of transcendent greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual or artistic. ...


There is an anti-Rococo strain that can be detected in some European architecture of the earlier 18th century, most vividly represented in the Palladian architecture of Georgian Britain and Ireland, but also recognizable in a classicizing vein of Late Baroque architecture in Paris (Perrault's east range of the Louvre), in Berlin, and even in Rome, in Alessandro Galilei's facade for S. Giovanni in Laterano. It is a robust architecture of self-restraint, academically selective now of "the best" Roman models, which were increasingly available for close study through the medium of architectural engravings of measured drawings of surviving Roman architecture. Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, a master builder, from αρχι- chiefs, leader , builder, carpenter)[1] is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from the designs of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580). ... Though Claude Perrault (Paris, 1613 - Paris, 1688) is best known as the architect of the eastern range of the Louvre in Paris, he also achieved success as physician and anatomist, and as an author, who wrote treatises on physics and natural history. ... This article is about the museum. ... Location of Berlin within Germany / EU Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE3 City subdivisions 12 boroughs Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Left. ... Alessandro Galilei (1691 - 1736) was a Florentine architect and theorist. ... The late Baroque façade of the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano was completed by Alessandro Galilei in 1735 after winning a competition for the design. ... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ...


Appearance and development

At the Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh (1822-26), William Henry Playfair employs a Greek Doric octastyle portico

Neoclassicism first gained influence in Paris, through a generation of French art students trained at the French Academy in Rome and influenced by the presence of Charles-Louis Clérisseau and the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann, and in London, through the examples of Paris-trained Sir William Chambers, Clérisseau's pupil Robert Adam and James "Athenian" Stuart, later British architects such as Henry Holland, George Dance, Jr., James Wyatt, Thomas Harrison and Sir John Soane developed the style in Britain. It was quickly adopted by progressive circles in Sweden as well. In Paris, many of the first generation of neoclassical architects received training in the classic French tradition through a series of exhaustive and practical lectures that was offered for decades by Jacques-François Blondel. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 424 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2123 × 2999 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 424 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2123 × 2999 pixel, file size: 3. ... Pulteney Bridge and the weir at Bath Pulteney Bridge is a bridge that crosses the River Avon, located in Bath, England and completed in 1773. ... Bath is a city in South West England most famous for its baths fed by three hot springs. ... Robert Adam Robert Adam (3 July 1728 - 3 March 1792) was a Scottish architect, interior designer and furniture designer, born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. ... Download high resolution version (800x671, 108 KB)The Royal Scottish Academy Building on the Mound in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Download high resolution version (800x671, 108 KB)The Royal Scottish Academy Building on the Mound in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Categories: Stub | Edinburgh ... Old College, University of Edinburgh, courtyard facade: detail by Playfair William Henry Playfair (1790-1857) was one of the greatest Scottish architects of the 19th Century. ... The Doric order was one of the three orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two canonic orders being the Ionic and the Corinthian. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Falls of the Aniene at Tivoli, gouache, 1769 (Victoria and Albert Museum) Charles-Louis Clérisseau (August 28, 1721–January 9, 1820), the French architectural draughtsman, antiquary, and artist, occupies a unique position in the genesis of neoclassical architecture during the second half of the 18th century. ... It has been suggested that Johann Joachim Winkelmann be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The central courtyard of Chambers Somerset House in London. ... Robert Adam Robert Adam (3 July 1728 - 3 March 1792) was a Scottish architect, interior designer and furniture designer, born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. ... James Stuart has been the name of several historical figures. ... Henry Holland ( July 20, 1745 - June 17, 1806) was an architect to the English nobility who trained under Capability Brown and later married his daughter. ... Fonthill Abbey. ... Thomas Harrison (1740-1829) was an English provincial architect and civil engineer of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. ... Sir John Soane (10 September 1753 - 20 January 1837) was a British architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical tradition. ... Jacques-François Blondel (January 17, 1705-January 9, 1774) was a French architect. ...


At first, in the 1760s and 70s, classicizing decor was grafted onto familiar European forms, as in Gatchina's interiors for Catherine II's lover Count Orlov, designed by an Italian architect with a team of Italian stuccadori (stucco workers). A second neoclassic wave, more severe, more studied (through the medium of engravings) and more consciously archaeological, is associated with the height of the Napoleonic Empire. Gatchina is the city of 84900 inhabitants in the Leningrad oblast of the Russian Federation, 45 km south of St Petersburg by the road leading to Pskov. ... Count Grigory Orlov Orlov is the name of a Russian noble family which produced several distinguished statesmen, diplomatists and soldiers. ... Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water which is applied wet, and hardens when it dries. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


In France, the first phase of neoclassicism is expressed in the "Louis XVI style" of architects like Ange-Jacques Gabriel (Petit Trianon, 1762–68); the second phase, in the styles we call "Directoire" or "Empire", might be characterized by Jean Chalgrin's severe astylar Arc de Triomphe (designed in 1806). In England the two phases might be characterized first by the structures of Robert Adam, the second by those of Sir John Soane. Château of the Petit Trianon in the park at Versailles Ange-Jacques Gabriel (October 23, 1698 – January 4, 1782) was the most prominent French architect of his generation. ... The Petit Trianon, Versailles The Petit Trianon, situated at a short distance from the Grand Trianon in Versailles, France, was designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel by order of Louis XV for his long-term mistress, Madame de Pompadour, and was constructed between 1762-1768. ... Empire is an early 19th century style of architecture and furniture design that and originates from Napoleons rule of France. ... Chalgrins Arc de Triomphe Jean-François-Thérèse Chalgrin (1739–1811) was a French architect, best known for his design for the Arc de Triomphe, Paris. ... Arc de Triomphe The Arc de Triomphe is a monument in Paris that stands in the centre of the Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly the Place de lÉtoile, at the western end of the Champs-Élysées. ... Robert Adam Robert Adam (3 July 1728 - 3 March 1792) was a Scottish architect, interior designer and furniture designer, born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. ... Sir John Soane (10 September 1753 - 20 January 1837) was a British architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical tradition. ...


Regional trends

Spain

Prado Museum in Madrid, by Juan de Villanueva

Spanish Neoclassicism counted with the figure of Juan de Villanueva, who adapted Burke's achievements about the sublime and the beauty to the requirements of Spanish clime and history. He built the Prado Museum, that combined three programs- an academy, an auditorium and a museum- in one building with three separated entrances. This was part of the ambitious program of Charles III, who intended to make Madrid the Capital of Art and Science. Very close to the museum, Villanueva built the Astronomical Observatory. He also designed several summer houses for the kings in El Escorial and Aranjuez and reconstructed the Major Square of Madrid, among other important works. Villanuevas´ pupils expanded the Neoclassical style in Spain. Image:Madrid-prado. ... Image:Madrid-prado. ... The Museo del Prado is a world class museum and art gallery located in Madrid, Spain. ... Motto: De Madrid al Cielo (From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... Prado Museum. ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... The Museo del Prado is a world class museum and art gallery located in Madrid, Spain. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... // El Escorial, Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo El Real (also known as Monasterio de El Escorial or simply, El Escorial) was since the last quarter of the 16th century the Eighth Wonder of the World. ... Aranjuez is a town in the southern part of Autonomous Community of Madrid in central Spain and is the southernmost, and 48 km south of the city of Madrid. ... Motto: De Madrid al Cielo (From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ...


Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

The center of Polish classicism was Warsaw under the rule of the last Polish king Stanisław August Poniatowski. Vilnius University was another important center of the Neoclassical architecture in the Eastern Europe, lead by notable professors of architecture Marcin Knackfus, Laurynas Gucevičius and Karol Podczaszyński. The style was expressed in the main public buildings, such as the University's Observatory, Cathedral and the town hall of Vilnius. The best known architects and artists, who worked in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth were Dominik Merlini, Jan Chrystian Kamsetzer, Szymon Bogumił Zug, Jakub Kubicki, Antonio Corazzi, Efraim Szreger, Christian Piotr Aigner and Bertel Thorvaldsen. Classicism came to Poland in the 18th century. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: Country Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... For other persons named StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski, see StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski. ... Vilnius University (also known as Vilnius State University, The University of Vilnius, Lithuanian: , formerly Stefan Batory University and before that Almae Academia et Universitas Vilnensis Societatis Jesu), is one of the oldest Universities in Eastern Europe and the largest University in Lithuania. ... Laurynas Gucevicius (Lithuanian: Laurynas Gucevičius (Laurynas Stuoka-Gucevičius), Polish: Wawrzyniec Gucewicz; 1753 - December 10, 1798) was the first professional Lithuanian architect, a representative of Lithuanian classicism. ... Karol PodczaszyÅ„ski (b. ... Cathedral of Vilnius Vilnius Cathedral is the main Roman Catholic Cathedral of Lithuania. ... Vilnius Town Hall Town Hall is a square in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population About 600,000 in 2006 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Domenico Merlini (Polish: Dominik Merlini) (February 22, 1730 - February 20, 1797) was a Polish-Italian architect, whose works were mostly in classicist style. ... Romanticist stone arch in the garden of Arkadia Zugs Protestant Church in Warsaw Szymon BogumiÅ‚ Zug (born Simon Gottlieb Zug, also known as Zugk; 1733-1807) was a renown Polish classicist architect and designer of gardens. ... Jakub Kubicki (1758-1833) was a renown Polish classicist architect and designer. ... Antonio Corazzi (Livorno 1792 - 1877) was an Italian architect who designed a number of buildings in Warszawa, the capital of Poland. ... Bertel Thorvaldsen, portrait by Karl Begas, ca. ...


Other countries

Karl Friedrich Schinkel's Elisabethkirche in Berlin (1832-1834)

Neoclassical architecture was exemplified in Karl Friedrich Schinkel's buildings, especially the Old Museum in Berlin, Sir John Soane's Bank of England in London and the newly-built "capitol" in Washington, DC. The Scots architect Charles Cameron created palatial Italianate interiors for the German-born Catherine II the Great in Russian St. Petersburg: the style was international. Italy clung to Rococo until the Napoleonic regimes brought the new archaeological classicism, which was embraced as a political statement by young, progressive, urban Italians with republican leanings. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1008x719, 347 KB) Berlin, Germany: Elisabethkirche (by Karl Friedrich Schinkel, 1832-1834). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1008x719, 347 KB) Berlin, Germany: Elisabethkirche (by Karl Friedrich Schinkel, 1832-1834). ... The Old Museum in Berlin Karl Friedrich Schinkel (March 13, 1781 - October 9, 1841) was a German architect and painter. ... Location of Berlin within Germany / EU Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE3 City subdivisions 12 boroughs Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Left. ... The Old Museum in Berlin Karl Friedrich Schinkel (March 13, 1781 - October 9, 1841) was a German architect and painter. ... Berlin, Old Museum, June 2003 The Altes Museum or Old Museum (until 1845 Royal Museum) located on Berlins Museum Island was built between 1825 and 1828 by the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the neoclassical style to house the Prussian Royal familys art collection. ... Sir John Soane (10 September 1753 - 20 January 1837) was a British architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical tradition. ... The West front of the United States Capitol. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Charles Cameron (born October 31, 1927 in Edinburgh, Scotland - January 1, 2001) was a professional Magician specialized in a style known as bizarre magic. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from...


Interior design

Finnish towns were built of wood, often in the Neoclassical style. (Studio of W Runeberg on Porvoo)

Indoors, neoclassicism made a discovery of the genuine Roman interior, inspired by the rediscoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum, which had started in the late 1740s, but only achieved a wide audience in the 1760s, with the first luxurious volumes of tightly-controlled distribution of Le Antichità di Ercolan. The antiquities of Herculaneum showed that even the most classicizing interiors of the Baroque, or the most "Roman" rooms of William Kent were based on basilica and temple exterior architecture, turned outside in: pedimented window frames turned into gilded mirrors, fireplaces topped with temple fronts, now all looking quite bombastic and absurd. The new interiors sought to recreate an authentically Roman and genuinely interior vocabulary, employing flatter, lighter motifs, sculpted in low frieze-like relief or painted in monotones en camaïeu ("like cameos"), isolated medallions or vases or busts or bucrania or other motifs, suspended on swags of laurel or ribbon, with slender arabesques against backgrounds, perhaps, of "Pompeiian red" or pale tints, or stone colors. The style in France was initially a Parisian style, the "Goût grec" ("Greek style") not a court style. Only when the young king acceded to the throne in 1771 did Marie Antoinette, his fashion-loving Queen, bring the "Louis XVI" style to court. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 422 KB) [edit] Studio of Walter Runeberg The studio of Walter Magnus Runeberg, son of Johan Ludvig Runeberg. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 422 KB) [edit] Studio of Walter Runeberg The studio of Walter Magnus Runeberg, son of Johan Ludvig Runeberg. ... Johan Ludvig Runeberg (Portrait by Albert Edelfelt) J.L. Runebergs autograph Johan Ludvig Runeberg (5 February 1804, Jakobstad – 6 May 1877,BorgÃ¥) was a Finland-Swedish poet, and is held to be the national poet of Finland. ... Founded 1346 Province Southern Finland Region Eastern Uusimaa Sub-region Porvoo Area - Of which land - Rank 663. ... Pompeii is a ruined Roman city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. ... Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town, located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. ... Events and Trends The War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748) rages. ... Events and Trends King George III ascends the British throne in 1760. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... William Kent William Kent (born in Bridlington, Yorkshire, c. ... St. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of a triangular section or gable found above the horizontal superstructure (entablature) which lies immediately upon the columns. ... A gilded Tibetan Vajrasattva Gilding is the art of applying metal leaf (most commonly gold or silver leaf) to a surface. ... Frieze of the Tower of the Winds. ... Bucranium (plural bucrania) is the Latin word for the skull of an ox. ... Goût grec (or Greek taste) is the term applied to the earliest expression of the neoclassical style in France, it refers specifically to the decorative arts and architecture of the mid-1750s to the late 1760s. ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ...


Late phase

From about 1800 a fresh influx of Greek architectural examples, seen through the medium of etchings and engravings, gave a new impetus to neoclassicism that is called the Greek Revival. // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Walhalla temple in Bavaria was completed in 1842. ...

The Alexander Column in Palace Square, St Petersburg, Russia, viewed from an open window of the Hermitage Museum in the Winter Palace.

Neoclassicism continued to be a major force in academic art through the 19th century and beyond— a constant antithesis to Romanticism or Gothic revivals— although from the late 19th century on it had often been considered anti-modern, or even reactionary, in influential critical circles. By the mid-19th century, several European cities - notably St Petersburg, Berlin and Munich - were transformed into veritable museums of Neoclassical architecture. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 376 KB) Photographer: Walter Smith from Seattle, WA, USA Title: square Description: From an open window in the Hermitage. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 376 KB) Photographer: Walter Smith from Seattle, WA, USA Title: square Description: From an open window in the Hermitage. ... The Alexander Column in the Palace Square The Alexander Column (Russian: , Aleksandrovskaya Kolonna), is the focal point of Palace Square in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Palace Square is the central city square of St Petersburg and of the former Russian Empire. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest and oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ... Birth of Venus, Alexandre Cabanel, 1863 Academic art is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies or universities. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the Industrial Revolution. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Location of Berlin within Germany / EU Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE3 City subdivisions 12 boroughs Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Left. ... Munich (German: , pronounced  ; Austro-Bavarian: Minga [1]) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria. ...


In American architecture, neoclassicism was one expression of the American Renaissance movement, ca 1880-1917. One of the pioneers of this style was english-born Benjamin Henry Latrobe, who is often noted as America's first professional architect and the father of American architecture. The Baltimore Basilica, the first Roman Catholic Cathedral in America, is considered by many experts to be Latrobe's masterpiece. American Renaissance painted decor: gilded stencilling on an olive green ground in the Office of the Secretary of the Navy in the Executive Office Building, 1879 (now the Vice Presidents Ceremonial Office) In the history of American architecture and the arts, the American Renaissance was the period ca 1876... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Benjamin Henry Latrobe (May 1, 1764 - September 3, 1820) was an architect best known for his design of the United States Capitol. ... Photo of the newly renovated Exterior of the Basilica taken after the first Mass celebrated in there on October 29, 2006. ...


Its last manifestation was in Beaux-Arts architecture, and its very last, large public projects were the Lincoln Memorial, the National Gallery in Washington, D.C., and the American Museum of Natural History's Roosevelt Memorial. In the British Raj, Sir Edwin Lutyens' monumental city planning for New Delhi marks the glorious sunset of neoclassicism. However many buildings in neoclassical style are still built today. A good recent example is Schermerhorn Symphony Center. Beaux-Arts architecture[1] denotes the academic classical architectural style that was taught at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. ... The monument which is in the National Mall in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ... The West building of the National Gallery of Art with the East building visible behind and to to the left The National Gallery of Art is an art museum, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museum was established in 1937 by the Congress, with funds for... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Edwin Lutyens Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, OM, KCIE (29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944) was a leading 20th century English architect who is known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... The Schermerhorn Symphony Center is a symphony center in downtown Nashville, Tennessee. ...


See also

Central Pavilion, Tontine Crescent, Boston, 1793-1794, by Charles Bulfinch Federal style architecture occurred in the United States between 1780 and 1830, particularly from 1785 to 1815. ... American Federal Period sofa with lyre arm design circa 1790 A lyre arm is an element of design in furniture, architecture or the decorative arts, wherein a shape is employed to emulate the geometry of a lyre;[1] the original design of this element is from the Classical Greek period... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... // 250 years 1000 years - The last 250 years (fine grid) is detailed above 8000 years - The last 1000 years (fine grid) is detailed above Voorthuis - Timelines Categories: | ... Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Neolithic architecture is the architecture of the Neolithic period. ... For at least ten thousand years, the Nile valley has been the site of one of the most influential civilizations in the world which developed a vast array of structures known as Ancient Egyptian architecture. ... As unique and spectacular as any Greek or Roman architecture, Maya architecture spans many thousands of years. ... The Tigris-Euphrates plain lacked minerals and trees. ... From the point of view of modern times, the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean sometimes seem to blend smoothly into one melange we call the Classical. ... Mesoamerican architecture is the set of architectural traditions produced by pre-Columbian cultures and civilizations of Mesoamerica, traditions which are best known in the form of public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures. ... The restored Stoa of Attalus, Athens Architecture, defined as building executed to an aesthetically considered design, was extinct in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC) to the 7th century BC, when urban life and prosperity recovered to a point where public building could be undertaken. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A wall in the fortress of Ollantaytambo Inca architecture is the most significant pre-Columbian architecture in South America. ... Sassanid architecture. ... Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Stupa at Swayambhunath Newari architecture is the architecture developed by Newars. ... Buddhist religious architecture developed in the Indian subcontinent in the third century BCE. Two types of structures are associated with early Buddhism: stupas and viharas. ... Church of the Intercession on the Nerl(1165) - an archetypal example of early Russian architecture. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan, is the second largest square in the world and arguably the gem of Persian architectural masterpieces. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... Categories: Buildings and structures stubs ... Vijayanagar Raya Gopura Belur, Karnataka The Vijayanagara Architecture of the period (1336 - 1565CE) was a unique building idiom evolved by the imperial Vijayanagar Empire that ruled the whole of South India from their regal capital at Vijayanagara on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in Karnataka, India. ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ... Château de Ferrières 1855 Mentmore Towers English Neo-Renaissance of the 1850s. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic Revival was an architectural movement which originated in mid-18th century England. ... Le Corbusiers Villa Savoye, a well known example of modern architecture Modern architecture,not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament, that first arose around 1900. ... 1000 de La Gauchetière, with ornamented and strongly defined top, middle and bottom. ...

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Neoclassical architecture
  • Hakan Groth. Neoclassicism in the North
  • Hugh Honour, Neoclassicism
  • David Irwin, Neoclassicism (in series Art and Ideas) (Phaidon, paperback 1997)
  • Stanislaw Lorentz. Neoclassicism in Poland (Series History of art in Poland)
  • Thomas McCormick, 1991. Charles-Louis Clérisseau and the Genesis of Neoclassicism (Architectural History Foundation)
  • Mario Praz. On Neoclassicism

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

External links

  • Neo-Classical America
Revival styles in 19th-century architecture
Neo-Classicism: Directoire and EmpireRegencyEgyptian RevivalGreek Revival and Neo-Grec
Neo-Romanesque and Byzantine Revival: Richardsonian RomanesqueRusso-ByzantineMuscovite Revival
Gothic Revival: Scottish BaronialTudorbethanMoorish Revival • Indo-Saracenic
Neo-Renaissance: ItalianateSecond Empire • Châteauesque • Jacobethan
Neo-Baroque and 18th century: Beaux-ArtsEdwardian BaroqueQueen AnneGeorgian RevivalColonial Revival

 
 

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