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Encyclopedia > Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller

In office
December 19, 1974 – January 20, 1977
President Gerald Ford
Preceded by Gerald Ford
Succeeded by Walter Mondale

Born July 8, 1908
Bar Harbor, Maine
Died January 26, 1979 (aged 70)
New York City, New York
Political party Republican Party
Spouse (1) Mary Todhunter Clark (married 1930, divorced 1962)
(2) Margaretta Fitler Murphy (married 1963)

Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. The official photograph of Vice President Nelson Rockefeller released by the White House. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Bar Harbor, Maine, it the name of two places in Maine Bar Harbor, census-designated place Bar Harbor a larger town This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC, City That Never Sleeps, The Concrete Jungle, The City So Nice They Named It Twice Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1676 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area... NY redirects here. ... The Republican Party is a one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Democratic Party. ... (June 17, 1907-April 27, 1999) widow of former Vice President and Governor of New York Nelson Rockfeller. ... Margaretta Large Fitler Murphy Rockefeller (born June 9, 1926) is the second wife and widow of Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (1908–1979), the 41st Vice President of the United States of America and a Governor of New York. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... A philanthropist is someone who engages in philanthropy; that is, someone who donates his or her time, money, or reputation to a charitable cause. ... A businessperson with some of the typical accoutrements of her or his profession: briefcase and mobile phone. ...


A leader of the liberal wing of the Republican Party, he was Governor of New York from 1959 to 1973, where he launched many construction and modernization projects. As a descendant of one of the world's richest and best known families, he failed repeatedly in his attempts to become president, but he was appointed Vice President of the United States of America in 1974. He served from 1974 to 1977, and did not join the 1976 GOP national ticket with President Gerald Ford. He retired from politics when his term as Vice President was over. In the United States, the term Rockefeller Republican refers to those members of the Republican party who hold moderate views similar to those of the late Nelson Rockefeller, governor of New York from 1959 to 1973 and vice president of the United States under President Gerald Ford in the mid... The Republican Party is a one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Democratic Party. ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... The Rockefeller family, founded by John Davison Rockefeller (1839-1937) (Senior) and his brother William Rockefeller (1841-1922), is an American industrial, banking, and philanthropic family of French-German-American origin that made the worlds largest private fortune in the oil business during the late 19th century, primarily through... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ...

Contents

Early life

Rockefeller was born in Bar Harbor, Maine. He was the son of John Davison Rockefeller, Jr. and his wife Abby Aldrich Rockefeller. He was the grandson on his father's side of Standard Oil's founder and owner John Davison Rockefeller, Sr. and on his mother's side of United States Senator Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich, a Republican from Rhode Island. He had four brothers: David (1915- ), Laurance (1910-2004), Winthrop (1912-1973), and John D. 3rd (1906-1978), and one sister, Abby (1903-1976). In 1930, he graduated from Dartmouth College, where he was a member of Casque and Gauntlet, a senior society, and the Zeta chapter of the Psi Upsilon fraternity. Rockefeller worked for a time in several family-run businesses and philanthropies before entering public service. From 1939 to 1958, he served as President of the Museum of Modern Art. Bar Harbor, Maine, it the name of two places in Maine Bar Harbor, census-designated place Bar Harbor a larger town This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... John D. Rockefeller Jr. ... Abby Aldrich Rockefeller was born Abby Greene Aldrich on October 26, 1874 in Providence, Rhode Island. ... Standard Oil (1870–1911) was a large, integrated, oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ... John Davison Rockefeller, Sr. ... Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich (November 6, 1841 - April 16, 1915) was an American politician. ... David Rockefeller, Sr. ... Laurance Spelman Rockefeller (May 26, 1910 - July 11, 2004) was a financier, philanthropist, and conservationist. ... Winthrop Rockefeller (1 May 1912 – 22 February 1973), a member of the prominent United States Rockefeller family, was a politician and philanthropist who served as the first Republican governor of Arkansas since Reconstruction. ... John Davison Rockefeller 3rd (March 21, 1906 – July 10, 1978) was a major philanthropist and third-generation member of the prominent Rockefeller family. ... Abby Rockefeller Mauzé (November 9, 1903 - May 27, 1976) was the first child and only daughter of John D. Rockefeller Jr. ... Dartmouth College is a private academic institution in Hanover, New Hampshire, in the United States. ... Casque and Gauntlet (also known as C&G) is one of eight senior societies at Dartmouth College. ... Psi Upsilon (ΨΥ, Psi U) is the fifth oldest college fraternity, founded at Union College in 1833. ... View across garden, in new MoMA building by Yoshio Taniguchi. ...


Early political career

Rockefeller was especially active in promoting modernization and democracy in Brazil and other parts of Latin America. He took over various responsibility roles during the presidencies of Roosevelt, Truman, and Eisenhower. After the war, he headed the International Development Advisory Board, part of Harry S. Truman's Point Four Program. He “fulfils the functions of Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (CIAA, 1940-44), is the Chairman of the Inter-American Development Commission and Corporation (1940-47) and the Assistant Secretary of State for Latin American Affairs (1944-45)” While at the head of the OCIAA, Nelson Rockefeller relied on his connections with the cultural field to allow a policy promoting North American culture in South America. The MoMA he had created for his mother, had become the most important American Museum supporting modern arts and therefore carried out 19 exhibitions showing contemporary American paintings which were afterwards showed in a large number of cultural venues around South America; he thus contributed to the fight against fascist influences in the region. President Truman announces that Germany had surrendered (May 8 1945) Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... A program for economic aid to poor countries announced by US President Harry S. Truman at his inauguration speech on January 20, 1949. ... This article contains information that has not been verified. ...


He also was one of the architects of the Chapultepec Conference that had for goal to coordinate a continental cooperation of politics. Together with the Secretary of State Stetenius, Rockefeller was at the head of the American delegation. The United States firmly warned South American military forces against an even more fearsome enemy than the Nazis: USSR and communism. The Act of Chapultepec would therefore plan the possibility of collective actions including the possibility of using armed forces against any aggression of a non-American or -North-hemispheric nation and would commit signatories in the negotiation of a permanent reciprocal assistance and Inter-American solidarity treaty.


After staying aside for a while and dedicating himself to various philanthropic activities and the direction of the MoMA, Rockefeller became Special Assistant to President Eisenhower for Foreign Affairs (1954-55) before he accessed the head of the Operation Coordinating Board (OCB) – committee of the National Security Council in charge, among others, of supervising secret operations of the CIA. Working with the CIA was nothing new to him. After becoming the Health, Education and Welfare Assistant Secretary, he had been required to organise a colloquium addressed to the CIA on the role of the Agency in a different economic world. In March 1955, together with Rowland Hughes (Director of the Budget), he introduces a proposition for the creation of a high-level committee (Planning Coordination Group) that would be in charge of helping the development of schedules for the secret operations of the CIA.[citation needed] The NSC 5412/2 Special Group, often referred simply as the Special Group, was an initially secret, but later public, subcommittee of the United States National Security Council responsible for coordinating government covert operations. ...



The election of fellow Republican Dwight Eisenhower in 1952 saw Rockefeller gaining greater public and political influence. In 1956 he created the Special Studies Project, a major seven panel planning group directed by Henry Kissinger and funded by the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, of which he was the then president. It was an ambitious study created to define the central problems and opportunities facing the U.S. in the future, and to clarify national purposes and objectives; it was finally published in 1961 as Prospect for America: The Rockefeller Panel Reports. Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... The Special Studies Project was a study funded by the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and conceived by its then president, Nelson Rockefeller, to define the major problems and opportunities facing the U.S. and clarify national purposes and objectives, and to develop principles which could serve as the basis of future... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923 in Fürth) is a German-born American diplomat, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... The Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF), (Philanthropy for an Interdependent World), is the principal philanthropic organisation created and run by members of the Rockefeller family. ...


It came into national prominence with the early release of its military subpanel's report, whose principal recommendation was a massive military buildup to counter a then perceived military superiority threat posed by the USSR. It was released two months after the launching of Sputnik in October, 1957 and its recommendations were fully endorsed by Eisenhower in his State of the Union address in January, 1958.[1] Partly as a result, Eisenhower subsequently appointed him first as chair of the President's Advisory Committee on Government Reorganization and later as an undersecretary in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (1953-1954). Sputnik 1 The Sputnik program was a series of unmanned space missions launched by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s to demonstrate the viability of artificial satellites. ... Alternative meanings in State of the Union (disambiguation) The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate). ... Seal The United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare (also known as HEW) was a cabinet level department of the United States government from 1953 until 1979. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


This initial contact with Kissinger was to develop into a lifelong relationship; Kissinger was later to be described as his closest intellectual associate. From this period Rockefeller used him as a personally paid part-time consultant, principally on foreign policy issues, until the appointment to his staff full-time in late 1968. In 1969, when Kissinger entered Nixon's administration, Nelson paid him $50,000 as a severance payment.[2] Nixon is the surname of some prominent people: Richard Nixon - 37th President of the United States Patricia Nixon - First Lady to President Richard Nixon Tricia Nixon Cox - older daughter to Richard and Pat Nixon Julie Nixon Eisenhower - younger daughter to Richard and Pat Nixon John B. Nixon - oldest inmate executed...


Governor of New York

Gov. Rockefeller meets with President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1968
Gov. Rockefeller meets with President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1968

Rockefeller left federal service in 1956 to concentrate on New York state and national politics, where he served in various capacities. In 1958, he was elected governor by over 600,000 votes, defeating incumbent governor, multi-millionaire W. Averell Harriman, even though 1958 was a banner year for Democrats elsewhere in the nation. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... NY redirects here. ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... The incumbent, in politics, is the current holder of a political office. ... William Averell Harriman William Averell Harriman (November 15, 1891 – July 26, 1986) was an American Democratic Party politician, businessman and diplomat. ...


Tough laws on drug offenders

Rockefeller served as governor of New York from 1959 to 1973 (elected to four terms, he served three and a half). As governor of New York, he successfully secured the passage of strict laws against the possession and/or sale of drugs. These laws — which became known as the "Rockefeller drug laws" — took effect in 1973 and are still on the books. They ranked among the toughest in the United States. The Rockefeller drug laws is the colloquial term used to denote the statutes dealing with the sale and possession of narcotic drugs in the New York State Penal Law. ...


Liberal Republican

Rockefeller was opposed by conservatives in the GOP such as Barry Goldwater and Ronald Reagan. Compared to the conservatives, Rockefeller was more liberal in domestic policies, favoring high taxation, high government spending, building more infrastructure (especially highways and universities), supporting environmentalism, the arts, New Deal regulations of business, and Social Security. Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998[1]) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for President in the 1964 election. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ...


Unlike conservatives, who vehemently opposed labor unions, he collaborated successfully with unions in New York, especially the construction trades, which benefited from his extensive building programs. In foreign affairs, Rockefeller opposed the isolationism of conservatives and supported the USA's involvement in international organisations such as the United Nations and foreign aid to help developing countries. He also supported the U.S.'s fight against communism and its membership in NATO. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[2] (NATO; French: ; also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance, or the Western Alliance) is a military alliance established by the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949. ...


As a result of Rockefeller's policies, some conservatives sought to gain leverage by creating the Conservative Party of New York. The small party acted as a counter-weight to the Liberal Party of New York State. The Conservative Party of New York is an American political party active only in the state of New York. ... The Liberal Party of New York is a minor political party active only in New York State. ...


Attica Riots

On September 9, 1971, after four days of riots at the state prison in Attica, N.Y., Rockefeller gave the order for 1,000 New York State Police troopers and National Guardsmen to storm the prison. September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Attica Correctional Facility is one of the most well known prisons in the United States, second possibly to Alcatraz. ... The New York State Police is the state police force of 4600 sworn Troopers for the state of New York. ... The United States National Guard is a component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ...


More than 40 people died, including 11 of 38 hostages (most of whom were prison guards), the largest loss of life in armed conflict between groups of Americans since the American Civil War. Most of the deaths were attributed to the gunfire of the National Guard and state police. The prisoners had been demanding better living conditions, showers, education, and vocational training. Opponents blamed Rockefeller for these deaths in part because of his refusal to go to the prison and talk with the inmates, while his supporters, including many conservatives who had often vocally differed with him in the past, defended his actions as being necessary to the preservation of law and order. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Massive construction programs

Rockefeller engaged in massive building projects that left a profound mark on the state of New York, so much so that many of his detractors claimed that he had an "Edifice Complex." [3] He was personally interested in planning, design, and construction of the many projects intitiated during his administration--consistent with interest in art. Rockefeller was the driving force in turning the State University of New York into the largest system of public higher education in the United States. He demanded the imposition of tuition at the New York city colleges in return for conferring university status on them. The State University of New York, abbreviated SUNY (IPA pronunciation: ) is a system of public institutions of higher education in New York, United States. ...


He also led in the creation and/or expansion of many major highways (such as the Long Island Expressway, the Southern Tier Expressway, the Adirondack Northway, and Interstate 81) which vastly improved road transportation in the state of New York. To create more low-income housing, Rockefeller created the unprecedented-in-its-power New York State Urban Development Corporation (UDC), which could override local zoning, condemn property, and create financing schemes to carry out desired development. (UDC is now called the Empire State Development Corporation, which forms a unit, along with the formerly independent Job Development Authority, of Empire State Development.) The Long Island Expressway (LIE) is one of the interstate highways with the designation of Interstate 495. ... The Southern Tier is a geographical term that refers to the counties of upstate New York State west of the Catskill Mountains along the northern border of Pennsylvania, with the exception of the counties in the far west of the state near the city of Buffalo. ... Interstate 87 is a 346 mile (558 km) intrastate interstate highway located entirely within the state of New York. ... Interstate 81 (abbreviated I-81) is an interstate highway in the eastern part of the United States. ... A typical zoning map; this one identifies the zones, or development districts, in the city of Ontario, California Zoning is a North American term for a system of land-use regulation. ... Eminent domain (U.S.), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Australia) or expropriation (Canada, South Africa) in common law legal systems is the inherent power of the state to expropriate private property, or rights in private property, without the owners consent, either for its own use or...


In addition, Rockefeller's construction programs included the $2 billion South Mall in Albany, later renamed the Nelson A. Rockefeller Empire State Plaza. It is a vast campus of government skyscrapers and plazas punctuated by an egg-shaped arts center. He worked with the legislature and unions to create generous pension programs for many public workers, such as teachers, professors, firefighters, police officers, prison guards, in the state. He pushed through the highest-in-the-nation minimum wage. Public-benefit authorities (some 230 of them, like UDC) were brought into existence by Rockefeller. They were often used to issue bonds in order to avoid the requirement of a vote of the people for the issuance of a bond; such authority-issued bonds bore higher interest than if they had been issued directly by the state. The state budget went from $2.04 billion in 1959-60 to $8.8 billion in his last year 1973-74. The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ...


Rockefeller also reformed the governing of New York City's transportation system, creating the New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority in 1965. It merged the New York City subway system with the publicly owned Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority and the Long Island Rail Road and Metro North Railroad, which were purchased by the state from private owners in a massive public bailout of bankrupt railroads. Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC, City That Never Sleeps, The Concrete Jungle, The City So Nice They Named It Twice Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1676 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area... The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) is a public benefit corporation of the State of New York chartered by the New York State Legislature in 1965. ... The New York City Transit Authority (also known as NYCTA, Transit, NYCT for New York City Transit or simply the TA for Transit Authority) is a New York State authority that operates buses and subway trains in New York City. ... The Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, described to the public by the popular name MTA Bridges and Tunnels, or MTA B&T, is an affiliate agency of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, a public benefit corporation, that operates all intrastate toll bridges in New York City. ... An M3 railcar The Long Island Rail Road or LIRR (often referred to as the L-I-double-R) is a commuter rail system serving the length of Long Island, New York, United States. ... Metro-North (officially MTA Metro-North Railroad) is a suburban commuter railroad running service from New York City to the northern suburbs in New York State and Connecticut. ...


In taking over control of the Triborough Authority, Rockefeller shifted power away from Robert Moses, who controlled several of New York state's public infrastructure authorities. Under the New York MTA, toll revenue collected from the bridges and tunnels, which had previously been used to build more bridges, tunnels, and highways, now went to support public transport operations, thus shifting costs from general state funds to the motorist. Robert Moses with a model of his proposed Battery Bridge Robert Moses (December 18, 1888–July 29, 1981) was the master builder of mid-20th century New York City, Long Island, and other suburbs. ... Skytrain Bangkok. ...


Conservation

Consistent with his personal interest in design and planning, Governor Rockefeller in the 1950s began expansion of the New York State Parks system and improvement of park facilities. He persuaded voters to approve three major bond acts to raise more the $300 million for acquisition of park and forest preserve land.[4] Rockefeller initiated studies of environmental issues, such as loss of agricultural land through development--an issue now characterized as "sprawl." In such concerns he was enlightened for his time (the late 1960s), at least in government, although notions were becoming more common in some circles. The State Commission for the Preservation of Agricultural Land issued a report early in 1968. In September, 1968, Rockefeller appointed the Temporary Study Commission on the Future of the Adirondacks. This led to his introduction to the Legislature in 1971 of a bill to create the controversial Adirondack Park Agency. [5] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Sprawl; please see: urban sprawl (also called suburban sprawl) For the metropolitan region stretching from Boston to Atlanta in William Gibsons fiction, see The Sprawl. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Eagle Lake, Adirondack region The Adirondack mountain range is a group of mountains in the northeastern part of New York that runs through Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Hamilton, Herkimer, Lewis, and Warren counties. ... The Adirondack State Park, also known as the Adirondack Park is a large state park in northeast New York. ...


Crime

Rockefeller was a supporter of capital punishment and oversaw 14 executions by electrocution as Governor. Rockefeller was also a supporter of the "law and justice" platform.[citation needed] Capital punishment in the United States is officially sanctioned by 38 of the 50 states, as well as by the federal government. ... The first electric chair, which was used to execute William Kemmler in 1890 The electric chair is an execution method in which the person being killed is strapped to a chair and electrocuted through electrodes placed on the body. ...


Presidential campaigns

Rockefeller was a glad-hander who appeared affable and approachable, and maintained good relationships with the press. He easily won time and again in New York, but he wanted to be president. He spent millions in attempts to win the Republican primaries in 1960, 1964, and 1968. His bid in 1960 was ended early when then-Vice President Richard Nixon surged ahead in the polls. After quitting the campaign, Rockefeller backed Nixon enthusiastically, and concentrated his efforts on introducing more moderate stances into Nixon's platform. A primary election is an election in which registered voters in a jurisdiction select a political partys candidate for a later election (nominating primary). ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ...


Rockefeller, representing moderate and liberal Republicans, was considered the front-runner for the 1964 campaign against the more conservative Barry Goldwater of Arizona who led the right wing of the Republican Party. Rockefeller was originally the front runner for the Republican party's presidential nomination but his divorce and subsequent remarriage turned many socially conservative voters off. The birth of Rockefeller's child during the California campaign put the issue in the headlines. After a furious contest, Rockefeller lost the California primary and dropped out of the race. Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998[1]) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for President in the 1964 election. ...


Rockefeller again sought the Republican presidential nomination in 1968. His opponents were Nixon and Governor Ronald W. Reagan of California. In the contest, Rockefeller again represented the liberals in the GOP, Reagan representing the conservative Goldwater element, and Nixon representing the moderates. Nixon was always clearly the front runner throughout the contest because of his superior organization and he easily defeated both Reagan and Rockefeller. Order: 40th President Term of Office: January 20, 1981–January 20, 1989 Preceded by: Jimmy Carter Succeeded by: George H.W. Bush Date of birth: February 6, 1911 Place of birth: Tampico, Illinois Date of death: June 5, 2004 Place of death: Los Angeles, California First Lady: Nancy Reagan...


Commission on Critical Choices for Americans

In November of 1973, Rockefeller established an organization called the Commission on Critical Choices for Americans, of which he served as chairman. He resigned as Governor of New York in December of 1973, devoting himself to his new commission and the possibility of another presidential run.


Vice President of the United States

Following President Nixon's resignation, new president Gerald Ford nominated Rockefeller to serve as the 41st Vice President of the United States, after a long process of considering various candidates. Rockefeller's top competitor had been George H.W. Bush. Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of succession... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born...


Rockefeller underwent extended hearings before Congress, which caused embarrassment when it was revealed he made massive gifts to senior aides, such as Henry Kissinger. He had paid all his taxes, no illegalities were uncovered, and he was confirmed. Although conservative Republicans were not pleased that Rockefeller was picked, most of them did vote for his confirmation. However, some, including Goldwater, voted against him.[6] Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923 in Fürth) is a German-born American diplomat, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ...


Beginning his service on December 19, 1974, Rockefeller was the second person appointed Vice President under the 25th Amendment — the first being Ford himself. Rockefeller often complained that Ford gave him little or no power, and few tasks, while he was Vice President. Ford responded to this by putting Rockefeller in charge of his "Whip Inflation Now" initiative. In November 1975, Rockefeller told Ford he wanted off the ticket, saying that he "didn't come down (to Washington) to get caught up in party squabbles which only make it more difficult for the President in a very difficult time..."[7] Journalists speculated[8] that Ford decided to drop Rockefeller in favor of the more conservative Robert Dole under pressure from the conservative wing of the party. December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Amendment XXV (the Twenty-fifth Amendment) of the United States Constitution clarifies an ambiguous provision of the Constitution regarding succession to the Presidency, and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President as well as responding to Presidential disabilities. ... Bob Dole Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) is best known as a former Republican United States Senate Majority Leader and Senator from Kansas. ...


While Rockefeller was Vice President, the official Vice Presidential residence was established at Number One Observatory Circle on the grounds of the United States Naval Observatory. This residence had previously been the home of the Chief of Naval Operations; prior Vice Presidents had been responsible for maintaining their own homes at their own expense, but the necessity of massive full-time Secret Service security had made this custom impractical to continue. Rockefeller already had a luxurious, well-secured Washington residence and never actually lived in the home as a principal residence, although he did host several official functions there. His wealth enabled him to donate millions of dollars of furnishings to the house. Vice Presidents House Number One Observatory Circle is the official residence of the Vice President of the United States and his family. ... Aerial view of USNO. The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States. ... The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the senior military officer in the United States Navy. ... Secret Service redirects here. ...


Rockefeller was slow to embrace the use of the government aircraft that were provided for Vice Presidential transportation. Rockefeller continued to use his own private comfortably equipped Gulfstream for the first part of his time in office. It was operated under the call sign Executive Two when the Vice President was onboard. Initially Rockefeller felt he was doing the taxpayer a favor saving money by not using government funded transportation. Finally the Secret Service was able to convince him they were spending more money flying agents around to meet the needs of his protective detail and he began to fly on the DC-9 that was serving as Air Force Two at the time.[9] Gulfstream G200 Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation is located in Savannah, Georgia, United States, and has been a unit of General Dynamics since 2001. ... Executive Two is the call sign designated any civilian aircraft when the Vice President of the United States is onboard. ... -1... Secret Service redirects here. ... The McDonnell Douglas DC-9 (initially known as the Douglas DC-9) is a family of twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliners, first manufactured in 1965 and subsequently, in greatly modified form, under a succession of different names. ... Air Force Two is the air traffic control callsign of any United States Air Force aircraft (usually fixed wing) carrying the Vice President of the United States. ...


On January 10, 1977, Ford presented Rockefeller with the Presidential Medal of Freedom. January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other major civilian award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal of Honor, which...


Marriages

On June 23, 1930, Rockefeller married Mary Todhunter Clark They had five children: Rodman, Anne, Steven, and twins Mary and Michael. In 1962 they divorced. The following year he married Margaretta Fitler Murphy. They had two children together, Nelson, Jr. and Mark. They remained married until his death in 1979. June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... (June 17, 1907-April 27, 1999) widow of former Vice President and Governor of New York Nelson Rockfeller. ... Rodman Clark Rockefeller (1932–2000) is the oldest son of former U.S. Vice President Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller and his wife Mary Todhunter Clark. ... Michael C. Rockefeller (born 1938 - died November 18, 1961?) was the youngest son of Governor Nelson Rockefeller and disappeared during an expedition to New Guinea. ...


Death

Rockefeller died on the evening of Friday, January 26, 1979 from a heart attack under circumstances whose details have never been completely revealed. Initial reports[10] said Rockefeller had returned to his RCA Building office to work on a book about his art collection, where a security guard found him slumped over his desk; however, it was later disclosed that Rockefeller actually had the fatal heart attack in his Manhattan townhouse in the presence of 26-year-old aide Megan Marshack and that some time later Marshack had called her friend, news reporter Ponchitta Pierce, to the townhouse and it was Pierce who phoned 911 approximately an hour after the heart attack.[11] Much speculation went on in the press regarding a personal relationship between Rockefeller and Marshack,[12] further fueled by reports that she was a named beneficiary in his will.[13] Neither Marshack nor the family has commented since on the circumstances surrounding Rockefeller's death.[14] January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ...


Nelson Rockefeller was cremated at Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York. His ashes were scattered at the Rockefeller Estate in nearby Tarrytown. He does not have a final resting place in a cemetery. Founded in 1903, the non-sectarian Ferncliff Cemetery and Mausoleum is located on Secor Road in the hamlet of Hartsdale, Westchester County, New York, about 25 miles north of New York City. ...


Art collector

Rockefeller was a noted collector of modern art. During his administration the state acquired major works of art for the new Albany governmental complex and elsewhere. He continued his mother's work at the Museum of Modern Art, as president, and turned the basement of his Kykuit mansion into a noted museum while placing works of sculpture around the grounds (an activity he enjoyed personally supervising, frequently moving the pieces from place to place by helicopter). While he was overseeing construction of the State University of New York system, Rockefeller built, in collaboration with his lifelong friend Roy Neuberger, a museum on the campus of SUNY Purchase College, the Neuberger Museum, designed by Philip Johnson. He commissioned Master Santiago Martinez Delgado, to make a canvas mural for the Bank of NY (City Bank) in Bogotá Colombia, this end up being the last work of the artist as he died while finishing it. View across garden, in new MoMA building by Yoshio Taniguchi. ... Kykuit was built for John D. Rockefeller in 1913 by the architects Chester Holmes Aldrich and William Adams Delano. ... Roy R. Neuberger (born July 21, 1903) is an American financier who has contributed money to the cause of public awareness and publicity of modern art through acquisition of deserving pieces. ... Purchase College, also known as SUNY Purchase or State University of New York College at Purchase, is a public liberal arts college in Purchase, New York and is a part of the State University of New York system. ... 1933 Portrait of Philip Johnson by Carl Van Vechten Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an influential American architect. ... Master Santiago Martinez Delgado. ...


Bibliography

  • Bleecker, Samuel E. The Politics of Architecture: A Perspective on Nelson A. Rockefeller, Rutledge Press, 1981. Deals with the architecture of New York State buildings.
  • Cobbs, Elizabeth Anne. The Rich Neighbor Policy: Rockefeller and Kaiser in Brazil, Yale University Press, 1992.
  • Cobbs, Elizabeth A. "Entrepreneurship as Diplomacy: Nelson Rockefeller and the Development of the Brazilian Capital Market," Business History Review, 1989 63(1): 88-121. Examines NR's Fundo Crescinco, a mutual fund that he started in Brazil in the 1950s to continue FDR's Good Neighbor policy. It reflected both liberal assumptions about the importance of the middle class to economic development and the concerns of business people about placating Latin American nationalism.
  • Colby, Gerard & Charlotte Dennett. Thy Will be Done: The Conquest of the Amazon: Nelson Rockefeller and Evangelism in the Age of Oil, 1995.
  • Connery, Robert H. and Gerald Benjamin. Governing New York State: The Rockefeller Years, 1974. An in-depth analysis.
  • Bernard J. Firestone and Alexej Ugrinsky, eds. Gerald R. Ford and the Politics of Post-Watergate America. Volume: 1. Greenwood Press, 1993. (pp 137-94). One chapter has analysis by scholars of the Vice-Presidency.
  • Deane, Elizabeth, (Director). The Rockefellers, A documentary film, 1999.
  • Donovan, Robert John. Confidential Secretary: Ann Whitman's Twenty Years with Eisenhower and Rockefeller, New York: Dutton, 1988.
  • Isaacson, Walter, Kissinger: A Biography, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992, (updated, 2005).
  • Kramer, Michael and Roberts, Sam. "I Never Wanted to Be Vice-President of Anything!": An Investigative Biography of Nelson Rockefeller, 1976.
  • Light, Paul. "Vice-presidential Influence under Rockefeller and Mondale." Political Science Quarterly 1983-1984 98(4): 617-640. in JSTOR
  • Perlstein, Rick. Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus, 2002. On the 1964 election.
  • Persico, Joseph E. The Imperial Rockefeller: A Biography of Nelson A. Rockefeller, New York: Pocket Books, 1982 (The author was a senior aide).
  • Reich, Cary. The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller: Worlds to Conquer, 1908-1958, New York: Doubleday, 1996. {Volume 1 of the most comprehensive biography of Nelson ever written, the author had accessed many papers in the Rockefeller Archive Center for his research but died before writing Volume 2, covering the crucial period from 1959 to 1979.}
  • James Reichley; Conservatives in an Age of Change: The Nixon and Ford Administrations, Brookings Institution, 1981.
  • Rivas, Darlene. Missionary Capitalist: Nelson Rockefeller in Venezuela. University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
  • Straight, Michael. Nancy Hanks, an Intimate Portrait: The Creation of a National Commitment to the Arts. Duke University Press, 1988. She was a top aide (and lover).
  • Turner, Michael. The Vice President as Policy Maker: Rockefeller in the Ford White House, New York: Greenwood, 1982.
  • Underwood, James E. and Daniels, William J. Governor Rockefeller in New York: The Apex of Pragmatic Liberalism, New York: Greenwood, 1982.

See also

In the United States, the term Rockefeller Republican refers to those members of the Republican party who hold moderate views similar to those of the late Nelson Rockefeller, governor of New York from 1959 to 1973 and vice president of the United States under President Gerald Ford in the mid... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923 in Fürth) is a German-born American diplomat, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... The Rockefeller family, founded by John Davison Rockefeller (1839-1937) (Senior) and his brother William Rockefeller (1841-1922), is an American industrial, banking, and philanthropic family of French-German-American origin that made the worlds largest private fortune in the oil business during the late 19th century, primarily through... David Rockefeller, Sr. ... Kykuit was built for John D. Rockefeller in 1913 by the architects Chester Holmes Aldrich and William Adams Delano. ... Lower Plaza at Rockefeller Center. ... View across garden, in new MoMA building by Yoshio Taniguchi. ... The Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF), (Philanthropy for an Interdependent World), is the principal philanthropic organisation created and run by members of the Rockefeller family. ... GE Building at Rockefeller Center The GE Building at night Close-up against the night sky At night, from the ground View from Top of the Rock at dusk The GE Building is a slim gothic skyscraper and the focal point at the Rockefeller Center. ... WTC redirects here. ... Wallace K. Harrison is a mid-twentieth-century architect. ... Robert Moses with a model of his proposed Battery Bridge Robert Moses (December 18, 1888–July 29, 1981) was the master builder of mid-20th century New York City, Long Island, and other suburbs. ... Hoover in 1961 John Edgar Hoover (January 23, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was the founder of the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its present form and its director from May 10, 1923, until his death in 1972. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... FDR redirects here. ...

References

  1. ^ Creation of the Special Studies Project in 1956 - see Cary Reich, The Life of Nelson A. Rockefeller: Worlds to Conquer, 1908-1958, New York: Doubleday, 1996. (pp. 650-667)
  2. ^ Relationship with Kissinger - see Walter Isaacson, Kissinger: A Biography, New York: Simon & Schuster, Revised edition, 2005. (pp. 90-93),
  3. ^ "Is the Rock Still Solid?", TIME Magazine, 19 October 1970
  4. ^ "Theodore RooseveltAlfred E. Smith–Nelson Rockefeller–George Pataki." The New York State Preservationist. NYS Ooffice of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Fall/Winter 2006, p. 20
  5. ^ Graham, Frank, Jr. The Adirondack Park: A Political History. New York City: Knopf, 1978
  6. ^ Time Magazine article
  7. ^ "Excerpts From Rockefeller Conference Explaining His Withdrawal", The New York Times, 7 November 1975, p. 16
  8. ^ "Mutual Decision: Vice President's Letter Gives No Reason for his Withdrawal", The New York Times, 4 November 1975, p. 73
  9. ^ "Petro, Joseph; Jeffrey Robinson (2005). Standing Next to History: An Agent's Life Inside the Secret Service. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 0-312-33221-1.
  10. ^ See, for example, CBS News report of February 8, 1979, Roger Mudd reporting on conflicting stories about circumstances of Rockefeller's death.
  11. ^ See, for example, this transcript of The Rockefellers (Part 2) a PBS American Experience documentary aired in 2000 about the Rockefeller family and these print media articles: Robert D. McFadden, "New Details Are Reported on How Rockefeller Died", The New York Times, 29 January 1979; Robert D. McFadden, "Call to 911 for Stricken Rockefeller Did Not Identify Him", The New York Times, 30 January 1979; Robert D. McFadden, "Rockefeller's Attack Is Now Placed at 10:15, Hour Before 911 Call", The New York Times, 7 February 1979; Robert D. McFadden, "Rockefeller Aide Did Not Make Call to 911", The New York Times, 9 February 1979; and "Marshack Friend Makes Statement on Rockefeller", The New York Times, 11 February 1979.
  12. ^ For example, long-time Rockefeller aide Joe Persico said in the PBS documentary about the Rockefeller family (see this), "It became known that he had been alone with a young woman who worked for him, in undeniably intimate circumstances, and in the course of that evening had died from a heart attack."
  13. ^ This was widely reported at the time; see, for example, Peter Kihss, "Bulk of Rockefeller's Estate is Left to Wife; Museums Get Large Gifts", The New York Times, 10 February 1979; this piece that aired on NBC's Evening News on February 9, 1979; and this piece by Max Robinson that aired on ABC Evening News on February 9, 1979.
  14. ^ Robert D. McFadden, "4 Rockefeller Children Say All At Hand Did Their Best", The New York Times, 15 February 1979: the statement released by Rockefeller's children concludes, "...we do not intend to make any further public comment."

(Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt, Jr. ... Alfred Emanuel Smith ( December 30, 1873– October 4, 1944), often known as Al Smith, was Governor of New York and a U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... George Elmer Pataki (born June 24, 1945) is the current Governor of New York State, USA serving since January 1995, and as of late 2006 is the longest-serving of all current U.S. governors. ...

External links

  • Rockefeller Archive Center: Nelson Rockefeller Contains details on the collection of public and private papers available to researchers at the Center.
  • The Rocky Roll An extended portrait by Time Magazine of Nelson campaigning for New York Governor in 1958.
  • Rockefeller Archive Center: Archived papers of the Special Studies Project, 1956-1960.
  • [1] Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress biography
  • Spartacus Educational Biography
  • www.rca5600.be Contains details about the relation between Rockeffeller's role in US policy and his role in Cultural policy
Preceded by
W. Averell Harriman
Governor of New York
1959–1973
Succeeded by
Malcolm Wilson
Preceded by
Gerald Ford
Vice President of the United States
December 19, 1974January 20, 1977
Succeeded by
Walter Mondale

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nelson Rockefeller - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2653 words)
Rockefeller was opposed by the conservatives in the GOP such as Barry Goldwater and Ronald Reagan.
Rockefeller was a supporter of capital punishment and oversaw 14 executions by electrocution as Governor.
While Rockefeller was Vice President, the official Vice Presidential residence was established at Number One Observatory Circle on the grounds of the United States Naval Observatory.
Nelson Rockefeller at AllExperts (2403 words)
Nonetheless, Rockefeller was still considered one of the leaders of the moderate wing of the Republican Party, and is hailed as an example of one of the chief figures of the "1960s and 1970s Republican" movement, when most state Republican organizations were dominated by social moderates.
Rockefeller engaged in massive building endeavors that left a profound mark on New York State, so much so that many of his detractors claimed that he had an "Å'difice Complex." He was the driving force in turning the State University of New York into the largest system of public higher education in the United States.
Rockefeller was considered the front-runner for the 1964 campaign against the more conservative Barry Goldwater of Arizona (Nixon had declined to run after losing to Pat Brown in the 1962 California gubernatorial election).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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