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Encyclopedia > Neman River
Neman
Neman River near Alytus
Origin Belarus, 45 km south of Minsk
Mouth Curonian Lagoon (Baltic Sea)
Basin countries Lithuania (48%), Belarus (46%), Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast), Poland, Latvia
Length 937 km (582 mi)
Source elevation 176 m (577 ft)
Avg. discharge 616 m³/s (21,757 ft³/s)
Watershed area 98,000 km² (37,838 mi²)

The Neman (Belarusian: Нёман, Nioman; Lithuanian: Nemunas; Russian: Неман; Polish: Niemen; German: Memel) is a major Eastern European river rising in Belarus and flowing through Lithuania before draining into the Baltic Sea near Klaipėda. It is the 14th largest river in Europe, largest in Lithuania, and 3rd largest in Belarus. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Alytus (approximate English transcription [ÊŒ.lıː.ˈtus], simplified Lithuanian transcription [alÄ«tus]; Polish: Olita) is the capital of Alytus County, Lithuania, with 70,000 inhabitants. ... Victory Square, the central place of Minsk Minsk or Miensk (Belarusian: ; Russian: ) is the capital and a major city of Belarus with a population of 1. ... The Curonian Lagoon (or Bay, Gulf) is sundered from the Baltic Sea by the Curonian Spit and belongs to Lithuania and Russia. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53 deg. ... A watershed is a region of land where water drains downhill into a specified body of water, such as a river, lake, sea, ocean or wetland. ... Map of the Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: Калининградская область), informally called Yantarny kray (Russian:Янтарный Край - meaning Amber region) is an administrative division (oblast) of Russia on the Baltic coast, with no land connection to the rest of Russia: an enclave of the European Union. ... The source of a river or stream may be a lake, a spring, or a collection of headwaters. ... In hydrology, the discharge of a river is the volume of water transported by it in a certain amount of time. ... A watershed is a region of land where water drains downhill into a specified body of water, such as a river, lake, sea, ocean or wetland. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange) and other former communist regimes (light orange). ... The Murray River in Australia. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53 deg. ... The port of KlaipÄ—da handles some 20 million tons of cargo each year KlaipÄ—da (approximate English transcription: [ˈklaı.pÉ›.dÊŒ], simplified Lithuanian transcription: [klaǐpÄ“da]; German: Memel or Memelburg) is a Lithuanian town on the Baltic Sea. ...

Contents


Neman in numbers

  • The total length of the Neman is 937 km (582 miles). That makes it the 14th largest river in Europe and the 4th largest in the Baltic Sea basin. 459 km (285 miles) flow in Belarus, 359 km (223 miles) are in Lithuania. 116 kilometers of the Neman serves as the border between Lithuania and Russia's Kaliningrad oblast and Belarus.
  • The largest depth is 5 meters (16.4 ft) and largest width is about 500 meters (1640 feet).
  • The Neman is a slow river; its speed is about 1 to 2 m/s.
  • During floods, water discharge can increase up to 11 times, to more than 6,800 m³/s
  • The Neman is an old river, dating back to the glacial period. Since then it formed a deep (up to 60 m) and broad (up to 5 km) valley.
  • Neman has about 105 1st class tributaries, largest being the rivers Neris (Viliya) (510 km/317 miles), Chara River (325 km/202 miles), Šešupė (298 km/185 miles). 15 of the tributaries are longer than 100 km (62 miles).
  • In the Neman basin there are even 11th order tributaries.
  • The Neman basin in Lithuania drains more than 20,000 rivers and rivulets. It makes 72% of the Lithuania's territory.

The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53 deg. ... Map of the Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: Калининградская область), informally called Yantarny kray (Russian:Янтарный Край - meaning Amber region) is an administrative division (oblast) of Russia on the Baltic coast, with no land connection to the rest of Russia: an enclave of the European Union. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... A tributary (or affluent or confluent) is a contributory stream, a river that does not reach the sea, but joins another major river (a parent river), to which it contributes its waters, swelling its discharge. ... Neris (The Lithuanian name; within the territory of Belarus it is called Ві́лія (Viliya, Vilia); and the Wilia in Polish language) is a river rising in Belarus, flowing through Vilnius (Lithuania) and becomes a tributary of the Neman (Nemunas) in Kaunas (Lithuania). ... Å eÅ¡upÄ— (-Lithuanian; Polish: Szeszupa; Russian: Sheshupe; German: Scheschup(p)e) is a river in Poland, Lithuania, and Russia, tributary to the Neman River. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...

Importance of the Neman in economics

The Kaunas Lagoon from the satellite. Courtesy of Google.
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The Kaunas Lagoon from the satellite. Courtesy of Google.

The largest cities on the Neman are Hrodna (Belarus), Alytus and Kaunas (Lithuania) and Sovetsk (Russia). Image File history File links Kaunas_lagoon. ... Image File history File links Kaunas_lagoon. ... Hrodna (or Grodno, Horadnia) (Belarusian: ; Russian: ; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ) is a city in Belarus. ... Alytus (approximate English transcription [ÊŒ.lıː.ˈtus], simplified Lithuanian transcription [alÄ«tus]; Polish: Olita) is the capital of Alytus County, Lithuania, with 70,000 inhabitants. ... Kaunas (approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.nÉ™s], simplified Lithuanian transcription [kaÅ­nas]; German: ; Polish: , often anglicized as Kovno; Russian: , formerly Ковно), is the second largest city in Lithuania. ... A railway bridge in Tilsit Sovetsk (Советск) is a town on the Neman River in the Russian Kaliningrad Oblast, which prior to 1945 was known by its German name, Tilsit, and was in East Prussia. ...


Above Kaunas a dam for Kaunas hydroelectric plant was built in 1959. The resulting artificial lake is the biggest such lake in Lithuania. It is called the Kaunas Lagoon (Kauno marios - similarly to Kuršių marios; sometimes it's wrongly referred to as Kaunas sea). It occupies 63.5 km² (24.5 square miles) area, the length is 93 km (58 miles), the greatest depth - 22 m (72 feet). The Kaunas Lagoon is an important spot for Lithuanian yacht sport. Kaunas (approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.nÉ™s], simplified Lithuanian transcription [kaÅ­nas]; German: ; Polish: , often anglicized as Kovno; Russian: , formerly Ковно), is the second largest city in Lithuania. ... Scrivener Dam, in Canberra, Australia, was engineered to withstand a once-in-5000-years flood event A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... The Curonian Lagoon (or Bay, Gulf) is sundered from the Baltic Sea by the Curonian Spit and belongs to Lithuania and Russia. ... A yacht A yacht was originally defined as a light, fast sailing vessel used to convey important persons. ...


Importance of the Neman in Lithuanian culture

Lithuanians like to refer to the Neman as "the father of rivers" (because Nemunas in Lithuanian is a masculine noun). In Lithuania, there are countless places, companies, organizations that have "Nemunas" in their name (e.g. folklore ensemble, weekly magazine about art and culture, sanatorium, guest houses and hotels). Also, Lithuanian novels, poems, and songs often refer to Nemunas. One of the most famous poems by Maironis starts: Folklore is the body of narratives, including tales, legends, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs current among a particular population, comprising the oral tradition of that culture, subculture, or group. ... Sanatório Heliantia A sanatorium refers to a medical facility for long-term illness, typically cholera or tuberculosis. ... Maironis ( November 2, 1862 - June 28, 1932) is one of the most famous Lithuanian romantic poets. ...

Original version Rough English translation
Kur bėga Šešupė, kur Nemunas teka Where the Šešupė runs, where the Neman flows
Tai mūsų tėvynė, graži Lietuva That's our homeland, the beautiful Lithuania

Almost every Lithuanian can recite these words from heart. It is so well known that sometimes it is thought to be an unofficial national anthem. An anthem is a choral composition to an English religious text sung in church services. ...


There are many other smaller rivers and rivulets in Lithuania which name could be derived from "Nemunas." For example, Nemunykštis, Nemuniukas, Nemunynas, Nemunėlis, Nemunaitis. Some say that "Nemunas" is a very old word perhaps meaning "a damp place." Other say that "Nemunas" was a god in Baltic mythology.


The Neman Loops

Neman bend in Liškiava
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Neman bend in Liškiava
500 litas banknote featuring Nemunas loops
Enlarge
500 litas banknote featuring Nemunas loops

Since the loops are located in Lithuania, they are often referred to as "Nemunas loops" Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1912 KB) Author: Wojsyl, 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Neman River Liškiava Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1912 KB) Author: Wojsyl, 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Neman River Liškiava Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Cloister church in Liškiava Liškiava (Polish: ) is a historic town in Varėna district in Lithuania situated on the bank of Neman River. ... Image File history File links Nemunas_loops_-_500_litai. ... Image File history File links Nemunas_loops_-_500_litai. ... The Litas (LTL or Lt, Lithuanian plural form Litai) is the official currency of Lithuania. ...


In 1992 Nemunas Loops Regional Park was founded. Its goal is to preserve spectacular loops (vingis in Lithuanian) that the Neman makes and the Punia forest. Near Prienai, the Neman makes a 17-km long loop (like a teardrop) coming within 1.2 km of completing the loop. The Neman flows along the double bend between Balbieriškis and Birštonas for 48 kilometers and then moves in the northern direction just 4.5 kilometers. It is also a very important historical site with castles which served as the first defense line against the Teutonic knights. Punia (town) - a town in Lithuania Punia (Hinduism) - Jat Gotra Categories: Disambiguation ... Coat Of Arms Prienai is a town in Lithuania situated on Neman River. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ...


The Neman delta

Since the delta is located in Lithuania, it is often refered to as "Nemunas delta"


At the delta the Neman splits into a maze of river branches and canals mixing with polders and wetlands and is a very attractive destination for eco-tourism. The 4 main distributaries are Atmata, Pakalnė, Skirvytė and Gilija. In the center of the delta there is the biggest island in Lithuania, called Rusnė (5km²). Only about 2,500 people inhabit the island, but still it is the largest settlement in the delta. The town is also called Rusnė and it was established in 15th century. It is the only town in Lithuania that is situated on an island. Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... Satellite image of Noordoostpolder, Netherlands A polder is a low-lying tract of land that forms an artificial hydrological entity, enclosed by embankments known as dikes. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... Ecotourism essentially means ecological tourism, where ecological has both environmental and social connotations. ... The church (1809) in RusnÄ— RusnÄ— (Polish: , German: ) is a fishermens village in western Lithuania in the Neman delta. ...


The delta is famous for its large number of rare varieties of breeding birds (total number of species is about 200; about 40 species are listed in the Lithuanian Red Book). It is also the most important resting area for migrating birds in Lithuania. Millions of birds and hundreds of species travel through this spot each year, including some internationally endangered species as white-tailed eagle, barnacle goose, crane, dunlin and aquatic warbler. The main research facilities are located in Ventė Cape (Ventės ragas in Lithuanian, literally - Ventės Horn; sometimes referred to as Ventė Cape or Ventė Peninsular). Professor Tadas Ivanauskas established one of the first stations of bird ringing in Europe there in 1929. The birds ringed here are later found in Iran, Egypt and even the Republic of South Africa. Red Book has one of the following meanings. ... Binomial name Haliaeetus albicilla (Linnaeus, 1758) The White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) is a very large bird of prey in the family Accipitridae which includes other raptors such as hawks, kites and harriers. ... Binomial name Branta leucopsis ((Bechstein, 1803)) The Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis) belongs to the genus Branta of black geese, which contains species with largely black plumage, distinguishing them from the grey Anser species. ... Crane or Cranes may refer to any of the following: A crane is a piece of industrial machinery used for hoisting and handling materials, working on tall buildings, excavation with a clam bucket or dragline, pile driving, or loading and unloading cargo/containers onto and off of ships/rail cars. ... Binomial name Calidris alpina (Linnaeus, 1758) The Dunlin, Calidris alpina, is a small wader. ... Binomial name Acrocephalus paludicola (Vieillot, 1817) The Aquatic Warbler, Acrocephalus paludicola, is an Old World warbler in the genus Acrocephalus. ... Bird ringing (also known as bird banding) is an aid to studying wild birds, by attaching a small individually numbered metal or plastic ring to their legs or wings, so that various aspects of the birds life can be studied by the ability to re-find the same individual...


Since 1999, the Lithuanian Ornithologists Society and the Nemunas Delta Regional Park Administration, have been organizing birdwatcher rallies every October. The rally is an international, open, non-professional competition to record as many bird species as possible. It is targeted to increase the awareness of this corner of nature in other countries.


The delta houses another curiosity of nature. An exceptional lake is Krokų Lanka (near the Nemunas debouchments), which had formed when river outwash partitioned a part the Curonian Lagoon. It is the biggest lake in the delta region (covers 7.93 km² area). In addition, it is the only marine origin lake in Lithuania.


The Neman's delta wetlands are protected as a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention. To protect the wildlife and facilitate research, Nemunas Delta Regional Park was created in 1992. It covers 239.50 km² area and consists of 14 reservations and one reservoir. About 20% of the area is water. The biggest danger for the delta is the pollution. Other dangers include agriculture, fishing, and tourists. The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, i. ... Reservation is something reserved. ... A reservoir is an artificial lake created by flooding land behind a dam. ...


The delta suffers from annual floods.


The Neman plays a crucial part in ecosystem of Curonian Lagoon. It provides the main water inflow to the lagoon and keeps the water almost fresh. This allows fresh and mixed water animals to survive. As Neman's delta expands, the lagoon shrinks. The Curonian Lagoon (or Bay, Gulf) is sundered from the Baltic Sea by the Curonian Spit and belongs to Lithuania and Russia. ...


See also

These are the main rivers of Europe (ecologically, the extreme west of the Palearctic ecozone - which includes Russia in the east). ... Normandie-Niemen (Normandia-Nemen) is the GC3 (Groupe de Chasse 3 or 3rd Fighter Group) of the French Air Force. ...

External links

  • Lietuva.lt - Waters
  • Huge map of river basins in Lithuania (in Lithuanian)
  • Huge, but not detailed, map of the delta
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Neman River

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