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Encyclopedia > Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela

In office
27 April 1994 – 14 June 1999
Vice President(s) Frederik Willem de Klerk
Thabo Mbeki
Preceded by Frederik Willem de Klerk (State President of South Africa)
Succeeded by Thabo Mbeki

Born 18 July 1918 (1918-07-18) (age 89)
Mvezo, near Mthatha, Eastern Cape, Union of South Africa
Political party African National Congress
Apartheid in South Africa
Events and Projects

Sharpeville Massacre · Soweto uprising
Treason Trial
Rivonia Trial · Church Street bombing
CODESA · St James Church massacre
Nelson Mandela Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, (born 18 July 1918) is a former President of South Africa, was one of its chief anti-apartheid activists, and was also an anti-apartheid saboteur and guerrilla leader. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The President of South Africa, in full, the President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under South Africas Constitution. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... == == Frederik Willem de Klerk (born March 18, 1936) was the last State President of Apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born June 18, 1942) is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ... == == Frederik Willem de Klerk (born March 18, 1936) was the last State President of Apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. ... From 1961 to 1994, South Africas head of state was called the State President or Staatspresident in Afrikaans. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born June 18, 1942) is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Mvezo is a small village on the banks of the Mbashe river in the District of Umtata, the capital of the Transkei, an area in the South Eastern area of South Africa. ... Mthatha (formerly Umtata) is the main town of the King Sabata Dalindyebo Municipality in Eastern Cape province of South Africa. ... Capital Bhisho Largest city Port Elizabeth Premier Nosimo Balindlela Area - Total Ranked 2nd 169,580 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 3rd 6,436,761 38/km² Languages Xhosa (83%) Afrikaans (9. ... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... A beach, in apartheid South Africa, 1982. ... cropped from Image:Aprt-YStar. ... The Sharpeville massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police opened fire on a crowd of black protesters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Treason Trial was a trial in which 156 people including Nelson Mandela were arrested in a raid and accussed of treason in 1956. ... The Rivonia Trial was an infamous trial which took place in South Africa between 1963 and 1964, in which ten leaders of the African National Congress were tried for 221 acts of sabotage designed to ferment violent revolution. // Origins It was named after Rivonia, the suburb of Johannesburg where 19... The Church Street bombing was a 1983 terrorist attack by the African National Congress in Pretoria, South Africa which killed 16 and wounded 130. ... The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993. ... The St James Church massacre was a massacre perpetrated at St James Church, Cape Town by the Azanian Peoples Liberation Army (APLA). ...

Organizations

ANC · IFP · AWB · Black Sash · CCB
Conservative Party · PP · RP · PRP
PFP · HNP · MK · PAC · SACP · UDF
Broederbond · National Party · COSATU For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... The Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) is a political party in South Africa. ... The flag of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging or AWB, is a political and paramilitary group in South Africa under the leadership of Eugène TerreBlanche. ... The Black Sash was a non-violent white womens resistance organisation founded in 1955 in South Africa by Jean Sinclair. ... The Civil Cooperation Bureau (CCB) was a covert South African apartheid-era hit squad[1]. Inaugurated in 1986, and fully functional by 1988 it was set up to eliminate anti-apartheid activists, destroy ANC facilities, and find means to circumvent the economic sanctions[1] imposed on that country. ... The Conservative Party of South Africa (Konserwatiewe Party van Suid-Afrika in Afrikaans) was a far-right party formed in 1982 as a breakaway from the ruling National Party. ... The Progressive Party was a liberal South African party that opposed the ruling National Partys policies of apartheid. ... The Reform Party was created by a group who left the United Party led by Harry Schwarz on February 11 1975. ... The Progressive Federal Party (PFP) was a South African political party formed in 1977. ... The Herstigte Nasionale Party van Suid-Afrika (Refounded National Party of South Africa) was formed as a right wing splinter group of the South African National Party. ... For other uses of Umkhonto, see Umkhonto (disambiguation) Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK), translated Spear of the Nation, was the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). ... PAC symbol This article does not cite any references or sources. ... SACP symbol South African Communist Party (SACP) is a political party in South Africa. ... The United Democratic Front (UDF) was one of the most important anti-apartheid organisations of the 1980s. ... The Afrikanerbond or, formerly, the Afrikaner Broederbond, is an organisation which promotes the interests of the Afrikaners. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... The Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) is a trade union federation in South Africa. ...

People

P.W Botha · Oupa Gqozo · DF Malan
Nelson Mandela · Desmond Tutu · F.W. de Klerk
Walter Sisulu · Helen Suzman · Harry Schwarz
Andries Treurnicht · HF Verwoerd · Oliver Tambo
BJ Vorster · Kaiser Matanzima · Jimmy Kruger
Steve Biko · Trevor Huddleston Pieter Willem Botha (January 12, 1916 – October 31, 2006), commonly known as PW and Die Groot Krokodil (Afrikaans for The Big Crocodile), was the prime minister of South Africa from 1978 to 1984 and the first executive state president from 1984 to 1989. ... Joshua Oupa Gqozo (10 March 1952 - ) was a former Ciskei military ruler. ... Daniel François Malan (May 22, 1874 - February 7, 1959) is seen as the champion of South African nationalism. ... Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ... == == Frederik Willem de Klerk (born March 18, 1936) was the last State President of Apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. ... Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (May 18, 1912 – May 5, 2003) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and member of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Helen Suzman was born Helen Gavronsky on 7th November 1917 in Germiston, South Africa as the daughter of Lithuanian-Jewish immigrants. ... Harry H. Schwarz (born Cologne, Germany, May 13, 1924), is a South African politician, diplomat, and jurist. ... Andries Treurnicht (1921-1993) was the founder and the leader of the Conservative Party in South Africa. ... Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (8 September 1901 - 6 September 1966) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 to 1966, when he was assassinated. ... Oliver Reginald Tambo (27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and a central figure in the African National Congress (ANC). ... B. J. Vorster Balthazar Johannes Vorster (December 13, 1915 - September 10, 1983), better known as John Vorster, was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1966 to 1978, and President from 1978 to 1979. ... Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima (June 15, 1915 - June 15, 2003) was a former leader of the then-bantustan of Transkei in South Africa; He led Transkei to self-government in 1964 and to an internationally unrecognised indepedence in October, 1976. ... James Thomas Jimmy Kruger (1917 - 1987) was a South African politician who rose to the position of Minister of Justice and the Police in the cabinet of Prime Minister John Vorster from 1974 to 1979. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Bronze bust in Bedford. ...

Places

Bantustan · District Six · Robben Island
Sophiatown · South-West Africa
Soweto · Vlakplaas Map of the black homelands in South Africa as of 1986 Map of the black homelands in Namibia as of 1978 Bantustan is a territory designated as a tribal homeland for black South Africans and Namibians during the apartheid era. ... District Six is the name of a former neighborhood of Cape Town, South Africa, best known for the forced removal of its inhabitants during the 1970s. ... Robben Island (Afrikaans Robben Eiland) is an island in Table Bay, 12 km off the coast from Cape Town, South Africa and is located at . ... Sophiatown was a lively, mostly-black suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa. ... South-West Africa is the former name (1884-1990) of Namibia under German (as German South-West Africa, Deutsch Süd-West Afrika) and (from 1915) South African administration when it was conquered from the Germans during World War I. Following the war, the Treaty of Versailles declared the territory... Johannesburg, including Soweto, from the International Space Station Soweto is an urban area in the City of Johannesburg, in Gauteng, South Africa. ... Vlakplaas is a farm that served as the headquarters of a counterinsurgency unit working for the apartheid government in South Africa. ...

Other aspects

Apartheid laws · Freedom Charter
Sullivan Principles · Kairos Document
Disinvestment campaign
South African Police The Apartheid Legislation in South Africa was a series of different laws and acts which were to help the apartheid-government to enforce the segregation of different races and cement the power and the dominance by the Whites, of substantially European descent, over the other race groups. ... The Freedom Charter was adopted at the Congress of the People in Kliptown, South Africa on 26 June 1955 by the African National Congress and its allies. ... The Sullivan Principles were developed in 1977 by the Rev. ... The Kairos Document (KD) is a provocative theological statement issued by an anonymous group of theologians mostly based in the black townships of Soweto, South Africa, in 1985. ... The campaign gained prominence in the mid-1980s on university campuses in the US. The debate headlined the October 1985 issue (above) of Vassar Colleges student newspaper. ... The South African Police Service is the national police force of South Africa. ...

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Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela IPA: [xolíɬaɬa mandéːla] (born 18 July 1918) is a former President of South Africa, the first to be elected in fully representative democratic elections. Before his presidency, Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist and leader of the African National Congress. He spent 27 years in prison, much of it in a cell on Robben Island, for spearheading the struggle against apartheid. is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The President of South Africa, in full, the President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under South Africas Constitution. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... Robben Island (Afrikaans Robben Eiland) is an island in Table Bay, 12 km off the coast from Cape Town, South Africa and is located at . ...


Among opponents of apartheid in South Africa and internationally, he became a symbol of freedom and equality, while the apartheid government and nations sympathetic to it condemned him and the ANC as communists and terrorists. For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Following his release from prison in 1990, his switch to a policy of reconciliation and negotiation helped lead the transition to multi-racial democracy in South Africa. Since the end of apartheid, he has been widely praised, even by former opponents.


Mandela has received more than one hundred awards over four decades, most notably the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. He is currently a celebrated elder statesman who continues to voice his opinion on topical issues. In South Africa he is often known as Madiba, an honorary title adopted by elders of Mandela's clan. The title has come to be synonymous with Nelson Mandela. List of awards, honours and other recognitions bestowed on Nelson Mandela. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ...

Contents

Early life

Birth and lineage

A young Nelson Mandela
A young Nelson Mandela

Mandela belongs to a cadet branch of the Thembu dynasty which (nominally) reigns in the Transkeian Territories of the Union of South Africa's Cape Province. He was born in the small village of Mvezo in the district of Umtata, the Transkei capital. His great-grandfather was Ngubengcuka (died 1832), the Inkosi Enkhulu or King of the Thembu people, who were eventually subjected to British colonial rule. One of the king's sons, named Mandela, became Nelson's grandfather and the source of his surname. However, being only the Inkosi's child by a wife of the Ixhiba clan (the so-called "Left-Hand House"), the descendants of his branch of the royal family were not eligible to succeed to the Thembu throne.[1] His father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa (1880 – 1928), was nonetheless designated chief of the town of Mvezo. Upon alienating the colonial authorities, however, he was deprived of his position, and moved his family to Qunu.[1] Gadla remained, however, a member of the Inkosi's Privy Council, and was instrumental in the ascension to the Thembu throne of Jongintaba Dalindyebo, who would later return this favour by informally adopting Mandela upon Gadla's death. Mandela's father had four wives, with whom he fathered a total of thirteen children (four boys and nine girls). Mandela was born to Gadla's third wife ('third' by a complex royal ranking system), Nosekeni Fanny, daughter of Nkedama of the Mpemvu Xhosa clan, the dynastic Right Hand House, in whose umzi or homestead Mandela spent much of his childhood.[1] His given name Rolihlahla means "to pull a branch of a tree", or more colloquially, "troublemaker".[2] Image File history File links Young_Mandela. ... Image File history File links Young_Mandela. ... In noble families, the title of nobility is usually passed to the first-born son, although more recently it has often passed to the eldest offspring regardless of gender, e. ... The Thembu are one of the handfull of nations and population groups which speak isiXhosa in South Africa. ... A Reign is a period of time a person serves as a monarch or pope. ... Flag of Transkei bantustan Political Map of South Africa prior to 1994 Transkei, as of 1978 The Transkei — which means the area beyond the Kei River — is a region situated in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. ... This article is about the country on the southern tip of the African continent. ... Under the Union of South Africa and after that under the Republic of South Africa, the old Cape Colony became the Cape of Good Hope Province (though it was commonly known as the Cape Province). ... Mvezo is a small village on the banks of the Mbashe river in the District of Umtata, the capital of the Transkei, an area in the South Eastern area of South Africa. ... Umtata is a small town in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, and was formerly the capital of the Transkei bantustan. ... Ngubengcuka (died 1832) was the king of the Thembu people, in the southern part of the Transkei region of South Africa. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... A family name, or surname, is that part of a persons name that indicates to what family he or she belongs. ... For other uses, see Clan (disambiguation). ... An order of succession is a formula or algorithm that determines who inherits an office upon the death, resignation, or removal of its current occupant. ... Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa (died approx. ... Chief can refer to : Paramount chief is the highest political leader in a region or country typically administered with a chief-based system. ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically in a monarchy. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... An English translation of terms for small, dispersed settlements, primarily among the Nguni-speaking peoples of southern Africa, now commonly used by ethnographers and historians; cf. ... Look up Appendix:Most popular given names by country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Education

At seven years of age, Rolihlahla Mandela became the first member of his family to attend a school, where he was given the name "Nelson," after the British admiral Horatio Nelson, by a Methodist teacher who found his native name difficult to pronounce. Lord Nelson Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson (September 29, 1758 – October 21, 1805) was a British admiral who won fame as a leading naval commander. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ...


His father died of tuberculosis when Rolihlahla was nine, and the Regent, Jongintaba, became his guardian. Mandela attended a Wesleyan mission school next door to the palace of the Regent. Following Thembu custom, he was initiated at age sixteen, and attended Clarkebury Boarding Institute. He completed his Junior Certificate in two years, instead of the usual three. Destined to inherit his father's position as a privy councillor, in 1937 Mandela moved to Healdtown, the Wesleyan college in Fort Beaufort which most Thembu royalty attended. Aged nineteen, he took an interest in boxing and running.[1] Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... A legal guardian is a person who has the legal authority (and the corresponding duty) to care for the personal and property interests of another person, called a ward. ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Initiation (disambiguation). ... A Statement of Provisional Results is issued in the September after the examination, a final certificate is issued at a later date. ... Healdtown Comprehensive School is a Methodist school located near Fort Beaufort, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. ... Fort Beaufort A small town in the Amatole District of South Africas Eastern Cape Province, Fort Beaufort is named after the Duke of Beaufort, father of Lord Charles Henry Somerset, first British governor of the Cape Colony (1814 to 1826). ... This article is about the monarchy-related concept. ... For other senses of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Running (disambiguation). ...


After matriculating, he started to study for a B.A. at the Fort Hare University, where he met Oliver Tambo, and the two became lifelong friends and colleagues. He also became close friends with his kinsman, Kaiser ("K.D.") Matanzima who, however, as royal scion of the Thembu Right Hand House, was destined for the throne of Transkei, a role that later led him to embrace Bantustan policies which made he and Mandela political enemies.[1] At the end of Nelson's first year, he became involved in a boycott by the Students' Representative Council against the university policies, and was asked to leave Fort Hare. Look up matriculation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A B.A. issued from the University of Tennessee. ... Fort Hare University is located on the Tyhume river in a South African town known as Alice in English or as eDikeni in the local isiXhosa language. ... Oliver Reginald Tambo (27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and a central figure in the African National Congress (ANC). ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima (June 15, 1915 - June 15, 2003) was a former leader of the then-bantustan of Transkei in South Africa; He led Transkei to self-government in 1964 and to an internationally unrecognised indepedence in October, 1976. ... This article is on the car division of Toyota. ... Map of the black homelands in South Africa as of 1986 Map of the black homelands in Namibia as of 1978 Bantustan is a territory designated as a tribal homeland for black South Africans and Namibians during the apartheid era. ... Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Students Representative Councils (SRC) were established by the Universities (Scotland) Act 1896 and are present at the five ancient universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen, Glasgow and Edinburgh as well as Dundee University. ... Fort Hare University is located on the Tyhume river in a South African town known as Alice in English or as eDikeni in the local isiXhosa language. ...


Later, while imprisoned, Mandela studied for a Bachelor of Laws from the University of London External Programme (see below). The degree of Bachelor of Laws is the principal academic degree in law in the majority of common law countries other than the United States, where it has been replaced by the Juris Doctor degree. ... Website http://www. ...


Move to Johannesburg

Shortly after leaving Fort Hare, Jongintaba announced to Mandela and Justice (the Regent's own son and heir to the throne) that he had arranged marriages for both of them. Both young men were displeased by this and rather than marry, they elected to flee the comforts of the Regent's estate to go to Johannesburg. Upon his arrival, Mandela initially found employment as a guard at a mine. However, this was quickly terminated after the employer learned that Mandela was the Regent's runaway adopted son. He later started work as an articled clerk at a law firm thanks to connections with his friend, lawyer Walter Sisulu. While working there, he completed his B.A. degree at the University of South Africa via correspondence, after which he started with his law studies at the University of Witwatersrand. During this time Mandela lived in Alexandra township, north of Johannesburg. This article is about the city in South Africa. ... The word clerk, derived from the Latin clericus meaning cleric, i. ... Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (May 18, 1912 – May 5, 2003) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and member of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Note: UniSA can also refer to the University of South Australia. ... The University of the Witwatersrand is a leading South African university situated in Johannesburg. ... Alexandra is the feminine version of the given name Alexander. ...


Political activity

After the 1948 election victory of the Afrikaner-dominated National Party with its apartheid policy of racial segregation, Mandela was prominent in the ANC's 1952 Defiance Campaign and the 1955 Congress of the People, whose adoption of the Freedom Charter provided the fundamental program of the anti-apartheid cause. During this time, Mandela and fellow lawyer Oliver Tambo operated the law firm of Mandela and Tambo, providing free or low-cost legal counsel to many blacks who would otherwise have been without representation. This article is about the Southern African ethnic group. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1]. Segregation... The Defiance Campaign was presented by the African National Congress (ANC) at a conference held in Bloemfontein, South Africa in December 1951. ... The Congress of the people met in Kliptown, a suburb of Johannesburg, in 1955 to lay out the vision of the South African people. ... The Freedom Charter was adopted at the Congress of the People in Kliptown, South Africa on 26 June 1955 by the African National Congress and its allies. ... Oliver Reginald Tambo (27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and a central figure in the African National Congress (ANC). ... References http://www. ...


Mandela's approach was influenced by Mahatma Gandhi, who inspired him and succeeding generations of South African anti-apartheid activists.[3][4] Indeed, Mandela took part in the 29 January - 30 January 2007 conference in New Delhi which marked the 100th anniversary of Gandhi's introduction of satyagraha in South Africa.[5] “Gandhi” redirects here. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... Mohandas Karamchand “Mahatma” Gandhi, who developed Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas K. Gandhi. ...


Initially committed to non-violent mass struggle, Mandela was arrested with 150 others on 5 December 1956 and charged with treason. The marathon Treason Trial of 1956-61 followed, and all were acquitted.[citation needed] From 1952-59 the ANC experienced disruption as a new class of Black activists (Africanists) emerged in the townships demanding more drastic steps against the National Party regime. The ANC leadership of Albert Luthuli, Oliver Tambo and Walter Sisulu felt not only that events were moving too fast, but also that their leadership was challenged. They consequently bolstered their position by alliances with small White, Coloured and Indian political parties in an attempt to appear to have a wider appeal than the Africanists. The 1955 Freedom Charter Kliptown Conference was ridiculed by the Africanists for allowing the 100,000-strong ANC to be relegated to a single vote in a Congress alliance, in which four secretaries-general of the five participating parties were members of the secretly reconstituted South African Communist Party (SACP), strongly adhering to the Moscow line.[citation needed] Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of applying power to achieve socio-political goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Treason Trial was a trial in which 156 people including Nelson Mandela were arrested in a raid and accussed of treason in 1956. ... Albert John Lutuli (also known by his Zulu name Mvumbi, his surname is sometimes and probably more phonetically spelt Luthuli) (1898? - 21 July 1967) was a South African teacher and politician. ... Oliver Reginald Tambo (27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and a central figure in the African National Congress (ANC). ... Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (May 18, 1912 – May 5, 2003) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and member of the African National Congress (ANC). ... The Freedom Charter was adopted at the Congress of the People in Kliptown, South Africa on 26 June 1955 by the African National Congress and its allies. ... SACP symbol South African Communist Party (SACP) is a political party in South Africa. ...


In 1959 the ANC lost its most militant support when most of the Africanists, with financial support from Ghana and significant political support from the Transvaal-based Basotho, broke away to form the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) under Robert Sobukwe and Potlako Leballo. [citation needed] Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... PAC symbol The Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) (later the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania), was a South African liberation movement, that is now a minor political party. ... Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe (5 December 1924 ; 27 February 1978) was a South African political dissident, who founded the Pan Africanist Congress in opposition to the Apartheid regime. ... Potlako Leballo was an Africanist who led the Pan Africanist Congress until 1979. ...


Guerrilla activities

In 1961, Mandela became the leader of the ANC's armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe (translated as Spear of the Nation, also abbreviated as MK), which he co-founded. He coordinated a sabotage campaign against military and government targets, and made plans for a possible guerrilla war if sabotage failed to end apartheid. A few decades later, MK did wage a guerrilla war against the regime, especially during the 1980s, in which many civilians were killed. Mandela also raised funds for MK abroad, and arranged for paramilitary training, visiting various African governments. For other uses of Umkhonto, see Umkhonto (disambiguation) Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK), translated Spear of the Nation, was the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ...


Mandela explains the move to embark on armed struggle as a last resort, when increasing repression and violence from the state convinced him that many years of non-violent protest against apartheid had achieved nothing and could not succeed.[6][2] Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ...


Mandela later admitted that the ANC, in its struggle against apartheid, also violated human rights, and has sharply criticised attempts by parts of his party to remove statements supporting this fact from the reports of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.[7] The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like body assembled in South Africa after the end of Apartheid. ...


Arrest and Rivonia trial

Main article: Rivonia Trial

On 5 August 1962 Mandela was arrested after living on the run for seventeen months, and was imprisoned in the Johannesburg Fort. The arrest was allegedly made possible because the CIA tipped off the police as to Mandela's whereabouts and disguise.[8][9] Three days later, the charges of leading workers to strike in 1961 and leaving the country illegally were read to him during a court appearance. On 25 October 1962, Mandela was sentenced to five years in prison. Two years later on 11 June 1964, a verdict had been reached concerning his previous engagement in the African National Congress (ANC). The Rivonia Trial was an infamous trial which took place in South Africa between 1963 and 1964, in which ten leaders of the African National Congress were tried for 221 acts of sabotage designed to ferment violent revolution. // Origins It was named after Rivonia, the suburb of Johannesburg where 19... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “CIA” redirects here. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ...


While Mandela was imprisoned, police arrested prominent ANC leaders on 11 July 1963, at Liliesleaf Farm, Rivonia, north of Johannesburg. Mandela was brought in, and at the Rivonia Trial, Mandela, Ahmed Kathrada, Walter Sisulu, Govan Mbeki, Andrew Mlangeni, Raymond Mhlaba, Elias Motsoaledi, Walter Mkwayi (who escaped during trial), Arthur Goldreich (who escaped from prison before trial), Denis Goldberg and Lionel "Rusty" Bernstein were charged by the chief prosecutor Dr. Percy Yutar, the deputy attorney-general of the Transvaal, with the capital crimes of sabotage (which Mandela admitted) and crimes which were equivalent to treason, but easier for the government to prove. The second charge accused the defendants of plotting a foreign invasion of South Africa, which Mandela denied. is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Rivonia Trial was an infamous trial which took place in South Africa between 1963 and 1964, in which ten leaders of the African National Congress were tried for 221 acts of sabotage designed to ferment violent revolution. // Origins It was named after Rivonia, the suburb of Johannesburg where 19... Ahmed Mohamed Kathrada (sometimes nicknamed Kathy) (born 21 August 1929[1]) is a South African politician and was an anti-apartheid activist and political prisoner. ... Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (May 18, 1912 – May 5, 2003) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and member of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Govan Archibald Mvuyelwa Mbeki (1910 - 2001) was a South African politician, and father of Thabo Mbeki, the current President of South Africa. ... Raymond Mhlaba (February 12, 1920-February 20, 2005) was an anti-apartheid activist and leader of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Elias Motsoaledi (July 26, 1924- May 9, 1994) was one of the eight men sentenced to life imprisonment at the Rivonia Trial. ... Arthur Goldreich was an abstract painter born in 1929 in Johannesburg, South Africa, and a key figure in the anti-apartheid movement. ... Denis Goldberg (b. ... Lionel Rusty Bernstein (20 March 1920 - 23 June 2002) was an anti-apartheid activist and political prisoner. ... Dr. Percy Yutar (29 July 1911, Cape Town-13 July 2002, Johannesburg) was South Africa’s first Jewish attorney-general. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General or Attorney-General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ...


In his statement from the dock at the opening of the defence case in the trial on 20 April 1964 at Pretoria Supreme Court, Mandela laid out the clarity of reasoning in the ANC's choice to use violence as a tactic. His statement revealed how the ANC had used peaceful means to resist apartheid for years until the Sharpeville Massacre. That event coupled with the referendum establishing the Republic of South Africa and the declaration of a state of emergency along with the banning of the ANC made it clear that their only choice was to resist through acts of sabotage. Doing otherwise would have been tantamount to unconditional surrender. Mandela went on to explain how they developed the Manifesto of Umkhonto we Sizwe on 16 December 1961 intent on exposing the failure of the National Party's policies after the economy would be threatened by foreigners' unwillingness to risk investing in the country.[10] He closed his statement with these words: is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country South Africa Province Gauteng Established 1855 Area  - City 1,644 km²  (634. ... The Sharpeville massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police opened fire on a crowd of black protesters. ... For other uses of Umkhonto, see Umkhonto (disambiguation) Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK), translated Spear of the Nation, was the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to the struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.[6]

Bram Fischer, Vernon Berrange, Harry Schwarz, Joel Joffe, Arthur Chaskalson and George Bizos were part of the defence team that represented the accused. Harold Hanson was brought in at the end of the case to plead mitigation. All except Rusty Bernstein were found guilty, but they escaped the gallows and were sentenced to life imprisonment on 12 June 1964. Charges included involvement in planning armed action, in particular four charges of sabotage, which Mandela admitted to, and a conspiracy to help other countries invade South Africa, which Mandela denied. Abram Louis Fischer, commonly known as Bram Fischer, (1908-1975) was a South African lawyer of Afrikaner descent, notable for anti-apartheid activism and for the legal defense of anti-apartheid figures, including Nelson Mandela at the Rivonia Trial. ... Harry H. Schwarz (born Cologne, Germany, May 13, 1924), is a South African politician, diplomat, and jurist. ... Joel Goodman Joffe, Baron Joffe, the Lord Joffe CBE, is a crossbench peer in the House of Lords. ... Arthur Chaskalson, (b. ... George Bizos born 1928 in Greece, is a distinguished human rights advocate who defended against apartheid in South Africa. ... Harold Joseph Hanson (1904 - 1973) was an eminent South African Advocate (QC)and Senior Member of the Johannesburg Bar Council. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... In a political sense, conspiracy refers to a group of persons united in the goal of usurping or overthrowing an established political power. ...


Imprisonment

Nelson Mandela was imprisoned on Robben Island where he remained for the next eighteen of his twenty-seven years in prison. On the island, he and others performed hard labour in a lime quarry. Prison conditions were very basic. Prisoners were segregated by race, with black prisoners receiving the fewest rations. Political prisoners were kept separate from ordinary criminals and received fewer privileges. Mandela describes how, as a D-group prisoner (the lowest classification) he was allowed one visitor and one letter every six months. Letters, when they came, were often delayed for long periods and made unreadable by the prison censors.[2] Robben Island (Afrikaans Robben Eiland) is an island in Table Bay, 12 km off the coast from Cape Town, South Africa and is located at . ...


Whilst in prison Mandela undertook study with the University of London by correspondence through its External Programme and received the degree of Bachelor of Laws. He was subsequently nominated for the position of Chancellor of the University of London in the 1981 election, but lost to Princess Anne. The University of London is a university based primarily in London. ... Website http://www. ... The degree of Bachelor of Laws is the principal academic degree in law in the majority of common law countries other than the United States, where it has been replaced by the Juris Doctor degree. ... A Chancellor is the head of a university. ... The 1981 University of London election for the position of Chancellor was called upon when the incumbent Chancellor, Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother announced in December 1980 that she was retiring from the position. ... The Princess Anne, Princess Royal (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise; born 15 August 1950), is a member of the British Royal Family and the only daughter of Elizabeth II. She is the seventh holder of the title Princess Royal, and is currently ninth in the line of succession to the British...


In his 1981 memoir Inside BOSS[11] secret agent Gordon Winter describes his involvement in a plot to rescue Mandela from prison in 1969: this plot was infiltrated by Winter on behalf of South African intelligence, who wanted Mandela to escape so as to be able to shoot him during recapture. The plot was foiled by British Intelligence[12].


In March 1982 Mandela was transferred from Robben Island to Pollsmoor Prison, along with other senior ANC leaders Walter Sisulu, Andrew Mlangeni, Ahmed Kathrada and Raymond Mhlaba. It was speculated that this was to remove the influence of these senior leaders on the new generation of young black activists imprisoned on Robben Island, the so-called "Mandela University". However, National Party minister Kobie Coetzee says that the move was to enable discreet contact between them and the South African government.[citation needed] Pollsmoor Prison, officially, Pollsmoor Maximum Security Prison is a harsh prison in the Cape Town suburb of Tokai in South Africa. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ...


In February 1985 President P.W. Botha offered Mandela conditional release in return for renouncing armed struggle. Coetzee and other ministers had advised Botha against this, saying that Mandela would never commit his organisation to giving up the armed struggle in exchange for personal freedom. Mandela indeed spurned the offer, releasing a statement via his daughter Zindzi saying "What freedom am I being offered while the organisation of the people remains banned? Only free men can negotiate. A prisoner cannot enter into contracts."[13] P.W. Botha Pieter Willem Botha, (born January 12, 1916) commonly known as P.W. and as die groot krokodil (the great crocodile) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1978 to 1984 and State President of South Africa from 1984 to 1989. ...


The first meeting between Mandela and the National Party government came in November 1985 when Kobie Coetzee met Mandela in Volks Hospital in Cape Town where Mandela was being treated for prostate surgery. Over the next four years, a series of tentative meetings took place, laying the groundwork for further contact and future negotiations, but little real progress was made.[13]


Throughout Mandela's imprisonment, local and international pressure mounted on the South African government to release him, under the resounding slogan Free Nelson Mandela! In 1989, South Africa reached a crossroads when Botha suffered a stroke and was replaced as president by Frederik Willem de Klerk. De Klerk announced Mandela's release in February 1990. == == Frederik Willem de Klerk (born March 18, 1936) was the last State President of Apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. ...


Release

On 2 February 1990, State President F.W. de Klerk unbanned the ANC and other anti-apartheid organisations, and announced that Mandela would shortly be released from prison. Mandela was released from Victor Verster Prison in Paarl on 11 February 1990. The event was broadcast live all over the world. is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... From 1961 to 1994, South Africas head of state was called the State President or Staatspresident in Afrikaans. ... Victor Verster Prison (also called Klein Drakenstein and later renamed as Drakenstein Correctional Centre) is a low security prison near Paarl in the valley of the Dwars River in the Western Cape of South Africa. ... Paarl Rock Paarl (meaning Pearl in Dutch and Perel in Afrikaans) is the third oldest European settlement in the Republic of South Africa (after Cape Town and Stellenbosch) and forms part of the Western Cape Province. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


On the day of his release, Mandela made a speech to the nation. He declared his commitment to peace and reconciliation with the country's white minority, but made it clear that the ANC's armed struggle was not yet over:

Our resort to the armed struggle in 1960 with the formation of the military wing of the ANC (Umkhonto we Sizwe) was a purely defensive action against the violence of apartheid. The factors which necessitated the armed struggle still exist today. We have no option but to continue. We express the hope that a climate conducive to a negotiated settlement would be created soon, so that there may no longer be the need for the armed struggle.

He also said his main focus was to bring peace to the black majority and give them the right to vote in both national and local elections. For other uses of Umkhonto, see Umkhonto (disambiguation) Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK), translated Spear of the Nation, was the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). ...


Negotiations

Following his release from prison, Mandela returned to the leadership of the ANC and, between 1990 and 1994, led the party in the multi-party negotiations that led to the country's first multi-racial elections. The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993. ... The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993. ...


In 1991, the ANC held its first national conference in South Africa after its unbanning, electing Mandela as President of the organisation. His old friend and colleague Oliver Tambo, who had led the organisation in exile during Mandela's imprisonment, became National Chairperson.[14]


Mandela's leadership through the negotiations, as well as his relationship with President F.W. de Klerk, was recognised when they were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. However, the relationship was sometimes strained, particularly so in a sharp exchange in 1991 when he furiously referred to De Klerk as the head of "an illegitimate, discredited, minority regime". The talks broke down following the Boipatong massacre in June 1992 when Mandela took the ANC out of the negotiations, accusing De Klerk's government of complicity in the killings.[15] However, talks resumed following the Bisho massacre in September 1992, when the spectre of violent confrontation made it clear that negotiations were the only way forward.[2] Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... The Boipatong massacre took place on 17 June 1992 in Boipatong, South Africa when mainly-Zulu dwellers from the KwaMadala Hostel for migrant workers went on a rampage through the township, killing 46 people. ... The Bisho massacre occurred on 7 September 1992 in Bisho, in the nominally independent homeland of Ciskei in South Africa. ...


Following the assassination of senior ANC leader Chris Hani in April 1993, there were renewed fears that the country would erupt in violence. Mandela addressed the nation appealing for calm, in a speech regarded as 'presidential' even though he was not yet president of the country at that time: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Tonight I am reaching out to every single South African, black and white, from the very depths of my being. A white man, full of prejudice and hate, came to our country and committed a deed so foul that our whole nation now teeters on the brink of disaster. A white woman, of Afrikaner origin, risked her life so that we may know, and bring to justice, this assassin. The cold-blooded murder of Chris Hani has sent shock waves throughout the country and the world. …Now is the time for all South Africans to stand together against those who, from any quarter, wish to destroy what Chris Hani gave his life for – the freedom of all of us.

While some riots did follow the assassination, the negotiators were galvanised into action, and soon agreed that democratic elections should take place on 27 April 1994, just over a year after Hani's assassination.[13] April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...

Autobiography

Mandela's autobiography, Long Walk to Freedom, was published in 1994. Mandela had begun work on it secretly while in prison. In that book Mandela did not reveal anything about the alleged complicity of F.W. de Klerk in the violence of the eighties and nineties, or the role of his ex-wife Winnie Mandela in that bloodshed. However, he later co-operated with his friend the journalist Anthony Sampson who discussed those issues in Mandela: The Authorised Biography. Another detail that Mandela omitted was the allegedly fraudulent book, Goodbye Bafana. Its author, Robben Island warder James Gregory, claimed to have been Mandela's confidante in prison and published details of the prisoner's family affairs. Sampson maintained that Mandela had not known Gregory well, but that Gregory censored the letters sent to the future president and thus discovered the details of Mandela's personal life. Sampson also averred that other warders suspected Gregory of spying for the government and that Mandela considered suing Gregory.[16] Long Walk to Freedom is an autobiographical work written by Nelson Mandela, and published in 1995 by Little Brown & Co. ... == == Frederik Willem de Klerk (born March 18, 1936) was the last State President of Apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. ... Winnie Madikizela-Mandela (born September 26, 1934 or 1936), born Nomzamo Winifred Zanyiwe Madikizela, is the ex-wife of former South African president (May 1994-June 1999) and African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela. ... Anthony Terrell Seward Sampson (August 3, 1926–December 18, 2004) was a British writer and founding member of the SDP. During the 1950s he edited the magazine Drum in Johannesburg, South Africa. ... Goodbye Bafana is a 2007 drama film about the relationship between Nelson Mandela and James Gregory, one of his prison guards, based on the allegedly fraudulent book Goodbye Bafana: Nelson Mandela, My Prisoner, My Friend by James Gregory. ... Several notable persons have been named James Gregory: James Gregory (astronomer and mathematician) James Gregory (mineralogist) James Gregory (actor) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Presidency of South Africa

South Africa's first democratic elections in which full enfranchisement was granted were held on 27 April 1994. The ANC won 62% of the votes in the election, and Mandela, as leader of the ANC, was inaugurated on 10 May 1994 as the country's first black President, with the National Party's de Klerk as his first deputy and Thabo Mbeki as the second in the Government of National Unity.[17] 1994 General Election results, National Assembly African National Congress (ANC) 12,237,655 62. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The President of South Africa, in full, the President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under South Africas Constitution. ... The Deputy President of South Africa is appointed by the President of South Africa. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born June 18, 1942) is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ... Between April 27, 1994 and February 3, 1997 South Africa was governed under the terms of the interim Constitution of South Africa. ...


Policy of reconciliation

As President from May 1994 until June 1999, Mandela presided over the transition from minority rule and apartheid, winning international respect for his advocacy of national and international reconciliation.


Mandela encouraged black South Africans to get behind the previously hated Springboks (the South African national rugby team) as South Africa hosted the 1995 Rugby World Cup. After the Springboks won an epic final over New Zealand, Mandela, wearing a Springbok shirt, presented the trophy to captain Francois Pienaar, an Afrikaner. This was widely seen as a major step in the reconciliation of white and black South Africans.[citation needed] The Springboks or Bokke are the South African national rugby union team. ... The 1995 Rugby World Cup was the third Rugby World Cup. ... Jacobus Francois Pienaar (born 2 January 1967 in Vereeniging, South Africa) captained and played flanker for the South African national rugby union team, the Springboks from 26 June 1993 until 10 August 1996. ...


After assuming the presidency, one of Mandela's trademarks was his use of Batik shirts, known as "Madiba shirts", even on formal occasions. This article is about the textile dyeing technique. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Invasion of Lesotho

In South Africa's first post-apartheid military operation, Mandela ordered troops into Lesotho in September 1998 to protect the government of Prime Minister Pakalitha Mosisili. This came after a disputed election prompted fierce opposition threatening the unstable government.[18] The South African Defense Force Invasion of Lesotho, codenamed Operation Boleas, was a military invasion launched by the South African government in 1998 into the neighbouring country of Lesotho to quell a suspected coup. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Pakalitha Bethuel Mosisili (born 1945) is the Prime Minister of Lesotho, and has been since May 29, 1998. ...


Criticism of AIDS response

Commentators and critics including AIDS activists such as Edwin Cameron have criticised Mandela for his government's ineffectiveness in stemming the AIDS crisis.[19][20] After his retirement, Mandela admitted that he may have failed his country by not paying more attention to the HIV/AIDS epidemic.[21][22] He has since taken many opportunities to highlight this South African and international tragedy. For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Edwin Cameron is a Rhodes scholar and High Court judge who was the first senior South African official to admit that he was infected with HIV/AIDS. Cameron was inspired to act by the stoning and stabbing to death of Gugu Dlamini after she had admitted on a Zulu language... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Retirement is the point where a person stops employment completely. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


Lockerbie trial

President Mandela took a particular interest in helping to resolve the long-running dispute between Gaddafi's Libya, on the one hand, and the United States and Britain on the other, over bringing to trial the two Libyans who were indicted in November 1991 and accused of sabotaging Pan Am Flight 103, which crashed at the Scottish town of Lockerbie on 21 December 1988, with the loss of 270 lives. As early as 1992, Mandela informally approached President George Bush with a proposal to have the two indicted Libyans tried in a third country. Bush reacted favourably to the proposal, as did President Mitterrand of France and King Juan Carlos of Spain. In November 1994 – six months after his election as president – Mandela formally proposed that South Africa should be the venue for the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial.[23] Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi 1 — pronounced Gaddafi — (Arabic: معمر القذافي ) (born c. ... PA 103 redirects here. ... Lockerbie Town Hall, 2006. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... King Juan Carlos I His Majesty King Juan Carlos I (Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón), styled HM The King (born January 5, 1938), is the reigning King of Spain. ... The trial began on May 3, 2000 The Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial began on May 3, 2000, which was 11 years, four months and 13 days after the sabotage of Pan Am Flight 103 on December 21, 1988. ...


However, British Prime Minister, John Major, flatly rejected the idea saying the British government did not have confidence in foreign courts[24]. A further three years elapsed until Mandela's offer was repeated to Major's successor, Tony Blair, when the president visited London in July 1997. Later the same year, at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) at Edinburgh in October 1997, Mandela warned: For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) is a biennial summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...

"No one nation should be complainant, prosecutor and judge."
President Mandela negotiated with Muammar Gaddafi the hand-over of two accused Libyans to stand trial

A compromise solution was then agreed for a trial to be held at Camp Zeist in the Netherlands, governed by Scots law, and President Mandela began negotiations with Colonel Gaddafi for the handover of the two accused (Megrahi and Fhimah) in April 1999.[25] At the end of their nine-month trial, the verdict was announced on 31 January 2001. Fhimah was acquitted but Megrahi was convicted and sentenced to 27 years in a Scottish jail. Megrahi's initial appeal was turned down in March 2002, and former president Mandela went to visit him in Barlinnie prison on 10 June 2002. The plaintiff, claimant, or complainant is the party initiating a lawsuit, (also known as an action). ... The prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution in countries adopting the common law adversarial system or the civil law inquisitorial system. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links MandelaGaddafi. ... Image File history File links MandelaGaddafi. ... Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi 1 (Arabic: معمر القذافي Mu`ammar al-Qadhdhāfī) (born 1942), leader of Libya since 1970 and a controversial Arab statesman. ... The trial began on May 3, 2000 The Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial began on May 3, 2000, which was 11 years, four months and 13 days after the sabotage of Pan Am Flight 103 on December 21, 1988. ... Zeist is a municipality and a town in the central Netherlands, located east of the city of Utrecht. ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi 1 — pronounced Gaddafi — (Arabic: معمر القذافي ) (born c. ... Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi (born April 1, 1952) is a former Libyan intelligence officer, head of security for Libyan Arab Airlines, and director of the Center for Strategic Studies in Tripoli. ... Fhimah celebrates his acquittal with Colonel Gadaffi Al Amin Khalifa Fhimah (born April 4, 1956) is a former station manager for Libyan Arab Airlines in Luqa airport, Malta. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

"Megrahi is all alone", Mandela told a packed press conference in the prison's visitors room. "He has nobody he can talk to. It is psychological persecution that a man must stay for the length of his long sentence all alone. It would be fair if he were transferred to a Muslim country — and there are Muslim countries which are trusted by the West. It will make it easier for his family to visit him if he is in a place like the kingdom of Morocco, Tunisia or Egypt."[26]

Megrahi was subsequently moved to Greenock jail and is no longer in solitary confinement. On June 28, 2007, the Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission concluded its three-year review of Megrahi's conviction and, believing that a miscarriage of justice may have occurred, referred the case to the Court of Criminal Appeal for a second appeal.[27] is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission (SCCRC) is a non-departmental public body in Scotland and was established by the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995 (as amended by the Crime and Punishment (Scotland) Act 1997). ... A miscarriage of justice is primarily the conviction and punishment of a person for a crime that he or she did not commit. ... The Court of Criminal Appeal was an English appellate court for criminal cases established by the Judicature Act 1873. ...


Marriage and family

Mandela has been married three times, has fathered six children, has twenty grandchildren, and a growing number of great-grandchildren. His grandson is Chief Mandla Mandela.[28] Chief can refer to : Paramount chief is the highest political leader in a region or country typically administered with a chief-based system. ... Mandla Mandela is the chief of the Mvezo Traditional Council. ...


First marriage

Mandela's first marriage was to Evelyn Ntoko Mase who, like Mandela, was also from what later became the Transkei area of South Africa, although they actually met in Johannesburg. The couple had two sons, Madiba Thembekile (Thembi) (born 1946) and Makgatho (born 1950), and two daughters, both named Makaziwe (known as Maki; born 1947 and 1953). Their first daughter died aged nine months, and they named their second daughter in her honor. The couple broke up in 1957 after 13 years, divorcing under the multiple strains of his constant absences, devotion to revolutionary agitation, and the fact she was a Jehovah's Witness, a religion which requires political neutrality. Thembi was killed in a car crash in 1969 at the age of 25, while Mandela was imprisoned on Robben Island. All their children were educated at the Waterford Kamhlaba. Evelyn Mase died in 2004. Flag of Transkei bantustan Political Map of South Africa prior to 1994 Transkei, as of 1978 The Transkei — which means the area beyond the Kei River — is a region situated in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Make Mandela. ... It has been suggested that Kamhlaba be merged into this article or section. ...


Second marriage

Mandela's second wife, Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, also came from the Transkei area, although they, too, met in Johannesburg, where she was the city's first black social worker. They had two daughters, Zenani (Zeni), born 4 February 1958, and Zindziswa (Zindzi), born 1960. Later, Winnie would be deeply torn by family discord which mirrored the country's political strife; while her husband was serving a life sentence on the Robben Island prison, her father became the agriculture minister in the Transkei. The marriage ended in separation (April 1992) and divorce (March 1996), fuelled by political estrangement. Winnie Madikizela-Mandela (born September 26, 1936 as Nomzamo Winifred Zanyiwe Madikizela) is a former South African politician who has held several government positions and headed the African National Congress Womens League. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mandela still languished in prison when his daughter Zenani was married to Prince Thumbumuzi Dlamini in 1973, elder brother of King Mswati III of Swaziland. As a member by marriage of a reigning foreign dynasty, she was able to visit her father during his South African imprisonment while other family members were denied access. The Dlamini couple live and run a business in Boston. One of their sons, Prince Cedza Dlamini (born 1976), educated in the United States, has followed in his grandfather's footsteps as an international advocate for human rights and humanitarian aid. Thumbumuzi and Mswati's sister, Princess Mantfombi Dlamini, is the chief consort to King Goodwill Zwelithini of KwaZulu-Natal, who "reigns but does not rule" over South Africa's largest ethnic group under the auspices of South Africa's government. One of Queen Mantfombi's sons is expected to eventually succeed Goodwill as monarch of the Zulus, whose Inkatha Party leader, Mangosuthu Buthelezi, was the rival of Mandela during much of his presidency. Mswati III (born Makhosetive on April 19, 1968) of Swaziland is the king of Swaziland, and head of the Swazi Royal Family. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Cedza Dlamini engaging audiences on the Millennium Development Goals in 2005. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu (b. ... KwaZulu-Natal (often referred to as KZN) is a province of South Africa. ... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, African Traditional Religion Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of an estimated 17-22 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... The Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) is a political party in South Africa. ... Chief Mangosuthu (Gatsha)Ashpenaz Nathan Buthelezi (born August 27, 1928) is a South African Zulu leader, and leader of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) which he formed in 1975. ...


Third marriage

Mandela himself was re-married in 1998, on his 80th birthday, to Graça Machel née Simbine, widow of Samora Machel, the former Mozambican president and ANC ally killed in an air crash 12 years earlier. The wedding followed months of international negotiations to set the unprecedented bride-price remitted to her clan, which were conducted on Mandela's behalf by his traditional sovereign, King Buyelekhaya Zwelibanzi Dalindyebo, born 1964. Ironically, it was this paramount chief's grandfather, the Regent Jongintaba, whose selection of a bride for him prompted Mandela to flee to Johannesburg as a young man. Graça Machel in 1984, with then husband President Samora Machel of Mozambique and P W Botha and Pik Botha of South Africa at the signing of the Nkomati Accord. ... US President Reagan and President Samora Machel of Mozambique Samora Moisés Machel (September 29, 1933 - October 19, 1986) was President of Mozambique from 1975 until he died eleven years later, when his presidential aircraft crashed in mountainous terrain where the borders of Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland converge. ... A paramount chief is the highest-level traditional (usually tribal) chief or political leader in a region or country typically administered politically with a chief-based system. ...


Mandela still maintains a home at Qunu in the realm of his royal nephew (second cousin thrice-removed in Western reckoning), whose university expenses he defrayed and whose privy councillor he remains.[29] Occident redirects here. ...


Retirement

Mandela became the oldest elected President of South Africa when he took office at the age of 77 in 1994. He decided not to stand for a second term as President, and instead retired in 1999, to be succeeded by Thabo Mbeki. Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born June 18, 1942) is the current President of the Republic of South Africa. ...


Health

In July 2001 Mandela was diagnosed and treated for prostate cancer. He was treated with a seven week course of radiation.[30] In June 2004, at age 85, Mandela announced that he would be retiring from public life. His health had been declining, and he wanted to enjoy more time with his family. Mandela said that he did not intend to hide away totally from the public, but wanted to be in a position "of calling you to ask whether I would be welcome, rather than being called upon to do things and participate in events. My appeal therefore is: Don't call me, I will call you"[31]. Since 2003, he has appeared in public less often and has been less vocal on topical issues.[32] In his late 80s, he is white haired and walks slowly with the support of a stick. Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ...


In 2003 Mandela's death was incorrectly announced by CNN when his pre-written obituary (along with those of several other famous figures) was inadvertently published on CNN's web site due to a fault in password protection.[33] In 2007 a fringe right-wing group distributed hoax emails and SMSs claiming that the authorities had covered up Mandela's death and that white South Africans would be massacred after his funeral. Mandela was on holiday in Mozambique at the time.[34] Various notable people have had their death announced in error. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ...


Public activities

After his retirement as President, Mandela went on to become an advocate for a variety of social and human rights organisations. He has expressed his support for the international Make Poverty History movement of which the ONE Campaign is a part.[35] // The Make Poverty History campaign (which is written as MAKEPOVERTYHISTORY) was a British and Irish coalition of charities, religious groups, trade unions, campaigning groups and celebrities who mobilized around the UKs prominence in world politics in 2005 to increase awareness and pressure governments into taking actions towards relieving absolute... ONE Campaign logo. ...


Mandela appeared in a televised advertisement for the 2006 Winter Olympics, and was quoted for the International Olympic Committee's Celebrate Humanity campaign:[36] Neve and Gliz, the 2006 Olympics mascots, on display in Turin The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in Turin, Italy from February 10, 2006, through February 26, 2006. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ...

For seventeen days, they are roommates.
For seventeen days, they are soulmates.
And for twenty-two seconds, they are competitors.
Seventeen days as equals. Twenty-two seconds as adversaries.
What a wonderful world that would be.
That's the hope I see in the Olympic Games.

The Nelson Mandela Invitational charity golf tournament, hosted by Gary Player, has raised over R 20 million for children's charities since its inception in 2000. This annual special event has become South Africa's most successful charitable sports gathering and benefits both the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund and Gary Player Foundation equally for various children's causes around the world. Gary Player (born November 1, 1935) is a South African professional golfer generally regarded as one of the greatest players in the games history. ... ISO 4217 Code ZAR User(s) Common Monetary Area: Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland Inflation 5. ...


The Elders

On 18 July 2007, Nelson Mandela, Graça Machel, and Desmond Tutu convened a group of world leaders in Johannesburg to contribute their wisdom, independent leade toughest problems. Nelson Mandela announced the formation of this new group, The Elders, in a speech he delivered on the occasion of his 89th birthday.[37][38] is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Graça Machel in 1984, with then husband President Samora Machel of Mozambique and P W Botha and Pik Botha of South Africa at the signing of the Nkomati Accord. ... Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ... The Global Elders or The Elders is a group of public figures noted as statemen, peace activists, and human rights advocates. ...


Archbishop Tutu will serve as the Chair of The Elders. The founding members of this group also include Graça Machel, Kofi Annan, Ela Bhatt, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Jimmy Carter, Li Zhaoxing, Mary Robinson and Muhammad Yunus. Graça Machel in 1984, with then husband President Samora Machel of Mozambique and P W Botha and Pik Botha of South Africa at the signing of the Nkomati Accord. ... Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... Ela Bhatt is the founder of the Self-Employed Womens Association (SEWA) and served as the General Secretary of SEWA from 1972-1996. ... Gro Harlem Brundtland [IPA: gro hÉ‘É­É›m brʉntlÉ‘nd] (born April 20, 1939) is a Norwegian politician, diplomat, and physician, and an international leader in sustainable development and public health. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Li (李) Li Zhaoxing (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; born October 20, 1940) was the foreign minister of the Peoples Republic of China from 2003 to 2007. ... For the poet, see Mary Robinson (poet). ... For the Indian diplomat, see Mohammad Yunus (diplomat). ...


“This group can speak freely and boldly, working both publicly and behind the scenes on whatever actions need to be taken,” Mandela commented. “Together we will work to support courage where there is fear, foster agreement where there is conflict, and inspire hope where there is despair.”[39]


AIDS engagement

Since his retirement, one of Mandela's primary commitments has been to the fight against AIDS. In 2003, he had already lent his support to the 46664 AIDS fundraising campaign, named after his prison number. In July 2004, he flew to Bangkok to speak at the XV International AIDS Conference. His son, Makgatho Mandela, died of AIDS on 6 January 2005. For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... 46664 is the prisoner number of Nelson Mandela from his imprisonment in 1964 to his release in 1990, and the title used for a series of AIDS charity concerts (the motto: Aids is not a disease it is a human rights issue). Mandela is sometimes referred to, reverently, as prisoner... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Location within in Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governer Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... The IMPACT Muang Thong Thani convention centre, Bangkok, venue for the XV International AIDS Conference The XV International AIDS Conference was held in Bangkok, capital of Thailand, from July 11 to July 16, 2004. ... Makgatho Lewanika Mandela (June 26, 1950–January 6, 2005) was the son of former South African president and Nobel Prize winner Nelson Mandela and his first wife Evelyn Ntoko Mase. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Iraq invasion views

In 2003 Mandela criticised the foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration in a number of speeches. Criticising the lack of UN involvement in the decision to begin the War in Iraq, he said, "It is a tragedy, what is happening, what Bush is doing. But Bush is now undermining the United Nations". Mandela stated he would support action against Iraq only if it is ordered by the UN. Mandela also insinuated that Bush may have been motivated by racism in not following the UN and its secretary-general Kofi Annan on the issue of the war. "Is it because the secretary-general of the United Nations is now a black man? They never did that when secretary-generals were white".[40] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... There have been three conflicts in the late 20th century and early 21st century called Gulf War, all of which refer to conflicts in the Persian Gulf region: Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) (aka First Gulf War). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... This box:      Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted is that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ...


He urged the people of the U.S. to join massive protests against Bush and called on world leaders, especially those with vetoes in the UN Security Council, to oppose him. "What I am condemning is that one power, with a president who has no foresight, who cannot think properly, is now wanting to plunge the world into a holocaust." He attacked the United States for its record on human rights and for dropping atomic bombs on Japan during World War II. "If there is a country that has committed unspeakable atrocities in the world, it is the United States of America. They don't care."[40] For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


As a member of the United States House of Representatives in 1986, Dick Cheney had voted against a congressional resolution calling for Mandela's release from prison. In 2002, Mandela called Cheney a "dinosaur".[41] Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ...


Ismail Ayob controversy

Further information: Ismail Ayob

Ismail Ayob was a trusted friend and personal attorney of Mandela for over 30 years. In May 2005, Ayob was asked by Mandela to stop selling prints signed by Mandela and to account for the proceeds of their sale. This bitter dispute led to an extensive application to the High Court of South Africa by Mandela that year.[42] Ayob denied any wrongdoing,[43] and claimed that he was the victim of a smear campaign orchestrated by Mandela's advisors, in particular, lawyer George Bizos.[44] Ismail Mahomed Ayob was born on the 3 January 1942 to Mahomed and Julekha Ayob in Mafeking, then a small town in the far northern Cape province of South Africa. ... Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. ... The High Court of South Africa is a court of law in South Africa. ... George Bizos born 1928 in Greece, is a distinguished human rights advocate who defended against apartheid in South Africa. ...


In 2005, and 2006 Ayob, his wife, and son were subject to an attack by Mandela’s advisors. The dispute was widely reported in the media, with Ayob being portrayed in a negative light, culminating in the action by Mandela to the High Court. There were public meetings at which Mandela associates attacked Ayob and there were calls for Ayob and his family to be ostracised by society.[45] The defence of Ismail and Zamila Ayob (his wife, and a fellow respondent) included documents signed by Mandela and witnessed by his secretaries, that, they claimed, refuted many of the allegations made by Nelson Mandela and his advisors.[46] In Common law, a defendant is any person who is required to answer the complaint of a plaintiff in a civil suit or any person who has been named in a criminal information or criminal complaint and stands accused of violating a criminal statute. ...


The dispute again made headlines in February 2007 when, during a hearing in the Johannesburg High Court, Ayob promised to pay R700 000 to Mandela, which Ayob had transferred into trusts for Mandela's children, and apologised,[47][48] although he later claimed that he was the victim of a "vendetta", by Mandela.[49] Some media commentators expressed sympathy for Ayob's position, pointing out that Mandela's iconic status would make it difficult for Ayob to be treated fairly.[50][44] A feud is a long-running argument or fight between parties—often groups of people, especially families or clans. ...


Allegations

Ayob, George Bizos and Wim Trengrove were trustees of the Nelson Mandela Trust, which was set up to hold millions of rands donated to Nelson Mandela by prominent business figures, including the Oppenheimer family, for the benefit of his children and grandchildren.[51] Ayob later resigned from the Trust. In 2006, the two remaining trustees of the Nelson Mandela Trust launched an application against Ayob for disbursing money from the trust without their consent.[52] Ayob claimed that this money was paid to the South African Revenue Service, to Mandela's children and grandchildren to Mandela himself and to an accounting company for four years of accounting work.[48] Nicholas Nicky F. Oppenheimer (born 8 June 1945) is a billionaire South African businessman, the chairman of the De Beers diamond mining company and its subsidiary, the Diamond Trading Company. ... The South African Revenue Service (also known as SARS) is the section of the South African government responsible for collecting taxes, tariffs, duties and all other forms of revenue levied by the South African government. ...


Bizos and Trengrove refused to ratify the payments to the children and grandchildren of Nelson Mandela and the payments to the accounting firm. A court settlement was reached in which this money, totalling over R700,000 was paid by Ismail Ayob to the trust on the grounds that Ayob had not sought the express consent of the other two trustees before disbursing the money.[53] It was alleged that Ayob made defamatory remarks about Mandela in his affidavit, for which the court order stated that Ayob should apologise. It was pointed out that these remarks, which centred on Nelson Mandela holding foreign bank accounts and not paying tax on these, had not originated from Ayob's affidavit but from Nelson Mandela's and George Bizos's own affidavits.[53]


Blood Diamond controversy

In a The New Republic article in December 2006, Nelson Mandela was criticised for a number of positive comments he had made about the diamond industry, specifically regarding blood diamonds. In a letter to Edward Zwick, the director of the motion picture Blood Diamond, Mandela had noted that: For other uses, see New Republic. ... Panning for diamonds in Sierra Leone. ... Edward Zwick (born October 8, 1952 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American film director and film producer. ... Blood Diamond is an Academy Award-nominated 2006 adventure/drama/thriller film. ...

"...it would be deeply regrettable if the making of the film inadvertently obscured the truth, and, as a result, led the world to believe that an appropriate response might be to cease buying mined diamonds from Africa. ... We hope that the desire to tell a gripping and important real life historical story will not result in the destabilization of African diamond producing countries, and ultimately their peoples."[54]

The New Republic article claims that this comment, as well as various pro-diamond-industry initiatives and statements during his life and during his time as a president of South Africa, were influenced by both his friendship with Harry Oppenheimer, former chairman of De Beers, as well as an outlook for 'narrow national interests' of South Africa (which is a major diamond producer). Harry Frederick Oppenheimer (28 October 1908 – 19 August 2000), was a prominent South African businessman and one of the worlds richest men. ... De Beers, founded in South Africa by Cecil Rhodes, comprises companies involved in rough diamond exploration, diamond mining and diamond trading. ...


Zimbabwe and Robert Mugabe

Robert Mugabe, the president of Zimbabwe who has led the country since independence in 1980, has been widely criticised internationally for the 1980s slaughter of 20,000 Matabele people as well as corruption, incompetent administration, political oppression and cronyism that has ultimately led to the economic collapse of the country. Mugabe redirects here. ... Gukurahundi is a traditional term in Shona (one of Zimbabwes native languages), which means the early rain which washes away the chaff before the spring rains. The chaff, i. ...


Mandela criticised Mugabe's government in 2000,[55][56] but since around 2003, in his retirement, Mandela has been silent on Zimbabwe and other international and domestic issues.[32] This has sometimes led to Mandela being criticised for not using his influence to more effect to persuade Mugabe to moderate his policies.[57]


Acclaim

Fighter for liberation of South Africa Nelson Mandela on the 1988 USSR commemorative stamp
Fighter for liberation of South Africa Nelson Mandela on the 1988 USSR commemorative stamp

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 423 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (564 × 800 pixel, file size: 86 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 423 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (564 × 800 pixel, file size: 86 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Orders and decorations

Mandela has received many South African, foreign and international honours, including the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 (which was shared with Frederik Willem de Klerk), the Order of Merit and the Order of St. John from Queen Elizabeth II and the Presidential Medal of Freedom from George W. Bush. In July 2004, the city of Johannesburg bestowed its highest honour on Mandela by granting him the freedom of the city at a ceremony in Orlando, Soweto. List of awards, honours and other recognitions bestowed on Nelson Mandela. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... == == Frederik Willem de Klerk (born March 18, 1936) was the last State President of Apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. ... The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. ... HRH The Duke of Gloucester is Grand Prior of the Venerable Order of Saint John. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Orlando is the name of a township in, Soweto, South Africa. ... Johannesburg, including Soweto, from the International Space Station Soweto is an urban area in the City of Johannesburg, in Gauteng, South Africa. ...


As an example of his popular foreign acclaim, during his tour of Canada in 1998, 45,000 school children greeted him with adulation at a speaking engagement in the SkyDome in the city of Toronto. In 2001, he was the first living person to be made an honorary Canadian citizen (the only previous recipient, Raoul Wallenberg, was awarded honorary citizenship posthumously). While in Canada, he was also made an honorary Companion of the Order of Canada, one of the few foreigners to receive Canada's highest honour. Rogers Centre, formerly known as SkyDome,[1] is a multi-purpose stadium in Toronto, Ontario, situated next to the CN Tower near the shores of Lake Ontario. ... Honorary Canadian Citizenship is an honor bestowed by the Parliament of Canada to foreigners of exceptional merit. ... Raoul Gustav Wallenberg (August 4, 1912 – July 16, 1947?)[1][2][3] was a Swedish humanitarian sent to Budapest, Hungary under diplomatic cover to rescue Jews from the Holocaust. ... Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country (Hebrews 11. ...


In 1990 he received the Bharat Ratna Award from the government of India. Bharat Ratna is Indias highest civilian award, awarded for the highest degrees of national service. ...


In 1992 he was awarded the Atatürk Peace Award by Turkey. He refused the award citing human rights violations committed by Turkey at the time, but later accepted the award in 1999.[58]


Musical tributes

Many artists have dedicated songs to Mandela. One of the most popular was from the The Specials who recorded the song Nelson Mandela in 1983. Stevie Wonder dedicated his 1985 Oscar for the song I Just Called to Say I Love You to Mandela, resulting in his music being banned by the South African Broadcasting Corporation.[59] In 1985, Youssou N'Dour's album Nelson Mandela was the Senegalese artist's first United States release. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Stevie Wonder (born Stevland Hardaway Judkins on May 13, 1950, name later changed to Stevland Hardaway Morris),[1] is an American singer, songwriter, musician, and record producer. ... // The Academy Award for Best Original Song is one of the awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; nominations are made by Academy members who are songwriters and composers. ... I Just Called to Say I Love You is a song written, produced, and performed by Stevie Wonder as part of the soundtrack to the 1984 film The Woman in Red. ... The South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) is the state-owned broadcaster in South Africa and provides 18 radio stations (AM/FM) as well as 4 television broadcasts to the general public. ... Youssou NDour Youssou NDour (born October 1, 1959 in Dakar) is a Senegalese singer. ...


In 1988, the Nelson Mandela 70th Birthday Tribute concert at London's Wembley Stadium was a focal point of the anti-apartheid movement, with many musicians voicing their support for Mandela. Jerry Dammers, the author of Nelson Mandela, was one of the organisers. Simple Minds recorded the song Mandela Day for the concert, Santana recorded the instrumental Mandela, and Tracy Chapman performed Freedom Now, dedicated to Mandela and released on her album Crossroads. Salif Keita from Mali, who played at the concert, later visited South Africa and in 1995 recorded the song Mandela on his album Folon. The Nelson Mandela 70th Birthday Tribute was a concert event held on June 11, 1988 at the Wembley Stadium, London. ... For the new stadium, see Wembley Stadium. ... Jerry Dammers (born Jeremy Dammers on 22 May 1955, in Ootacamund, India) was the founder and keyboard player of the Coventry-based ska band, The Specials (later changed to The Special A.K.A.). He also contributed in founding the 2 Tone record label, which helped to popularize the new... Simple Minds is a rock band from Scotland, which had its greatest worldwide popularity from the mid-1980s to the early-1990s. ... Santana (originally the Santana Blues Band) is a flexible number of musicians accompanying Carlos Santana since the late 1960s. ... Tracy Chapman (born March 30, 1964) is an American singer-songwriter, best known for her singles, Fast Car, Talkin Bout a Revolution, Baby Can I Hold You and Give Me One Reason. She is a multi-platinum and multi-Grammy Award-winning artist. ... Crossroads is the second album by American singer/songwriter Tracy Chapman, released in 1989 (see 1989 in music). ... Amens album cover Salif Keita (born August 25, 1949) is an internationally recognized Afro-Pop singer and song writer from Mali. ... Folon is the fourth studio album from Malian artist Salif Keita. ...


In South Africa, Asimbonanga (Mandela) (we have not seen him) became one of Johnny Clegg's most famous songs, appearing on his Third World Child album in 1987. Hugh Masekela, in exile in the UK, sang Bring Him Back Home (Nelson Mandela) in 1987. Brenda Fassie's 1989 song Black President, a tribute to Mandela, was hugely popular even though it was banned in South Africa.[60] Johnny Clegg can refer to two different people: Johnny Clegg the actor Johnny Clegg the musician from South Africa This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Third World Child is studio album by South African artist Johnny Clegg and his band Savuka, released in 1987 and produced by Hilton Rosenthal. ... Hugh Masekela (born Johannesburg, April 4, 1939) is a South African flugelhorn and cornet player. ... Brenda Fassie (November 3, 1964 – May 9, 2004[1]), was a legendary South African pop singer widely considered the voice for disenfranchised blacks during apartheid. ...


In 1990, Hong Kong Cantopop band Beyond released a popular Cantonese song, "Days of Glory". The anti-apartheid song featured lyrics referring to Mandela's heroic struggle for racial equality.[61] Cantopop (Chinese: 粵語流行曲) is a colloquial abbreviation for Cantonese popular music. It is also referred to as HK-pop, short for Hong Kong popular music. It is categorized as a subgenre of Chinese popular music within C-pop. ... Beyond was a famous rock band in Hong Kong that was founded in 1983. ...


In 2003, Mandela lent his weight to the 46664 campaign against AIDS, named after his prison number. Many prominent musicians performed in concerts as part of this the campaign. 46664 is the prisoner number of Nelson Mandela from his imprisonment in 1964 to his release in 1990, and the title used for a series of AIDS charity concerts (the motto: Aids is not a disease it is a human rights issue). Mandela is sometimes referred to, reverently, as prisoner... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


A summary of Mandela's life story is featured in the 2006 music video If Everyone Cared by Nickelback. If Everyone Cared is the fourth single worldwide released from Nickelbacks All the Right Reasons, and the fifth and sixth single released in Australia and the U.S. respectively (Animals was only released in Australia and the U.S., and Rockstar only in the U.S.). It was released... This article is about the Canadian rock band. ...


Cinema

In 1997, the film Mandela and De Klerk told the story of Mandela's release from prison. Mandela was played by Sidney Poitier. Goodbye Bafana, a feature film that focuses on Mandela's life, had its world premiere at the Berlin film festival on 11 February 2007. The film starred Dennis Haysbert as Mandela and chronicled Mandela's relationship with prison guard James Gregory. Sir Sidney Poitier KBE, (IPA pronunciation: ) (born February 20, 1927), is an Academy Award-winning Bahamian American actor, film director, and activist. ... Goodbye Bafana is a 2007 drama film about the relationship between Nelson Mandela and James Gregory, one of his prison guards, based on the allegedly fraudulent book Goodbye Bafana: Nelson Mandela, My Prisoner, My Friend by James Gregory. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Dennis Dexter Haysbert (born June 2, 1954) is an American film and television actor. ... Several notable persons have been named James Gregory: James Gregory (astronomer and mathematician) James Gregory (mineralogist) James Gregory (actor) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In the final scene of the 1992 movie Malcolm X, Mandela – recently released after 27 years of political imprisonment – appears as a schoolteacher in a Soweto classroom. He recites a portion of one of Malcolm X's most famous speeches, including the following sentence: "We declare our right on this earth to be a human being, to be respected as a human being, to be given the rights of a human being in this society, on this earth, in this day, which we intend to bring into existence..." The final phrase of that sentence is "by any means necessary." Mandela informed director Spike Lee that he could not utter this phrase on camera, stating that the apartheid government would somehow use it against him if he did. Lee understandingly obliged, and the final seconds of the film feature black-and-white footage of the real Malcolm X speaking the words "by any means necessary".[citation needed] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Johannesburg, including Soweto, from the International Space Station Soweto is an urban area in the City of Johannesburg, in Gauteng, South Africa. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... Shelton Jackson Lee (born March 20, 1957, in Atlanta, Georgia), better known as Spike Lee, is an Emmy Award - winning, and Academy Award - nominated American film director, producer, writer, and actor noted for his films dealing with controversial social and political issues. ...


Marianne Williamson quotation

The statue of Mandela in Parliament Square.
The statue of Mandela in Parliament Square.

The following famous text by Marianne Williamson is often claimed to have been spoken by Mandela at his inauguration as President of South Africa. This is an urban myth; there is no record of Mandela ever having spoken these words in public: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (667 × 1000 pixel, file size: 594 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (667 × 1000 pixel, file size: 594 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Marianne Williamson Marianne Williamson (born July 8, 1952)[1] is a spiritual activist, author, lecturer and founder of The Peace Alliance, a grass roots campaign supporting legislation currently before Congress to establish a United States Department of Peace. ...

Our deepest fear is not that we are inadequate. Our deepest fear is that we are powerful beyond measure. It is our light, not our darkness, that most frightens us. We ask ourselves, who am I to be brilliant, gorgeous, talented, and fabulous? Actually, who are you not to be? You are a child of God. Your playing small doesn't serve the world. There's nothing enlightened about shrinking so that other people won't feel insecure around you. We are all meant to shine, as children do. We are born to make manifest the glory of God that is within us. It's not just in some of us, it's in everyone. And as we let our own light shine, we unconsciously give other people permission to do the same. As we are liberated from our own fear, our presence automatically liberates others.[62]

Statues

On 31 March 2004, Sandton Square was renamed Nelson Mandela Square, after a 6-metre statue of Nelson Mandela was installed on the square to honour the famous South African statesman. is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Statue at Nelson Mandela Square. ...


On 29 August 2007, a statue of Nelson Mandela was unveiled at Parliament Square in London by Richard Attenborough, Ken Livingston, Wendy Woods, and Gordon Brown. The campaign to erect the statue was started in 2000 by the late Donald Woods, a South African journalist driven into exile because of his anti-apartheid activities. Mandela stated that it represented not just him, but all those who have resisted oppression, especially those in South Africa. He also said, "The history of the struggle in South Africa is rich with the stories of heroes and heroines, some of them leaders, some of them followers. All of them deserve to be remembered."[63] is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Parliament Square (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Richard Samuel Attenborough, Baron Attenborough, CBE, KBE (born August 29, 1923) is an English actor, director, producer, and entrepreneur. ... Ken Livingstone Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born June 17, 1945), is a British politician who has been the Mayor of London since the creation of the post in 2000. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... Donald James Woods, CBE (December 15, 1933 – August 19, 2001) was a South African journalist and anti-apartheid activist. ...

The Rivonia Trial was an infamous trial which took place in South Africa between 1963 and 1964, in which ten leaders of the African National Congress were tried for 221 acts of sabotage designed to ferment violent revolution. // Origins It was named after Rivonia, the suburb of Johannesburg where 19... The Nelson Mandela 70th Birthday Tribute was a concert event held on June 11, 1988 at the Wembley Stadium, London. ... The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993. ... 1994 General Election results, National Assembly African National Congress (ANC) 12,237,655 62. ... The South African Defense Force Invasion of Lesotho, codenamed Operation Boleas, was a military invasion launched by the South African government in 1998 into the neighbouring country of Lesotho to quell a suspected coup. ... List of awards, honours and other recognitions bestowed on Nelson Mandela. ... Evelyn Ntoko (1922–April 30, 2004), born Evelyn Ntoko Mase, was a nurse and the first wife of Nelson Mandela, former South African president (from May 1994–June 1999) and African National Congress leader. ... Winnie Madikizela-Mandela (born September 26, 1936 as Nomzamo Winifred Zanyiwe Madikizela) is a former South African politician who has held several government positions and headed the African National Congress Womens League. ... Graça Machel in 1984, with then husband President Samora Machel of Mozambique and P W Botha and Pik Botha of South Africa at the signing of the Nkomati Accord. ... Ismail Mahomed Ayob was born on the 3 January 1942 to Mahomed and Julekha Ayob in Mafeking, then a small town in the far northern Cape province of South Africa. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...

Further reading

  • Anthony Sampson; Mandela: The Authorised Biography; ISBN 0-679-78178-1 (1999)
  • Nelson Mandela; Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela; Little Brown & Co; ISBN 0-316-54818-9 (paperback, 1995)
  • Mary Benson; Nelson Mandela: The Man and the Movement
  • Martin Meredith; Nelson Mandela: A Biography
  • Barry Denenberg; Nelson Mandela: No Easy Walk To Freedom
  • Charlene Smith; Mandela: In Celebration of a Great Life
  • Juckes, Tim. Opposition in South Africa: The Leadership of Matthews, Nelson Mandela, and Stephen Biko. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers, 1995.
  • Villa-Vicencio, Charles. The Spirit of Freedom. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1996.
  • Dorothy and Thomas Hoobler; Mandela: The Man, The Struggle, The Triumph
  • A Prisoner in the Garder Penguin Books ISBN 0-143-02495-7
  • Anne Marie du Preez Bezdrob. The Nelson Mandela Story Samoja Books ISBN 0-620-36570-6

Anthony Terrell Seward Sampson (August 3, 1926–December 18, 2004) was a British writer and founding member of the SDP. During the 1950s he edited the magazine Drum in Johannesburg, South Africa. ... Long Walk to Freedom is an autobiographical work written by Nelson Mandela, and published in 1995 by Little Brown & Co. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Mandela: The Authorized Portrait (2006). Retrieved on 2007-08-31.
  2. ^ a b c d Mandela, Nelson (1994). Long Walk to Freedom. Little Brown and Company. 
  3. ^ Nelson Mandela (2000-01-03). The Sacred Warrior. TIME 100: Person of the Century. Retrieved on 2007-08-27.
  4. ^ Surendra Bhana and Goolam Vahed (2005). The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa, 1893-1914, p. 149, 149. 
  5. ^ Nita Bhalla. "Mandela calls for Gandhi's non-violence approach", Reuters, 29 January 2007. Retrieved on 2007-08-27. 
  6. ^ a b Nelson Mandela (April 20, 1964). "I am Prepared to Die" - Nelson Mandela's statement from the dock at the opening of the defence case in the Rivonia Trial. African National Congress. Retrieved on 2007-08-27.
  7. ^ Mandela admits ANC violated rights, too (from findarticles.com, originally published in the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, 2 November 1998)
  8. ^ Blum, William. How the CIA sent Nelson Mandela to prison for 28 years. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
  9. ^ Stein, Jeff (1996-11-14). Our Man in South Africa. Salon. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
  10. ^ Manifesto of Umkhonto we Sizwe. African National Congress (1961-12-16). Retrieved on 2006-12-30.
  11. ^ Winter, Gordon, Inside BOSS, Penguin 1981
  12. ^ Lobster Magazine 18
  13. ^ a b c Sparks, Allister (1994). Tomorrow is Another Country. Struik. 
  14. ^ Profile of Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela. ANC. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  15. ^ Boipatong Massacre. ANC (18 June 1992). Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
  16. ^ Sampson, Anthony (1999). Mandela: The Authorised Biography. HarperCollins, 217. 
  17. ^ Mandela becomes SA's first black president. BBC On This Day. Retrieved on 2007-08-27.
  18. ^ Bethuel Thai (1998-10-04). Lesotho to hold re-elections within 15 to 18 months. Lesotho News Online. Retrieved on 2007-08-27.
  19. ^ Sampson, Anthony (2003-07-06). Mandela at 85. The Observer.
  20. ^ Robinson, Simon (2007-04-11). The Lion In Winter. TIMEeurope Magazine.
  21. ^ Can Mandela's AIDS Message Pierce the Walls of Shame?. Peninsula Peace and Justice Center (2005-01-09).
  22. ^ Quist-Arcton, Ofeibea (2003-07-19). South Africa: Mandela Deluged With Tributes as He Turns 85. allAfrica.com.
  23. ^ Families say SA trial site acceptable
  24. ^ The Guardian 11 May 1999 page 13 "Mandela's parting shot at Major over Lockerbie"
  25. ^ "Analysis: Lockerbie's long road", BBC, 2001-01-31. 
  26. ^ "Mandela appeals on behalf of Lockerbie bomber", Guardian Unlimited, 2002-06-10. 
  27. ^ SCCRC refers Megrahi's case back for a second appeal
  28. ^ Henry Soszynski. Genealogical Gleanings. abaThembu (Tribe). University of Queensland. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.
  29. ^ de Bruyne, Marnix. Zuidelijk Afrika. Tembu King Zwelibanzi has gained respect in exile. Netherlands Institute for Southern Africa. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.
  30. ^ "Mandela 'responding well to treatment'", BBC News, 2001-08-15. 
  31. ^ "I'll call you". SouthAfrica.info (2004-06-02). Retrieved on 2007-08-27.
  32. ^ a b Carroll, Rory. "Mandela keeps his opinions to himself as a nation marks its idol's birthday", The Guardian, 18 July 2006. 
  33. ^ The Smoking Gun: Archive (2003). Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  34. ^ Yolandi Groenewald and Pearlie Joubert. "Not yet uhuru", Mail & Guardian, 2007-03-02. 
  35. ^ 2005: The year of Make Poverty History. Make Poverty History. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  36. ^ Celebrate Humanity 2004 (PDF). International Olympic Committee (2004). Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  37. ^ Mandela joins ‘Elders’ on turning 89. MSNBC (2007-07-20).
  38. ^ "Mandela launches Global Elders initiative on 89th birthday". 
  39. ^ Nelson Mandela announces The Elders July 18, 2007
  40. ^ a b Tom Fenton (2003-01-30). Mandela Slams Bush On Iraq. CBS News. Retrieved on 207-08-27.
  41. ^ US threatens world peace, says Mandela. BBC (2002-09-11). Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  42. ^ Abhik Kumar Chanda. "Mandela sues over forged sketches", Mail & Guardian, 2005-05-10. 
  43. ^ Mabuza, Ernest. "Ayob denies gain from Mandela art", Business Day, 2005-07-13. 
  44. ^ a b Moya, Fikile-Notsikelelo. "Poor Ismail Ayob", Mail & Guardian, 5 August 2005. 
  45. ^ Keet, Jacques. "Courts ’have final word on Mandela-Ayob clash’", Business Day, 21 July 2005. 
  46. ^ Mabuza, Ernest. "Bizos behind vicious campaign to discredit, defame me — Ayob", Business Day, 18 July 2005. 
  47. ^ "Ayob to pay back Mandela money", News24, 27 February 2007. 
  48. ^ a b Gordin, Jeremy. "What caused the Ayob, Mandela spat?", Sunday Independent, 4 March 2007. 
  49. ^ Schmidt, Michael. "Mandela waging a vendetta - Ayob", Pretoria News, 3 March 2007. 
  50. ^ Madondo, Bongani. "Fawning over St Nelson is no way to do justice to Mandela", Sunday Times, 25 February 2007. 
  51. ^ Wisani wa ka Ngobeni, Dumisane Lubisi and Dominic Mahlangu. "Dirty war over Mandela millions", Sunday Times, 25 February 2007. 
  52. ^ Makhudu Sefara and Jackie Mapiloko. "Madiba set me up, says Ayob", City Press, 3 March 2007. 
  53. ^ a b Mabuza, Ernest. "Ayob Runs Out of Cash But Accuses Mandela Again", Business Day, 10 March 2007. 
  54. ^ Half Nelson - Mandela, diamond shill. The New Republic, ((online) post date Friday 08 December 2006, (print) issue date Monday 18 December 2006).
  55. ^ "Mandela expresses anger at Mugabe", The Namibian, 8 May 2000. 
  56. ^ "Mandela repudiates Mbeki on AIDS stance", CNN, 29 September, 2000. 
  57. ^ Hentoff, Matt (23 May 2003). Where is Nelson Mandela?. Village Voice.
  58. ^ Statement on the Ataturk Award given to Nelson Mandela. ANC (1992-04-12).
  59. ^ "Stevie Wonder Music Banned in South Africa", New York Times, 1985-03-27. 
  60. ^ "Brenda Fassie dies", BBC. 
  61. ^ Lee, Carmen (2006-06-16). 20 Years Ago Today. TIME.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  62. ^ Ehlers, Matt (5 May 2006). Light from an unexpected source. The News & Observer. Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  63. ^ Mandela salutes apartheid heroes. News24 (29 August 2007).

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nelson Mandela Long Walk to Freedom is an autobiographical work written by Nelson Mandela in 1995, and published by Little Brown & Co. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel is a daily morning broadsheet printed in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Allister Haddon Sparks, South African writer, journalist and political commentator, was the editor of The Rand Daily Mail when it broke Muldergate, the story of how the apartheid government secretly funded information projects. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthony Terrell Seward Sampson (August 3, 1926–December 18, 2004) was a British writer and founding member of the SDP. During the 1950s he edited the magazine Drum in Johannesburg, South Africa. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthony Terrell Seward Sampson (August 3, 1926–December 18, 2004) was a British writer and founding member of the SDP. During the 1950s he edited the magazine Drum in Johannesburg, South Africa. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see New Republic. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Preceded by
Frederik Willem de Klerk
(State President of South Africa)
President of South Africa
1994-1999
Succeeded by
Thabo Mbeki
Preceded by
Bill Clinton
Time's Men of the Year (The Peacemakers, alongside F.W. de Klerk, Yasser Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin
1993
Succeeded by
Pope John Paul II
Presidents of South Africa
 1961-1994  ceremonial: Charles Robberts Swart | Jozua François Naudé (acting) | Jacobus Johannes Fouché | Nicolaas Johannes Diederichs | Marais Viljoen (acting) | B. J. Vorster | Marais Viljoen | executive: Pieter Willem Botha | Frederik Willem de Klerk
 1994–  Nelson Mandela | Thabo Mbeki
Persondata
NAME Mandela, Nelson
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Rolihlahla Dalibhunga Mandela
SHORT DESCRIPTION South African politician and anti-Apartheid fighter, President of South Africa (1994-1999)
DATE OF BIRTH 18 July 1918
PLACE OF BIRTH Transkei, South Africa
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
Biography of Nelson Mandela (0 words)
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was born in a village near Umtata in the Transkei on the 18 July 1918.
Mandela arrived at the conclusion very early on that the Bantustan policy was a political swindle and an economic absurdity.
Mandela s statements in court during these trials are classics in the history of the resistance to apartheid, and they have been an inspiration to all who have opposed it.
Nelson Mandela - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3663 words)
Mandela was born to a Thembu family in the small village of Mvezo in the Mthatha district, capital of the Transkeian Territories of the Cape Province of the Union of South Africa.
Mandela's father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, was a councillor to the Thembu king (a position he was groomed for from his birth and which Mandela was also destined to inherit).
Mandela went on to explain how they developed the Manifesto of Umkhonto on 16 December 1961 intent on exposing the failure of the National Party's policies after the economy would be threatened by foreigner's unwillingness to risk investing in the country.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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