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Encyclopedia > Negro League Baseball
Part of the Baseball series on
History of baseball

Origins of baseball This article is about the sport. ... Wikipedia has a number of articles about the history of baseball: Origins of baseball History of baseball in the United States History of baseball outside the United States Baseball in the United Kingdom 1845 to 1868 in baseball Pre-1850s in baseball London Tecumsehs (and origins of baseball in Canada... The question of the origin of baseball has been the subject of debate and controversy for more than a century. ...

Early years
First league
New York rules
Massachusetts rules
Alexander Cartwright
Abner Doubleday
First pro team
First pro league

• Derived from: The following are the baseball events of the years 1845 through 1868 throughout the world. ... The National Association of Base Ball Players (NABBP) was founded in 1857 by sixteen baseball clubs located in the New York metropolitan area. ... The so-called Knickerbocker Rules were the 20 general guidelines to the rules of the game of baseball and of the organization itself that drew up those rules: The early 1840s New York ball club called the Knickerbockers. ... The Massachusetts Game was a type of amateur club baseball popular in 19th century New England. ... Alexander Cartwright. ... Abner Doubleday Abner Doubleday (June 26, 1819 – January 26, 1893), was a career U.S. Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War. ... The Cincinnati Red Stockings of 1869 were baseballs first openly all-professional team. ... The National Association of Professional Base Ball Players (NAPBBP), or simply the National Association (NA), was founded in 1871 and lasted through the 1875 season. ...

Cricket
Compared to baseball
Rounders
Town ball

• History of baseball in: This article is about the sport. ... Baseball and cricket fields compared. ... For the movie, see Rounders (film). ... The game of town ball, sometimes called townball, is a descendant of rounders, and often thought to be a stepping stone from rounders to modern baseball. ...

the United States
• Worldwide
the United Kingdom
Canada
Japan
Cuba
Netherlands

Negro league baseball
Minor league baseball
Ken Burns' documentary
Baseball Hall of Fame Perhaps the first recorded instances of baseball played outside North America came in 1874, when a party comprising members of the Boston and Philadelphia clubs toured England both playing cricket and demonstrating baseball. ... For the organization which many minor leagues belong to, see Minor League Baseball Part of the History of baseball series. ... Baseball: A Film by Ken Burns is an Emmy Award-winning 1994 documentary series by Ken Burns about the game of baseball. ... Baseball Hall of Fame redirects here. ...

Society for American
Baseball Research (SABR)

• Baseball year-by-year SABR redirects here; for Selectable Assault Battle Rifle (S.A.B.R.) see XM29 OICW The Society for American Baseball Research was established in Cooperstown, New York in August of 1971. ...

MLB season-by-season
Baseball Portal  v  d  e 
Part of the History of baseball in the United States series.

The Negro Leagues were American professional baseball leagues comprising predominantly African-American teams. The term may be used broadly to include professional black teams outside the leagues and it may be used narrowly for the seven relatively successful leagues beginning 1920 that are sometimes termed "Negro Major Leagues". This is a list of seasons of Major League Baseball. ... // 1886 baseball demonstration at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... This article is about the sport. ...


The first professional team, established in 1885, achieved great and lasting success as the Cuban Giants, while the first league, the National Colored Base Ball League, failed in 1887 after only two weeks due to low attendance. The Negro American League of 1951 is considered the last major league season and the last professional club, the Indianapolis Clowns, operated amusingly rather than competitively from the mid-1960s to 1980s. The following are the baseball events of the year 1885 throughout the world. ... The Babylon Black Panthers were a professional African-American baseball club, said to be the first such professional team in the United States of America. ... The National Colored League or the League of Colored Baseball Clubs was the first attempt to have a league consisting of all-black teams, predating Rube Fosters Negro National League by over three decades. ... The following are the baseball events of the year 1887 throughout the world. ... The Negro American League was one of the several Negro Leagues which were created during the time organized baseball was segregated. ... The following are the baseball events of the year 1951 throughout the world. ... The Indianapolis Clowns were a professional baseball team in the Negro American League. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...

Contents

History of the Negro leagues

Amateur era

Octavius Catto, black baseball pioneer
Octavius Catto, black baseball pioneer

The first baseball game between two named black teams was held on September 28, 1860 at Elysian Fields in Hoboken, New Jersey. The Weeksville of New York beat the Colored Union Club 11–0. In 1862, a newspaper reporter looking for a game between two white teams stumbled upon a game between black teams and covered it for his paper. At the time, baseball was commonly deemed recreation around which social gatherings were held. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (527x760, 182 KB)Octavius Catto File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (527x760, 182 KB)Octavius Catto File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Octavius Catto, black baseball pioneer Octavius V. Catto (22 February 1839–10 October 1871) was a key 19th Century Civil Rights advocate and one of the prominent early organizers of black baseball. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Elysian Fields in Hoboken, New Jersey is believed to be the site of the first organized baseball game, giving Hoboken a strong claim to be the birthplace of baseball. ... Hoboken is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Immediately after the end of the American Civil War in 1865 and during the Reconstruction period that followed, a black baseball scene formed in the East and Mid-Atlantic states. Comprising mainly ex-soldiers and promoted by some well-known black officers, teams such as the Jamaica Monitor Club, Albany Bachelors, Philadelphia Excelsiors and Chicago Uniques started playing each other and any other team that would play against them. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ...


By the end of the 1860s, the black baseball mecca was Philadelphia. Two former cricket players, James H. Francis and Francis Wood, formed the Pythians, who played in Camden, New Jersey, at the landing of the Federal Street Ferry, because it was difficult to get permits for black baseball games in the city. Octavius Catto, the promoter of the Pythians, decided to apply for membership in the National Association of Base Ball Players, normally a matter of sending delegates to the annual convention; beyond that, a formality. But at the December 1867 convention, the Association passed a resolution that excluded "any club which may be composed of one or more colored players."[1] In some ways Blackball thrived under segregation, with the few black teams of the day playing not only each other but white teams as well. // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This article is about the sport. ... The Knights of Pythias is a fraternal organization founded at Washington, DC on 19 February 1864. ... The City of Camden is the county seat of Camden County, New Jersey in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Octavius Catto, black baseball pioneer Octavius V. Catto (22 February 1839–10 October 1871) was a key 19th Century Civil Rights advocate and one of the prominent early organizers of black baseball. ... The National Association of Base Ball Players (NABBP) was founded in 1857 by sixteen baseball clubs located in the New York metropolitan area. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ...


Catto was murdered by a white man four years later, while leaving the Institute for Colored Youth (October 10, 1871). With his death came the death of the best Negro team of the time. Cheyney University of Pennsylvania, located in Cheyney, Pennsylvania was originally founded as the Institute for Colored Youth in 1837 by Richard Humphreys. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Professional baseball

Bud Fowler, the first professional black baseball player with one of his teams, Western of Keokuk, Iowa

With the formation of the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players in 1871, the professional game dominated baseball. The first known professional black baseball player was Bud Fowler, who appeared in a handful of games as a pitcher for the Lynn, Massachusetts club in the 1878 International Association. In 1879, William Edward White, a Brown University player, may have become the first African-American to play in the major leagues when he appeared in one game for the Providence Grays of the National League. In 1884, two African-American players, Moses Fleetwood Walker and his brother Welday Walker, attained big league status when their club, the Toledo Blue Stockings, joined the American Association. Fleet Walker lasted until mid-season when an injury gave the team an excuse to release him; his brother only played a few games. Then in 1886 second baseman Frank Grant joined the Buffalo Bisons of the International League, the strongest minor league, and hit .340, third highest in the league. Several other African-American players joined the International League the following season, including pitchers George Stovey and Robert Higgins, but 1888 was the last season in which blacks were allowed in a minor league of that level. Image File history File links Bud Fowler, the first black professional baseball player with his team. ... Image File history File links Bud Fowler, the first black professional baseball player with his team. ... Bud Fowler, the first professional black baseball player with one of his teams, Western of Keokuk, Iowa Bud Fowler (March 16, 1858 - February 26, 1913), born John W. Jackson, was a baseball player and baseball club organizer, the first known African-American professional player. ... Keokuk Iowa bottom, with the Mississippi River, its lock, dam, power plant, rail bridge and highway bridge. ... The National Association of Professional Baseball Players, or simply the National Association, was founded in 1871 and lasted through the 1875 season, after which its stronger teams created the National League. ... Bud Fowler, the first professional black baseball player with one of his teams, Western of Keokuk, Iowa Bud Fowler (March 16, 1858 - February 26, 1913), born John W. Jackson, was a baseball player and baseball club organizer, the first known African-American professional player. ... Location in Essex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Settled 1629 Incorporated 1850 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Chip Clancy Area  - Total 13. ... The International Association of Professional Base Ball Players was an Canadian-American baseball league that operated in 1877 and 1878 and also in 1888 and 1889. ... William Edward White (1860-?) played as a substitute in one baseball game for the Providence Grays, on June 21, 1879. ... Brown University is a private university located in Providence, Rhode Island. ... The Providence Grays were a 19th century baseball team. ... The following is a list of United States Major League Baseball teams that played in the National League in the 19th century. ... Moses Fleetwood Walker Moses Fleetwood Fleet Walker (October 7, 1857 in Mount Pleasant, Ohio - May 11, 1924 in Cleveland, Ohio) was a baseball player and author who is credited with being the first African-American to play professional baseball at the major league level. ... Welday Walker Welday Wilberforce Walker (June, 1859 - November 23, 1937) was a 19th century major league baseball player born in Steubenville, Ohio. ... The Toledo Blue Stockings were a minor league baseball team which formed in Toledo, Ohio in 1883. ... The American Association (AA) was a baseball major league from 1882 to 1891. ... See also: 1885 in sports, other events of 1886, 1887 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Baseball World Series - St Louis AA defeats Chicago NL, 4 games to 2. ... Frank Grant (1868-1937) was an African American Negro League baseball player and International League baseball player in the 19th century. ... The Buffalo Bisons (Pronounced BI-zons by locals) are a minor league baseball team based in Buffalo, New York. ... The International League (IL) is a minor league baseball league which operates in the eastern United States and Canada. ... George Stovey is considered the best African-American baseball pitcher of the nineteenth century, but discrimination barred him from the majors and led him to move from team to team until he had no further opportunities to play in the minors. ...

Moses Fleetwood Walker, possibly the first African American major league baseball player
Moses Fleetwood Walker, possibly the first African American major league baseball player

The first black professional baseball team was formed in 1885 when the Babylon Black Panthers, formed by waiters and porters from the Argyle Hotel in Babylon, New York were spotted by a white businessman from Trenton, New Jersey, Walter Cook. Cook renamed them the Cuban Giants so that he could attract more white fans. Shortly after the Giants' formation, the Jacksonville, Florida newspaper, the Leader, assembled the first Negro League, the Southern League of Base Ballists. The Southern League was composed of ten teams: the Memphis Eclipse, the Georgia Champions of Atlanta, the Savannah Broads, the Memphis Eurekas, the Savannah Lafayettes, the Charleston Fultons, the Jacksonville Athletics, the New Orleans Unions, the Florida Clippers of Jacksonville and the Jacksonville Macedonias. The league played its first game on June 7 between the Eclipse and the Unions in New Orleans, Louisiana. Soon deep in debt, the league lasted only one year. Download high resolution version (500x644, 47 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (500x644, 47 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Moses Fleetwood Walker Moses Fleetwood Fleet Walker (October 7, 1857 in Mount Pleasant, Ohio - May 11, 1924 in Cleveland, Ohio) was a baseball player and author who is credited with being the first African-American to play professional baseball at the major league level. ... The following are the baseball events of the year 1885 throughout the world. ... The Babylon Black Panthers were a professional African-American baseball club, said to be the first such professional team in the United States of America. ... Babylon is a village in Suffolk County, New York, United States. ... This article is about the state. ... Nickname: Location of Trenton inside of Mercer County Coordinates: , Country State County Mercer Incorporated November 13, 1792 Government  - Mayor Douglas H. Palmer Area  - City  8. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Walter Cook was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... The Babylon Black Panthers were a professional African-American baseball club, said to be the first such professional team in the United States of America. ... Jacksonville redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... NOLA redirects here. ...


The success of the Cubans led to the creation of the second Negro League in 1887, the National Colored Base Ball League. It was founded with nine teams: Boston Resolutes; New York Gorham; Philadelphia Pythians; Washington Capital Cities; Pittsburgh Keystones; Norfolk Red Stockings; Cincinnati Crowns; Lord Baltimores and the Louisville Fall Cities. NCBBL President Walter S. Brown, a black Baltimore businessman, applied for and was granted official minor league status and thus "protection" under the major league-led National Agreement. This move prevented any team in organized baseball from signing any of the NCBBL players, which also locked the players to their particular teams within the league. The reserve clause would have tied the players to their clubs from season to season but the NCBBL failed. One month into the season, the Resolutes folded. A week later, only three teams were left.[citation needed] See also: 1886 in sports, other events of 1887, 1888 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Baseball World Series - Detroit NL defeats St Louis AA 10 games to 5. ... The National Colored League or the League of Colored Baseball Clubs was the first attempt to have a league consisting of all-black teams, predating Rube Fosters Negro National League by over three decades. ... The Pittsburgh Keystones were a baseball team in the Negro National League in 1922. ... Baltimore redirects here. ...


Because the original Cuban Giants were a popular and business success, many similarly named teams came into existence — including the Genuine Cuban Giants (the renamed Cuban Giants), the Brooklyn Royal Giants, the Baltimore Giants and the Cuban X-Giants, the latter a powerhouse in the early 1900s. Except for the New York Cuban Stars and the Havana Giants, the "Cuban" teams were all composed of African Americans rather than Cubans; the purpose was to increase their acceptance with white patrons as Cuba was on very friendly terms with the US during those years. Brooklyn Royal Giants Leagues Independent (1910-1922, 1928-1942) Eastern Colored League (1923-1927) Significant Players Smokey Joe Williams Cannonball Dick Redding Frank Wickware Charles Chino Smith John Henry Pop Lloyd The Brooklyn Royal Giants were a professional baseball team based in Brooklyn, New York which played in the Negro... The Cuban X-Giants were not Cuban, but were former Cuban Giants in large part. ... This article is about the decade starting in 1900 and ending in 1909. ...


The few players on the white minor league teams were constantly dodging verbal and physical abuse from both competitors and fans. Then President Rutherford B. Hayes signed the Compromise of 1877, and all the legal obstacles were removed from the South's enacting the Jim Crow laws. To make matters worse, on July 14, 1887, Cap Anson's Chicago White Stockings were scheduled to play the Newark Giants of the International League, which had Fleet Walker and George Stovey on its roster. After Anson marched his team onto the field, military style as was his custom, he demanded that the blacks not play. Newark capitulated, and later that same day, league owners voted to refuse future contracts to blacks, citing the "hazards" imposed by such athletes. The American Association and National League quickly followed suit. Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... A drawing by Joseph Keppler depicts Roscoe Conkling as Mephistopheles, as Rutherford B. Hayes strolls off with a woman labeled as Solid South. The caption quotes Goethe: Unto that Power he doth belong / Which only doeth Right while ever willing Wrong. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Adrian Constantine Anson (April 17, 1852 – April 14, 1922), known by the nicknames Cap (for Captain) and Pop, was a professional baseball player in the National Association and Major League Baseball. ... Major league affiliations National League (1876–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 10, 14, 23, 26, 42 Name Chicago Cubs (1902–present) Chicago Orphans (1898-1901) Chicago Colts (1890-1897) Chicago White Stockings (1870-1871, 1874-1889) (a. ... George Stovey is considered the best African-American baseball pitcher of the nineteenth century, but discrimination barred him from the majors and led him to move from team to team until he had no further opportunities to play in the minors. ...


In 1888, the Middle States League was formed and it admitted two all-black teams to its otherwise all-white league, the Cuban Giants and their arch-rivals, the New York Gorhams. Despite the animosity between the two clubs, they managed to form a traveling team, the Colored All Americans. This enabled them to make money barnstorming while fulfilling their league obligations. In 1890, the Giants returned to their independent, barnstorming identity, and by 1892, they were the only black team in the East still in operation on a full-time basis. Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... See also: 1889 in sports, other events of 1890, 1891 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Baseball World Series - Brooklyn NL ties Louisville AA 3 games to 3 with one tie. ... See also: 1891 in sports, 1893 in sports and the list of years in sports. Athletics C. B. Fry equals the world record for the long jump of 23 ft. ...


Frank Leland

Chicago Union Giants in 1905
Chicago Union Giants in 1905

Also in 1888, Frank Leland got some of Chicago's black businessmen to sponsor the black amateur Union Base Ball Club. Through Chicago's city government, Leland obtained a permit and lease to play at the South Side Park, a 5,000 seat facility. Eventually his team went pro and became the Chicago Unions. Image File history File links Chicago Union Giants in 1905 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Chicago Union Giants in 1905 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Frank C. Leland was a Negro Leagues outfielder, manager and club owner. ... South Side Park was the name used for three different baseball parks that formerly stood in Chicago, Illinois at different times, and whose sites were all just a few blocks away from each other. ... The Chicago Unions was a professional, black baseball team that played prior to the formation of the Negro Leagues. ...


After his stint with the Gorhams, Bud Fowler caught on with a team out of Findlay, Ohio. While his team was playing in Adrian, Michigan, Fowler was persuaded by two white local businessmen, L. W. Hoch and Rolla Taylor to help them start a team financed by the Page Woven Wire Fence Company, the Page Fence Giants. The Page Fence Giants went on to become a powerhouse team that had no home field. Barnstorming through the Midwest, they would play all comers. Their success became the prototype for black baseball for years to come. Findlays position within Hancock County (foreset) and Ohio (background) Findlay is a city in Hancock County, Ohio, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Adrian is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... One of the top black baseball teams of the 1890s, the Page Fence Giants were based in Adrian, Michigan and named after the Page Woven Wire Fence Company. ...


After the 1898 season, the Page Fence Giant were forced to fold because of finances. Alvin H. Garrett, a black businessman in Chicago, and John W. Patterson, the left fielder for the Page Fence Giants, reformed the team under the name of the Columbia Giants. In 1901 the Giants folded because of a lack of a place to play. Leland bought the Giants and merged it with his Unions (despite not a single Giant player ending up on the roster) and named them the Chicago Union Giants. See also: 1897 in sports, other events of 1898, 1899 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Boat race Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race - Oxford Cricket County Cricket Championship - Yorkshire Football (Australian Rules) Victorian Football League Fitzroy wins the 2nd VFL Premiership (Fitzroy 5. ... The position of the left fielder A left fielder, abbreviated LF, is an outfielder in the sport of baseball who plays defense in left field. ... Chicago Columbia Giants Leagues Independent (1899-1900) Significant Players John W. Patterson Harry Buckner The Chicago Columbia Giants was a professional, black baseball team that played prior to the founding of the Negro Leagues. ... // The American League War The AL leaves the National Agreement and competes with the National League as a second major league --we say in retrospect, knowing its success. ... Part of the History of baseball series. ...


Rube Foster

The Philadelphia Giants, owned by Walter Schlichter, a white businessman, rose to prominence in 1903 when they lost to the Cuban X-Giants in their version of the "Colored Championship". Leading the way for the Cubans was a young pitcher by the name of Andrew "Rube" Foster. The following season, Schlichter, in the finest blackball tradition, hired Foster away from the Cubans, and beat them in their 1904 rematch. Philadelphia remained on top of the blackball world until Foster left the team in 1907 to play and manage the Leland Giants (Frank Leland renamed his Chicago Union Giants the Leland Giants in 1905). The Boston Royal Giants was a Negro League baseball team in Boston. ... See also: 1902 in sports, 1904 in sports and the list of years in sports. Cycling First Tour de France won by Maurice Garin Football (Australian Rules) Victorian Football League Collingwood wins the 7th VFL Premiership (Collingwood 4. ... Andrew Rube Foster (September 17, 1879 - December 9, 1930) was an American baseball player, manager, and executive in the Negro Leagues. ... See also: 1903 in sports, 1905 in sports and the list of years in sports. Baseball May 5: Boston Americans ace Cy Young pitched the second of his three no-hitters, a 3-0 perfect game against the Philadelphia Athletics and pitcher Rube Waddell (the final batter he faced). ... See also: 1906 in sports, 1908 in sports and the list of years in sports. ... The Chicago Union Giants, the top black baseball team in the Midwest or West in the first decade of the twentieth century, changed its name in 1905 to the Leland Giants, after manager and owner Frank Leland. ... See also: 1904 in sports, other events of 1905, 1906 in sports and the Sports timeline. ...


Around the same time, Nat Strong, a white businessmen, started using his ownership of baseball fields in the New York City area to become the leading promoter of blackball on the East coast. Just about any game played in New York, Strong would get a cut. Strong eventually used his leverage to put the Brooklyn Royal Giants almost out of business, and then he bought the club and turned it into a barnstorming team. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Brooklyn Royal Giants Leagues Independent (1910-1922, 1928-1942) Eastern Colored League (1923-1927) Significant Players Smokey Joe Williams Cannonball Dick Redding Frank Wickware Charles Chino Smith John Henry Pop Lloyd The Brooklyn Royal Giants were a professional baseball team based in Brooklyn, New York which played in the Negro...


When Foster joined the Leland Giants, he demanded that he be put in charge in not only the on field activities, but the bookings as well. Foster immediately turned the Giants into the team to beat. He indoctrinated them to take the extra base, to play hit and run on nearly every pitch and to rattle the opposing pitcher by taking them deep into the count. He studied the mechanics of his pitchers and could spot the smallest flaw, turning his average pitchers into learned craftsmen. Foster also was able to turn around the business end of the team as well, by demanding and getting 40 percent of the gate instead of the 10 percent that Frank Leland was getting.


By the end of the 1909, Foster demanded that Leland step back from all baseball operations or Foster would leave. When Leland would not give up complete control, Foster quit, and in a heated court battle, got to keep the rights to the Leland Giants' name. Leland took the players and started a new team named the Chicago Giants, while Foster took the Leland Giants and started to encroach on Nat Strong's territory. See also: 1908 in sports, 1910 in sports and the list of years in sports. Baseball The Pittsburgh Pirates defeat the Detroit Tigers, four games to three, in the World Series. ...


As early as 1910, Foster started talking about reviving the concept of an all-black league. The one thing he was insistent on that black teams should be owned by black men. This put him in direct competition with Strong. After the 1912, Foster renamed his team the Chicago American Giants to appeal to a larger fan base. During the same year, J. L. Wilkinson started the All Nations traveling team. The All Nations team would eventually become one of the best-known and popular teams of the Negro leagues, the Kansas City Monarchs. See also: 1909 in sports, 1911 in sports and the list of years in sports. Football (Australian Rules) Victorian Football League - Collingwood wins the 14th VFL Premiership (Collingwood 9. ... See also: 1911 in sports, 1913 in sports and the list of years in sports. Baseball April 20: The Boston Red Sox open in the new Fenway Park with a 7-6, 11-inning win over the New York Highlanders before 27,000. ... Chicago American Giants were a Chicago based Negro League baseball team, formed by player-manager Andrew Rube Foster. ... James Leslie Wilkinson (May 14, 1878 - August 21, 1964) was an American sports executive who founded the barnstorming All-Nations baseball club in 1912, and the Negro league baseball team Kansas City Monarchs in 1920. ... The Kansas City Monarchs were the longest-running franchise in the history of baseballs Negro Leagues. ... The Kansas City Monarchs were the longest-running franchise in the history of baseballs Negro Leagues. ...


On April 6, 1917, the United States entered World War I. Manpower needed by the defense plants and industry accelerated the migration of blacks from the South to the North. This meant a larger fan base that had more money to draw from. By the end of the war in 1919, Foster was again ready to start a Negro baseball league. is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


On February 13 and 14, 1920, talks were held in Kansas City, Missouri that established the Negro National League and its governing body the National Association of Colored Professional Base Ball Clubs. The league was initially composed of eight teams: Chicago American Giants, Chicago Giants, Cuban Stars, Dayton Marcos, Detroit Stars, Indianapolis ABC's, Kansas City Monarchs and St. Louis Giants. Foster was named league president and controlled every aspect of the league, including who played where and when and what equipment was used (all of which had to be purchased from Foster). Foster, as booking agent of the league, took a five percent cut of all gate receipts. is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... The Negro National League was one of the several Negro Leagues which were established during the period in the United States in which organized baseball was segregated. ... Chicago American Giants were a Chicago based Negro League baseball team, formed by player-manager Andrew Rube Foster. ... Chicago Giants Leagues Independent (1910-1919) Negro National League (1920-1921) Significant Players The Chicago Giants were a professional baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois which played in the Negro Leagues. ... The Dayton Marcos were a Negro League baseball team that is now defunct along with the Negro League. ... The Detroit Stars were an American baseball team in the Negro Leagues. ... The Indianapolis ABCs were a Negro League baseball team that played both as an independent club and as a charter member of the first Negro National League (NNL). ... The Kansas City Monarchs were the longest-running franchise in the history of baseballs Negro Leagues. ... The St. ...


The Golden Age

On May 20, 1920, the Indianapolis ABCs beat the Chicago American Giants in the first game played in the inaugural season of the Negro National League. But, because of the Chicago Race Riot of 1919, the National Guard still occupied the Giants' home field, Schorling's Park (formerly South Side Park). This forced Foster to cancel all the Giants' home games for almost a month and threatened to become a huge embarrassment for the league. In 1921, the Negro Southern League, a regional black semipro league, joined Foster's National Association of Colored Professional Base Ball Clubs. As a dues paying member of the association, it received the same protection from raiding parties as any team in the Negro National League. is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1919 in sports, other events of 1920, 1921 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Baseball (Major League) January 3 - Boston Red Sox owner Harry Frazee sells Babe Ruth to the New York Yankees for $125,000 and a $350,000 loan, beginning the Curse of... A map of the riot-affected areas on the South Side of Chicago, with the Union Stock Yards visible. ... South Side Park was the name used for three different baseball parks that formerly stood in Chicago, Illinois at different times, and whose sites were all just a few blocks away from each other. ... See also: 1920 in sports, other events of 1921, 1922 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Football (American) Chicago Staleys later the Chicago Bears win the 1921 American Professional Football Association title. ...


Foster then admitted John Connors' Atlantic City Bacharach Giants as an associate member to move further into Nat Strong's territory. Connors, wanting to return the favor of helping him against Strong, raided Ed Bolden's Hilldale Daisies team. Bolden saw little choice but to team up with Foster's nemesis, Nat Strong. Within days of calling a truce with Strong, Bolden made an about face and signed up as an associate member of Foster's Negro National League. Atlantic City Bacharach Giants Leagues Independent (1916-1922, 1930-1933) Eastern Colored League (1923-1928) American Negro League (1929) Negro National League (1934) Significant Players Oliver Ghost Marcelle Smokey Joe Williams John Henry Lloyd Dick Lundy Arthur Rats Henderson The Atlantic City Bacharach Giants were a professional baseball team that... The Hilldale Club (a. ...


On December 16, 1922, Bolden once again shifted sides and, with Strong, formed the Eastern Colored League as an alternative to Foster's Negro National League. The league started with six teams: Atlantic City Bacharach Giants, Baltimore Black Sox, Brooklyn Royal Giants, New York Cuban Stars, Hilldale, and New York Lincoln Giants. The National League was having trouble maintaining continuity among its franchises. Three teams folded and had to be replaced after the 1921 season, two others after the 1922 season and two more after the 1923 season. Foster kept replacing the defunct teams, calling teams up from the Negro Southern League. Finally Foster and Bolden met and agreed to an annual Negro League World Series beginning in 1924. is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1921 in sports, other events of 1922, 1923 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Football (Australian Rules) Victorian Football League - Fitzroy wins the 26th VFL Premiership (Fitzroy 11. ... Baltimore Black Box 1923 Leagues Independent (1916 - 1922, 1930 - 1931) Eastern Colored league (1923 - 1928 American Negro League (1929) East-West League (1932) Negro National League (1933 - 1934) Significant Players Satchel Paige michael Steele The Chosen One Jud “Boojum” Wilson Frank Warfield Oliver Ghost Marcelle Sir Richard Lundy Leon Day... The Lincoln Giants were a Negro League baseball team based in New York City from 1911 through 1930. ... The Negro League World Series is a baseball tournament that took place at various times from the 1920s to the 1940s, matching the champions of various Negro Leagues. ... The 1924 Colored World Series was a best-of-nine match-up between the Negro National League champion Kansas City Monarchs and the Eastern Colored League champion Hildales. ...


1925 saw the St. Louis Stars come of age in the Negro National League. They finished in second place during the second half of the year due in large part to their pitcher turned center fielder, Cool Papa Bell, and their shortstop, Willie Wells. A gas leak in his home nearly asphyxiated Rube Foster in 1926, and his increasingly erratic behavior led to him being committed to an asylum a year later. While Foster was out of the picture, the owners of the National League elected William C. Hueston as new league president. In 1927, Ed Bolden suffered a similar fate as Foster, by committing himself to a hospital because the pressure was too great. The Eastern League folded shortly after that, marking the end of the Negro League World Series between the NNL and the ECL. See also: 1924 in sports, other events of 1925, 1926 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Baseball (Major League) Pittsburgh Pirates def. ... The St. ... James Thomas Cool Papa Bell (May 17, 1903–March 7, 1991) was an American center fielder in Negro league baseball, considered by many baseball observers to have been the fastest man ever to play the game. ... Willie Wells (August 10, 1905 - January 22, 1989) was a professional baseball player who played from 1924-48 for various teams in the Negro Leagues. ...


After the Eastern League folded following the 1927 season, a new eastern league, the American Negro League, was formed to replace it. The makeup of the new ANL was nearly the same as the Eastern League, the exception being that the Homestead Grays joined in place of the now-defunct Brooklyn Royal Giants. The ANL lasted just one season. In the face of harder economic times, the Negro National League folded after the 1931 season. Some of its teams joined the only Negro league then left, the Negro Southern League. See also: 1926 in sports, 1928 in sports and the list of years in sports. Football ([cvvvvvvv[American Football|American]]) New York Giants win National Football League title You are a Gay bo! Golf First Ryder Cup held in United States beats Britain 9 1/2 to 2 1/2... In 1929 some of the Eastern Colored League teams competed in the American Negro League which just played that one season with Baltimore Black Sox taking the pennant. ... The Homestead Grays were a professional baseball team that played in the Negro Leagues in the United States. ... See also: 1930 in sports, other events of 1931, 1932 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Auto Racing 24 hours of Le Mans: Earl Howe and Tim Birkin, driving an Alfa Romeo 8C. Louis Schneider wins the Indy 500. ...


Paige, Gibson and Greenlee

Just as Negro league baseball seemed was at its lowest point and was about to fade into history, along came Cumberland Posey and his Homestead Grays. Posey used the popularity of the Grays as a foundation of a new Negro league in 1932, the East-West League. Joining his Homestead Grays, were the Cleveland Stars, Newark Browns, Washington Pilots, Detroit Wolves, Hillsdale Daises, Baltimore Black Sox, and the Midwest edition of the Cuban Stars. By May 1932, the Detroit Wolves were about to collapse and instead of letting the team go, Posey kept pumping money into it. By June the Wolves had disintegrated and all the rest of the teams, except for the Grays, were beyond help, so Posey had to terminate the league. Cumberland Willis Cum Posey (June 20, 1890 - March 28, 1946) was an American player, manager and team owner in baseballs Negro Leagues. ... // Brooklyns major league baseball team, known informally until now as the Superbas, the Robins, or the Trolley Dodgers, officially selects the name Brooklyn Dodgers. ... The Detroit Wolves were a Negro Leagues baseball club that played for just one year (1932). ...


Across town from Posey, Gus Greenlee, a reputed gangster and numbers runner, had just purchased the Pittsburgh Crawfords. Greenlee's main interest in baseball was to use it as a way to launder money from his numbers games. But, after learning about Posey's money making machine in Homestead, he became obsessed with the sport and his Crawfords. On August 6, 1931, Satchel Paige made his first appearance as a Crawford. With Paige on his team, Greenlee took a huge risk by investing $100,000 in a new ballpark to be called Greenlee Field. On opening day, April 30, 1932, the pitcher-catcher battery was made up of the two most marketable icons in all of blackball: Satchel Paige and Josh Gibson. William Augustus Gus Greenlee (1893–1952) was a Negro League baseball owner and an African-American businessman. ... The numbers game, or policy racket, is an illegal lottery played mostly in poor neighborhoods in U.S. cities, wherein the bettor attempts to pick three or four digits to match those that will be randomly drawn the following day. ... The Pittsburgh Crawfords were a professional Negro League baseball team based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... Money laundering is the practice of engaging in financial transactions in order to conceal the identity, source and destination of the money in question. ... Homestead is a borough in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, USA, in the Mon Valley, seven miles (11 km) southeast of downtown Pittsburgh but directly across the river from the city limit line. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Leroy Robert Satchel Paige (July 7, 1906–June 8, 1982)[1] was an American baseball player who pitched in several different Negro Leagues and in Major League Baseball. ... Greenlee Field was the first black-built and black-owned major league baseball field in the United States. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Australian rules footballer, see Joshua Gibson (footballer). ...


In 1933, Greenlee, riding the popularity of his Crawfords, decided to be the next man to start a Negro league. In February 1933, Greenlee and delegates from six other teams met at Greenlee's Crawford Grill to ratify the constitution of the National Organization of Professional Baseball Clubs. The name of the new league was the same as the old league, Negro National League. The members of the new league were the Pittsburgh Crawfords, Columbus Blue Birds, Indianapolis ABCs, Baltimore Black Sox, Brooklyn Royal Giants, Cole's American Giants (formerly the Chicago American Giants and Nashville Elite Giants. Greenlee also came up with the idea to duplicate the Major League Baseball All-Star Game, except, unlike the big league method, in which the sportswriters chose the players, the fans voted on the participants. See also: 1932 in sports, 1934 in sports and the list of years in sports. Baseball New York Giants defeat Washington Senators in the World Series, 4-1. ... The second Negro National League was established in 1933, two years after the first Negro National League had disbanded. ... The Columbus Blue Birds were a professional baseball team based in Columbus, Ohio in 1933. ... Chicago American Giants were a Chicago based Negro League baseball team, formed by player-manager Andrew Rube Foster. ... The Major League Baseball All-Star Game, also popularly known as the Midsummer Classic, is an annual baseball game between players from the National League and the American League, currently selected by fan vote for the starting position players and by the respective managers (from the previous years World...


World War II

With the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the United States was thrust into World War II. Remembering World War I, black America vowed it would not be shut out of the beneficial effects of a major war effort: economic boom and social unification. This article is about the actual attack. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Just like the major leagues, the Negro Leagues saw many stars miss one or more seasons fighting overseas. But the white majors were barely recognizable while the Negro Leagues reached their highest plateau. Millions of black Americans were working in war industries and, making good money, they packed league games in every city. Business was so good that promoter Abe Saperstein (famous for the Harlem Globetrotters) started a new circuit, the Negro Midwest League, a minor league similar to the Negro Southern League. Abe M. Saperstein (July 4, 1902 - March 15, 1966) is the famous creator of the Savoy Big Five, which later became the Harlem Globetrotters. Born in London, England, he was elected to the Basketball Hall of Fame in 1970. ... For the animated television series, see Harlem Globetrotters (TV series). ...


The Negro League World Series was revived in 1942, this time pitting the winners of the eastern Negro National League and midwestern Negro American League. It continued through 1948 with the NNL winning four championships and the NAL three. The Negro League World Series is a baseball tournament that took place at various times from the 1920s to the 1940s, matching the champions of various Negro Leagues. ... See also: 1941 in sports, other events of 1942, 1943 in sports and the list of years in sports. Many sporting events did not take place because of World War II. // Baseball January 4: Hall of Fame election: Rogers Hornsby is elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame, getting 78... The second Negro National League was established in 1933, two years after the first Negro National League had disbanded. ... The Negro American League was one of the several Negro Leagues which were created during the time organized baseball was segregated. ... See also: 1947 in sports, 1949 in sports and the list of years in sports. Baseball January 29: Commissioner Happy Chandler fines the Yankees, Cubs, and Phillies $500 each for signing high school players. ...


The Great Paige/Gibson confrontation

A frequently-told legend of Black Baseball involves Game Two of the 1942 World Series on September 8, focusing upon two of Blackball's most famous legends, Satchel Paige of the Kansas City Monarchs and Josh Gibson of the Homestead Grays in a legendary matchup. Unfortunately, a great deal of it is just that: legend and not truth. The 1942 Colored World Series was a best-of-seven match-up between the Negro American League Kansas City Monarchs and the Negro National League champion Washington-Homestead Grays. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leroy Robert Satchel Paige (July 7, 1906–June 8, 1982)[1] was an American baseball player who pitched in several different Negro Leagues and in Major League Baseball. ... The Kansas City Monarchs were the longest-running franchise in the history of baseballs Negro Leagues. ... For the Australian rules footballer, see Joshua Gibson (footballer). ... The Homestead Grays were a professional baseball team that played in the Negro Leagues in the United States. ...


According to the legend as frequently told in one form, Paige came into the game in the seventh inning with a 2-0 lead. He gave up a triple to leadoff batter Jerry Benjamin. With one man on and two out, Paige intentionally walked the next two batters, Vic Harris and Howard Easterling, so he could face the most feared hitter in all of baseball, Gibson, with the bases loaded. Paige then taunted Gibson while throwing fastballs ("this one's gonna be a pea at your knee") and struck him out looking. The story is also told as having happened in the ninth inning with the winning runs on base. Vic Harris is a snooker player who was born in Westcliffe-on-Sea, Essex[1] and turned professional in 1981. ...


According to recent SABR research, Paige entered the game in the sixth inning, protecting a 2-0 lead for fellow Hall of Famer Hilton Smith. The Grays loaded the bases on three singles in the seventh inning, and Paige struck out Gibson to end the threat, getting the first two strikes on foul balls and the third on a swing and miss. After the Monarchs had made the score 5-0 in the top of the eighth, the Grays scored four runs off of Paige (two earned) in the bottom of the eighth, but Gibson did not bat against Paige in that inning. Paige retired the side in order (including Gibson for the second out) in the ninth. He did not walk a man. The final score was 8-4 Monarchs, Paige earning a save.[2] SABR redirects here; for Selectable Assault Battle Rifle (S.A.B.R.) see XM29 OICW The Society for American Baseball Research was established in Cooperstown, New York in August of 1971. ... Hilton Smith (February 27, 1912 - November 18, 1983) was born in Kansas City, Missouri. ...


The first account of this legend was told by Paige himself in his autobiography "Maybe I'll Pitch Forever", about twenty years after the alleged incident and fifteen years after Gibson's death, but contemporary evidence of it is sorely lacking. Buck O'Neil's re-telling of the story is likely based upon Paige's telling in the book, with a few embellishments added over the years. Buck ONeil during a baseball game John Jordan Buck ONeil (November 13, 1911 – October 6, 2006) was an American first baseman and manager in Negro league baseball, most notably in the Negro American League with the Kansas City Monarchs. ...


Integration

In 1944, Bill Veeck tried to buy the Philadelphia Phillies with the intention of signing black ballplayers immediately. When Judge Landis, Commissioner of Major League Baseball, was informed of Veeck's plan, he had the National League buy the team and award it to William Cox. (Although this story has long been part of accepted baseball lore, in recent years, its veracity has been disputed by some researchers.) See also: 1943 in sports, other events of 1944, 1945 in sports and the list of years in sports. Many sporting events did not take place because of World War II. Baseball May 7 - Chucho Ramos made his major league debut as first baseman and outfielder with the Cincinnati Reds. ... William Louis Veeck Jr. ... Major league affiliations National League (1883–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 14, 20, 32, 36, 42 Name Philadelphia Phillies (1884–present) Philadelphia Quakers (1883-1889) (Also referred to as Blue Jays 1943-1945 despite formal name remaining Phillies) Other nicknames The Phils, The Phightin Phils... Kenesaw Mountain Landis Kenesaw Mountain Landis (November 20, 1866 – November 25, 1944) was an American jurist who served as a federal judge from 1905 to 1922, and subsequently as the first commissioner of Major League Baseball. ... In 1920, the owners of Major League Baseball, in order to reestablish confidence of fans in the sport following the Black Sox Scandal, established the office of Commissioner of Baseball. ... National league can refer to: National Basketball League, in the United States and Canada, which merged with the rival Basketball Association of America to form the National Basketball Association National Football League, the major American football league in the United States National Hockey League, the major ice hockey league in... Governor of Tasmania His Excellency the Honpurable William John Ellis Cox, AC, RFD, ED ( born April 1, 1936 in Hobart, Tasmania) has been Governor of Tasmania since 15 December 2004, prior to which he was the states Chief Justice. ...


In March 1945, the white majors created the Major League Committee on Baseball Integration. Its members included Joseph P. Rainey, Larry MacPhail and Branch Rickey. Because MacPhail, who was an outspoken critic of integration, kept stalling, the committee never met. Under the guise of starting an all-black league, Rickey sent scouts all around the United States, Mexico and Puerto Rico, looking for the perfect candidate to break the color line. His list eventually was narrowed down to three, Roy Campanella, Don Newcombe and Jackie Robinson. See also: 1944 in sports, other events of 1945, 1946 in sports and the list of years in sports. Many sporting events did not take place because of World War II. // Baseball January 28: Hall of Fame election: Baseball writers fail to elect a new inductee. ... Leland Stanford Larry MacPhail, Sr. ... Wesley Branch Rickey (December 20, 1881 – December 9, 1965) was an innovative Major League Baseball executive best known for two things: breaking baseballs color barrier by signing the African-American player Jackie Robinson, and later drafting the first Hispanic superstar, Roberto Clemente; and creating the framework to the modern... Roy Campanella (November 19, 1921 – June 26, 1993) was an American catcher in the Negro leagues and Major League Baseball. ... Donald Newcombe (born June 14, 1926 in Madison, New Jersey), nicknamed Newk, is an American former Major League Baseball right-handed starting pitcher and left-handed batter who played for the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers (1949-51 and 1954-58), Cincinnati Reds (1958-60) and Cleveland Indians (1960). ... Jack Roosevelt Jackie Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) became the first African-American major league baseball player of the modern era in 1947. ...


On August 28, 1945, Jackie Robinson met with Rickey in Brooklyn where Rickey gave Robinson a "test" by berating him and shouting racial epithets that Robinson would hear from day one in the white game. Having passed the test, Robinson signed the contract which stipulated that from then on, Robinson had no "written or moral obligations"[3] to any other club. By the inclusion of this clause, precedent was set that would raze the Negro leagues as a functional commercial enterprise. is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1944 in sports, other events of 1945, 1946 in sports and the list of years in sports. Many sporting events did not take place because of World War II. // Baseball January 28: Hall of Fame election: Baseball writers fail to elect a new inductee. ...


To throw off the press and keep his intentions hidden, Rickey got heavily involved in Gus Greenlee's newest foray into black baseball, the United States League. Greenlee started the league in 1945 as a way to get back at the owners of the Negro National League teams for throwing him out. Rickey saw the opportunity as a way to convince people that he was interested in cleaning up blackball, not integrating it. In midsummer of 1945, Rickey, almost ready with his Robinson plan, pulled out of the league. The league folded after the end of the 1946 season. Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... // August 22 — European Championships Marathon, Oslo, Norway Mens Winner: Mikko Hietanen (FIN) 2:24:55 January 23: Hall of Fame election: The writers vote again fails to select an inductee, despite a newly revamped voting process. ...


Pressured by civil rights groups, the Fair Employment Practices Act was passed by the New York State Legislature in 1945. This followed the passing of the Quinn-Ives Act banning discrimination in hiring. At the same time, Mayor Fiorello La Guardia formed the Mayor's Commission on Baseball to study integration of the major leagues. This all led to Rickey announcing the signing of Robinson much earlier than he would have liked. On October 23, 1945, Montreal Royals president Hector Racine announced that, "We are signing this boy."[4] The New York Legislature is the U.S. state of New Yorks legislative branch, seated at the states capital, Albany. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Fiorello Henry LaGuardia (December 11, 1882–September 20, 1947) was the Mayor of New York from 1934 to 1945. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1944 in sports, other events of 1945, 1946 in sports and the list of years in sports. Many sporting events did not take place because of World War II. // Baseball January 28: Hall of Fame election: Baseball writers fail to elect a new inductee. ... The Montreal Royals were a professional baseball team located in Montreal, Quebec, that existed from 1897-1917 and from 1928-60 as a member of the International League and its progenitor, the original Eastern League. ...


Early in 1946, Rickey signed four more black players, Campanella, Newcombe, John Wright and Roy Partlow, this time to much less fanfare. After the integration of the major leagues in 1947, as marked by the appearance of Jackie Robinson with the Brooklyn Dodgers that April, interest in Negro League baseball waned. Black players who were regarded as prospects were signed by major league teams, often without regard for any contracts that might have been signed with Negro League clubs. Negro League owners who complained about this practice were in a no-win situation: they could not protect their own interests without seeming to interfere with the advancement of players to the majors. By 1948, the Dodgers, along with Veeck's Cleveland Indians had integrated. The Negro Leagues also "integrated" around the same time as Eddie Klep became the first white man to play for the Cleveland Buckeyes during the 1946 season. // August 22 — European Championships Marathon, Oslo, Norway Mens Winner: Mikko Hietanen (FIN) 2:24:55 January 23: Hall of Fame election: The writers vote again fails to select an inductee, despite a newly revamped voting process. ... See also: 1946 in sports, other events of 1947, 1948 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Auto racing Wally Parks founds the Southern California Timing Association, to better organize drag racing. ... Jack Roosevelt Jackie Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) became the first African-American major league baseball player of the modern era in 1947. ... Major league affiliations National League (1890–present) West Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 2, 4, 19, 20, 24, 32, 39, 42, 53 Name Los Angeles Dodgers (1958–present) Brooklyn Dodgers (1932-1957) Brooklyn Robins (1914-1931) Brooklyn Dodgers (1913) Brooklyn Trolley Dodgers (1911-1912) Brooklyn Superbas (1899... See also: 1947 in sports, 1949 in sports and the list of years in sports. Baseball January 29: Commissioner Happy Chandler fines the Yankees, Cubs, and Phillies $500 each for signing high school players. ... For other uses, see Cleveland Indians (disambiguation). ... Edward Joseph Klep (1918-1981) was born on October 12, 1918, in Erie, Pennsylvania. ... Cleveland Buckeyes Leagues Negro American League Significant Players Quincey Trouppe The Cleveland Buckeyes were a professional baseball that played in the Negro Leagues. ...


End of the Negro Leagues

Some proposals were floated to bring the Negro Leagues into "organized baseball" as developmental leagues for black players but that was recognized as contrary to the goal of full integration. So the Negro Leagues, once among the largest and most prosperous black-owned business ventures, were allowed to fade into oblivion.


First a trickle and then a flood of players signed with Major League Baseball teams. Most signed minor league contracts and many languished, shuttled from one bush league team to another despite their success at that level. But they were in Organized Baseball, that part of the industry organized by the major leagues.


The Negro National League folded after the 1948 season when the Grays withdrew to resume barnstorming, the Eagles moved to Houston, Texas, and the New York Black Yankees folded. The Grays folded one year later after losing $30,000 in the barnstorming effort. So the Negro American League was the only "major" Negro League operating in 1949. Within two years it had been reduced to minor league caliber and it played its last game in 1958. Houston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... See also: 1957 in sports, other events of 1958, 1959 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Auto Racing NASCAR Championship - Lee Petty Indianapolis 500 - Jimmy Bryan USAC Racing - Tony Bettenhausen won the season championship Formula One Championship - Mike Hawthorn of Great Britain February 23 - Cuban rebels kidnap...


The last All-Star game was held in 1962, and by 1966 the Indianapolis Clowns were the last Negro League team still playing. The Clowns continued to play exhibition games into the 1980s, but as a humorous sideshow rather than a competitive sport. The Indianapolis Clowns were a professional baseball team in the Negro American League. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


Significant Negro Leagues

  • Negro National League (first), 19201931
  • Eastern Colored League, 19231928; the NNL and ECL champions met in a World Series from 1924 to 1927.
  • American Negro League lasted just one season 1929 created from some of the ECL teams.
  • East-West League played part of one season in 1932.
  • Negro Southern League was a minor league that played from 1920 into the 1940s; in 1932 it incorporated some teams from the first Negro National League and functioned for one year as a major league.
  • Negro National League (second), 19331948.
  • Negro American League, 1937–1960 or so. (After 1950, the league and its teams operated after a fashion, mostly as barnstorming units, but historians have a hard time deciding when the league actually came to an end.) The National and American Leagues met in a Negro League World Series from 1942 through 1948.

The Negro National League (NNL) was one of the several Negro Leagues which were established during the period in the United States in which organized baseball was segregated. ... See also: 1919 in sports, other events of 1920, 1921 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Baseball (Major League) January 3 - Boston Red Sox owner Harry Frazee sells Babe Ruth to the New York Yankees for $125,000 and a $350,000 loan, beginning the Curse of... See also: 1930 in sports, other events of 1931, 1932 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Auto Racing 24 hours of Le Mans: Earl Howe and Tim Birkin, driving an Alfa Romeo 8C. Louis Schneider wins the Indy 500. ... The Eastern Colored League was one of the several Negro Leagues which were created during the time organized baseball was segregated. ... See also: 1922 in sports, other events of 1923, 1924 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Auto racing First 24 hours of Le Mans won by André Lagache and René Leonard Baseball (Major League) The New York Yankees win their third American League pennant, and win the... See also: 1927 in sports, other events of 1928, 1929 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Cricket 23 June-26 June, London - West Indies play their first Test match, against England. ... See also: 1923 in sports, other events of 1924, 1925 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Baseball (Major Leage) Washington Senators def. ... See also: 1926 in sports, 1928 in sports and the list of years in sports. Football ([cvvvvvvv[American Football|American]]) New York Giants win National Football League title You are a Gay bo! Golf First Ryder Cup held in United States beats Britain 9 1/2 to 2 1/2... In 1929 some of the Eastern Colored League teams competed in the American Negro League which just played that one season with Baltimore Black Sox taking the pennant. ... See also: 1928 in sports, other events of 1929, 1930 in sports and the list of years in sports. // January 22: The New York Yankees announce they will put numbers on the backs of their uniforms, becoming the first baseball team to engage in continuous use of numbers. ... // Brooklyns major league baseball team, known informally until now as the Superbas, the Robins, or the Trolley Dodgers, officially selects the name Brooklyn Dodgers. ... The Negro National League was one of the several Negro Leagues which were established during the period in the United States in which organized baseball was segregated. ... The second Negro National League was established in 1933, two years after the first Negro National League had disbanded. ... See also: 1932 in sports, 1934 in sports and the list of years in sports. Baseball New York Giants defeat Washington Senators in the World Series, 4-1. ... See also: 1947 in sports, 1949 in sports and the list of years in sports. Baseball January 29: Commissioner Happy Chandler fines the Yankees, Cubs, and Phillies $500 each for signing high school players. ... The Negro American League was one of the several Negro Leagues which were created during the time organized baseball was segregated. ... See also: 1936 in sports, other events of 1937, 1938 in sports and the list of years in sports. // Auto racing Wally Parks founds the Road Runners Club, considered to be the start of organized drag racing. ... The Negro League World Series is a baseball tournament that took place at various times from the 1920s to the 1940s, matching the champions of various Negro Leagues. ...

The Negro Leagues and the Hall of Fame

In his Baseball Hall of Fame induction speech in 1966, Ted Williams made a strong plea for inclusion of Negro League stars in the Hall. After the publication of Robert Peterson's landmark book Only the Ball was White in 1970, the Hall of Fame found itself under renewed pressure to find a way to honor Negro League players who would have been in the Hall had they not been barred from the major leagues due to the color of their skin. The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, located at 62 Main Street in Cooperstown, New York, is a semi-official museum operated by private interests serving as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, the display of baseball-related... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Theodore Samuel Williams (August 30, 1918 – July 5, 2002), best known as Ted Williams, nicknamed The Kid, the Splendid Splinter, Teddy Ballgame and The Thumper, was an American left fielder in Major League Baseball. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


At first, the Hall of Fame planned a "separate but equal" display, which would be similar to the Ford C. Frick Award for baseball commentators, in that this plan meant that the Negro League honorees would not be considered members of the Hall of Fame. This plan was criticized by the press, the fans and the players it was intended to honor and Satchel Paige himself insisted that he would not accept anything less than full fledged induction in to the Hall of Fame. The Hall relented and agreed to admit Negro League players on an equal basis with their Major League counterparts in 1971. A special Negro League committee selected Satchel Paige in 1971, followed by (in alphabetical order) Cool Papa Bell, Oscar Charleston, Martín Dihigo, Josh Gibson, Monte Irvin, Judy Johnson, Buck Leonard and John Henry Lloyd. (Of the nine, only Irvin and Paige spent any time in the major leagues.) The Veterans Committee later selected Ray Dandridge, as well as choosing Rube Foster on the basis of meritorious service (though many feel he deserved selection as a player as well). The Ford C. Frick Award is an award bestowed annually by the Baseball Hall of Fame in the United States to a broadcaster for major contributions to baseball. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Leroy Robert Satchel Paige (July 7, 1906–June 8, 1982)[1] was an American baseball player who pitched in several different Negro Leagues and in Major League Baseball. ... James Thomas Cool Papa Bell (May 17, 1903–March 7, 1991) was an American center fielder in Negro league baseball, considered by many baseball observers to have been the fastest man ever to play the game. ... Oscar Charleston Oscar McKinley Charleston (October 14, 1896 - October 5, 1954) was an American center fielder and manager in baseballs Negro Leagues from 1915 to 1945. ... Martín Magdaleno Dihigo Llanos (May 25, 1906 - May 20, 1971) was a Cuban player in baseballs Negro Leagues and Latin American leagues who excelled at several positions, primarily as a pitcher and second baseman. ... For the Australian rules footballer, see Joshua Gibson (footballer). ... Montford Merrill Monte Irvin (born February 25, 1919 in Columbia, Alabama) is a former outfielder and right-handed batter in the Negro Leagues and Major League Baseball who played with the Newark Eagles (1938-42, 46-48), New York Giants (1949-55) and Chicago Cubs (1956). ... William Julius Judy Johnson was born on October 26, 1899 in Snow Hill, Maryland, USA. Although his father wanted him to be a boxer, Johnson, who was 5 ft 11 in (1. ... Walter Buck Leonard was born on September 8, 1907 in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, USA. At the age of 14 he left school for the simple reason that no high school education was available for Blacks in his hometown. ... John Henry Pop Lloyd (April 25, 1884 - March 19, 1964) was an American baseball player and manager in the Negro Leagues. ... Raymond Emmitt Dandridge (August 31, 1913 - February 12, 1994) was an American player in baseballs Negro leagues. ...


Other members of the Hall who played in both the Negro Leagues and the Major Leagues are Hank Aaron, Ernie Banks, Roy Campanella, Larry Doby, Willie Mays, and Jackie Robinson. Except for Doby, their play in the Negro Leagues was a minor factor in their selection: Aaron, Banks, and Mays played in Negro Leagues only briefly and after the leagues had declined with the migration of many black players to the integrated minor leagues; Campanella (1969) and Robinson (1962) were selected before the Hall began considering performance in the Negro Leagues. Henry Louis Hank Aaron (born February 5, 1934 in Mobile, Alabama), nicknamed Hammer, Hammerin Hank”, or Bad Henry”, is a retired American baseball player whose Major League Baseball (MLB) career spanned the 1950s through the 1970s. ... Ernest Ernie Banks (born January 31, 1931 in Dallas, Texas) is an American former Major League baseball player who played his entire career with the Chicago Cubs (1953-1971). ... Roy Campanella (November 19, 1921 – June 26, 1993) was an American catcher in the Negro leagues and Major League Baseball. ... Lawrence Eugene Larry Doby (December 13, 1923 – June 18, 2003) was an American professional baseball player in the Negro Leagues and Major League Baseball. ... Willie Howard Mays, Jr. ... Jack Roosevelt Jackie Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) became the first African-American major league baseball player of the modern era in 1947. ...


From 1995 to 2001, the Hall made a renewed effort to honor luminaries from the Negro Leagues, one each year. There were seven selections: Leon Day, Bill Foster, Bullet Rogan, Hilton Smith, Turkey Stearnes, Willie Wells, and Smokey Joe Williams. Leon Day (October 30, 1916 - March 13, 1995) was an American right-handed pitcher in the Negro Leagues. ... William Hendrick Bill Foster (June 12, 1904 _ September 16, 1978) was an American left-handed pitcher in baseballs Negro Leagues in the 1920s and 1930s, and the half_brother of Negro league pioneer Rube Foster. ... Charles Wilber(n) Bullet Rogan, a. ... Hilton Smith (February 27, 1912 - November 18, 1983) was born in Kansas City, Missouri. ... Norman Turkey Stearnes was born in Nashville, Tennessee, USA, on May 8, 1901. ... Willie Wells (August 10, 1905 - January 22, 1989) was a professional baseball player who played from 1924-48 for various teams in the Negro Leagues. ... Joseph Williams (April 6, 1886 - February 25, 1951), also knicknamed Smokey Joe, has been considered by many baseball historians to be one of the games greatest pitchers, even though he never played a game in the major leagues. ...


In February 2006, a committee of twelve baseball historians elected 17 more people from black baseball to the National Baseball Hall of Fame, twelve players and five executives.

Negro Leagues players (7)
Ray Brown; Willard Brown; Andy Cooper; Biz Mackey; Mule Suttles; Cristóbal Torriente; Jud Wilson
Pre-Negro Leagues players (5) 
Frank Grant; Pete Hill; José Méndez; Louis Santop; Ben Taylor
Negro Leagues executives (4) 
Effa Manley; Alex Pompez; Cum Posey; J.L. Wilkinson
Pre-Negro Leagues executive, manager, player, and historian (1)
Sol White

Effa Manley, co-owner and business manager of the Newark Eagles (New Jersey) club in Negro National League, is the first woman elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame. Raymond Brown (February 23, 1908 - February 8, 1965) was an American right-handed pitcher in Negro league baseball, almost exclusively for the Homestead Grays. ... Willard Jessie Brown (June 26, 1915 - August 4, 1996), nicknamed Home Run Brown, was an American outfielder in the Negro Leagues and Major League Baseball. ... Andrew Lewis Cooper (Lefty) (April 24, 1898 - June 3, 1941) was an American left-handed pitcher in baseballs Negro Leagues. ... James Raleigh Biz Mackey (July 27, 1897 - September 22, 1965) was an African American catcher and manager in Negro league baseball, who came to be regarded as black baseballs premier catcher in the late 1920s and early 1930s. ... George Mule Suttles (born March 2, 1901 in Brockton, Louisiana - died 1968 in Newark, New Jersey) was an American Negro League baseball player who played first base and outfield. ... Cristóbal Torriente (November 16, 1893 - April 11, 1938) was a Cuban outfielder in Negro league baseball with the Cuban Stars, Chicago American Giants, Kansas City Monarchs and Detroit Stars over a career that lasted from 1914 to 1928, plus a single game in 1932. ... Ernest Judson Wilson (February 28, 1894 - June 24, 1963), nicknamed Boojum, was an American third baseman, first baseman and manager in Negro league baseball. ... Frank Grant (1868-1937) was an African American Negro League baseball player and International League baseball player in the 19th century. ... J. Preston Hill (1880-1951) was an outfielder, second baseman and manager in the Negro Leagues from 1904 to 1925. ... José Méndez (March 19, 1887 - October 31, 1928) was a Cuban right-handed pitcher and manager in baseballs Negro Leagues. ... Louis Santop Loftin (January 17, 1890 - January 22, 1942) was an American catcher in baseballs Negro Leagues, who became one of black baseballs earliest superstars. ... Benjamin Harrison Taylor (July 1, 1888 - January 24, 1953) was an American first baseman and manager in baseballs Negro Leagues. ... This person is a member of the Baseball Hall of Fame. ... Alejandro Alex Pompez (May 14, 1890 - March 14, 1974) was an American executive in Negro league baseball who owned the Cuban Stars and New York Cubans franchises from 1916 to 1950. ... Cumberland Willis Cum Posey (June 20, 1890 - March 28, 1946) was an American player, manager and team owner in baseballs Negro Leagues. ... This person is a member of the Baseball Hall of Fame. ... King Solomon White (June 12, 1868 - August 26, 1955) was an American professional baseball infielder, manager and executive, and one of the pioneers of the Negro Leagues. ... The Newark Eagles were a professional Negro League baseball team that played in the second Negro National League from 1936 to 1948. ... Negro National League can refer to either one or both of these two leagues Negro National League 1920 to 31 or Negro National League 1933 to 48 This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The committee reviewed the careers of 29 Negro Leagues and 10 Pre-Negro Leagues candidates. The list of 39 had been pared from a roster of 94 candidates by a five-member screening committee in November, 2005. The voting committee was chaired by Fay Vincent, Major League Baseball's eighth commissioner and an Honorary Director of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. Francis Thomas Fay Vincent, Jr. ...


Museum

The Negro Leagues Baseball Museum is located in the 18th and Vine District in Kansas City, Missouri. The Negro Leagues Baseball Museum was founded in 1990 in Kansas City, Missouri. ... (Redirected from 18th and Vine District) The 18th and Vine District is a center of African American culture in Kansas City, Missouri. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


The Last Negro Leaguers

Hank Aaron was the last Negro League player to hold a regular position in Major League Baseball. Henry Louis Hank Aaron (born February 5, 1934 in Mobile, Alabama) is a retired American baseball player and member of the Baseball Hall of Fame. ...


Minnie Miñoso was the last Negro League player to play in a Major League game when he appeared in two games for the Chicago White Sox in 1980. Minnie Miñoso [me-NYO-so] (born November 29, 1922 in Havana [or Matanzas ?], Cuba), born Saturnino Orestes Armas Miñoso Arrieta, is a former star left fielder in Major League Baseball. ...


Buck O'Neil was the most recent former Negro League player to appear in a professional game when he made two appearances (one for each team) in the Northern League All-Star Game in 2006. Buck ONeil during a baseball game John Jordan Buck ONeil (November 13, 1911 – October 6, 2006) was an American first baseman and manager in Negro league baseball, most notably in the Negro American League with the Kansas City Monarchs. ...


See also

The teams in Negro League baseball on this list is based upon the term Negro Leagues as applied by the Negro League Baseball Museum of Kansas City, Missouri. ... The people below are some of the most famous who played Negro League baseball, beginning with its first organized structure in 1920 until 1948, after Major League Baseballs color line barring African American players had been broken. ... Below is a list of the first black players in Major League Baseball by team and chronological order. ... Toni Stone ( July 17, 1931 - November 2, 1996), whose real name was Marcenia Lyle Alberga, was the first of three women to play Negro league baseball. ... Mamie Peanut Johnson (b. ... Constance Connie Enola Morgan (October 17, 1935 - October 14, 1996) was the third woman to play professional baseball in the Negro league. ... The Negro Leagues Baseball Museum was founded in 1990 in Kansas City, Missouri. ...

Further reading

Histories and encyclopedias

  • Only the Ball was White by Robert Peterson (Gramercy, originally published in 1970) ISBN 0-19-507637-0
  • The Negro Leagues Book by Dick Clark and Larry Lester, editors (Society for American Baseball Research, 1994) ISBN 0-9101-3755-2
  • Negro League Baseball: The Rise and Ruin of a Black Institution Neil Lanctot (University of Pennsylvania Press) ISBN 0-8122-2027-7
  • The Negro Leagues, 1869-1960 Leslie Heaphy (McFarland & Company, 2002) ISBN 0-7864-1380-8
  • Shades of Glory: The Negro Leagues and the Story of African-American Baseball, edited by Lawrence D. Hogan (National Geographic 2006)
  • The Complete Book of Baseball's Negro Leagues John B. Holway (Hastings House, 2001) ISBN 0-8038-2007-0
  • A History of Colored Base Ball by Sol White. First printed in 1907 as Sol White's Official Base Ball Guide, now reprinted by the University of Nebraska ISBN 0-8032-9783-1

King Solomon White (June 12, 1868 - August 26, 1955) was an American professional baseball infielder, manager and executive, and one of the pioneers of the Negro Leagues. ... Seal of the University of Nebraska The University of Nebraska is one of two public university systems in the state of Nebraska, USA. The system has four universities and a technical college: University of Nebraska-Lincoln University of Nebraska at Omaha University of Nebraska at Kearney University of Nebraska Medical...

Biographies and autobiographies

  • The Biographical Encyclopedia of the Negro Baseball Leagues edited by James Riley (new edition 2001) ISBN 0-7867-0959-6
  • Josh and Satch by John Holway ISBN 0-88184-817-4
  • Don't Look Back: Satchel Paige in the Shadows of the Game, Mark Ribowsky (biography)
  • Josh Gibson: The Power and the Darkness Mark Ribowsky (biography)
  • Blackball Stars, as told to John Holway; a collection of first-person accounts of the Negro Leagues by the men who played in them ISBN 0-88736-094-7
  • I Was Right On Time by Buck O'Neil ISBN 0-684-83247-X
  • Maybe I'll Pitch Forever by Satchel Paige ISBN 0-8032-8732-1
  • Some Are Called Clowns by Bill Heward & Dimitri Gat (1974). The first white player with the Indianapolis Clowns tells of his 1973 season of barnstorming. ISBN 0-690-00469-9
  • Ruling Over Monarchs, Giants & Stars: Umpiring in the Negro Leagues & Beyond, by Bob Motley. First-hand account of umpiring in the dying days of Negro League ball. ISBN 1-5967-0236-2

Buck ONeil during a baseball game John Jordan Buck ONeil (November 13, 1911 – October 6, 2006) was an American first baseman and manager in Negro league baseball, most notably in the Negro American League with the Kansas City Monarchs. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Negro league baseball
  • Black Baseball's Negro Baseball Leagues
  • Negro League Baseball Players Association
  • Negro Leagues Baseball Museum web site
  • Negro League Baseball Project (3 interviews) via Western Historical Manuscript Collection - University of Missouri-St. Louis
  • St. Louis Negro League Ballplayers

References

  1. ^ Blackball in Harrisburg. Afrolumens Project. Retrieved on June 22, 2005.
  2. ^ Heaphy, Leslie A. (2007), Satchel Paige and Company: Essays on the Kansas City Monarchs, Their Greatest Star and the Negro Leagues, McFarland & Co., ISBN 0786430753 
  3. ^ Mark Ribowsky (1995). "A Complete History of the Negro Leagues". Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8065-1868-5. 
  4. ^ Ribowsky p.279
Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Negro National League (NNL) was one of the several Negro Leagues which were established during the period in the United States in which organized baseball was segregated. ... Birmingham Black Barons Leagues Negro Southern League Negro National League Negro American League Significant Players Joe Bankhead Lyman Bostock Willie Mays Satchel Paige Ted Radcliffe Harry Salmon Sam Streeter Mules Suttles LorenzoPiperDavis The Birmingham Black Barons was a professional baseball team based out of Rickwood Field in Birmingham... Chicago American Giants were a Chicago based Negro League baseball team, formed by player-manager Andrew Rube Foster. ... Chicago Giants Leagues Independent (1910-1919) Negro National League (1920-1921) Significant Players The Chicago Giants were a professional baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois which played in the Negro Leagues. ... Nashville Elite Giants Leagues Independent (1921-1929) Negro National League (the first) (1930) Negro Southern League (1932) Negro National League (the second) (1933-1948) Negro American League (1949-1950) Significant Players Satchel Paige The Nashville Elite Giants were a professional baseball team that played in the Negro Leagues. ... For the 19th century minor league team, see Columbus Buckeyes (minor league). ... The Cuban Stars were a team of Cuban professional baseball players that competed in the United States Negro leagues from 1907 to 1930. ... The Dayton Marcos were a Negro League baseball team that is now defunct along with the Negro League. ... The Detroit Stars were an American baseball team in the Negro Leagues. ... The Indianapolis ABCs were a Negro League baseball team that played both as an independent club and as a charter member of the first Negro National League (NNL). ... The Kansas City Monarchs were the longest-running franchise in the history of baseballs Negro Leagues. ... The Memphis Red Sox were a professional Negro League baseball team based in Memphis, Tennessee from the 1920s until the end of segregated baseball. ... The Milwaukee Bears were a Negro National League team that played for only one year, in 1923, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ... Nashville Elite Giants Leagues Independent (1921-1929) Negro National League (the first) (1930) Negro Southern League (1932) Negro National League (the second) (1933-1948) Negro American League (1949-1950) Significant Players Satchel Paige The Nashville Elite Giants were a professional baseball team that played in the Negro Leagues. ... The Pittsburgh Keystones were a baseball team in the Negro National League in 1922. ... The St. ... The St. ... The Toledo Tigers were a Negro National League team that operated during the 1923 season, its only season in the league, representing Toledo, Ohio. ... The Eastern Colored League was one of the several Negro Leagues which were created during the time organized baseball was segregated. ... Atlantic City Bacharach Giants Leagues Independent (1916-1922, 1930-1933) Eastern Colored League (1923-1928) American Negro League (1929) Negro National League (1934) Significant Players Oliver Ghost Marcelle Smokey Joe Williams John Henry Lloyd Dick Lundy Arthur Rats Henderson The Atlantic City Bacharach Giants were a professional baseball team that... Baltimore Black Box 1923 Leagues Independent (1916 - 1922, 1930 - 1931) Eastern Colored league (1923 - 1928 American Negro League (1929) East-West League (1932) Negro National League (1933 - 1934) Significant Players Satchel Paige michael Steele The Chosen One Jud “Boojum” Wilson Frank Warfield Oliver Ghost Marcelle Sir Richard Lundy Leon Day... Brooklyn Royal Giants Leagues Independent (1910-1922, 1928-1942) Eastern Colored League (1923-1927) Significant Players Smokey Joe Williams Cannonball Dick Redding Frank Wickware Charles Chino Smith John Henry Pop Lloyd The Brooklyn Royal Giants were a professional baseball team based in Brooklyn, New York which played in the Negro... The Cuban Stars (East) were a team of professional baseball players from Cuba and other Latin American countries who competed in the Negro leagues in the eastern United States from 1916 to 1933. ... The Harrisburg Giants were a U.S. professional baseball team in the Negro Leagues. ... The Hilldale Athletic Club (also known as Hilldale Daisies, Darby Daisies) was a Negro League baseball team based in Darby, Pennsylvania, outside Philadelphia. ... The Homestead Grays were a professional baseball team that played in the Negro Leagues in the United States. ... The Lincoln Giants were a Negro League baseball team based in New York City from 1911 through 1930. ... In 1929 some of the Eastern Colored League teams competed in the American Negro League which just played that one season with Baltimore Black Sox taking the pennant. ... Atlantic City Bacharach Giants Leagues Independent (1916-1922, 1930-1933) Eastern Colored League (1923-1928) American Negro League (1929) Negro National League (1934) Significant Players Oliver Ghost Marcelle Smokey Joe Williams John Henry Lloyd Dick Lundy Arthur Rats Henderson The Atlantic City Bacharach Giants were a professional baseball team that... Baltimore Black Box 1923 Leagues Independent (1916 - 1922, 1930 - 1931) Eastern Colored league (1923 - 1928 American Negro League (1929) East-West League (1932) Negro National League (1933 - 1934) Significant Players Satchel Paige michael Steele The Chosen One Jud “Boojum” Wilson Frank Warfield Oliver Ghost Marcelle Sir Richard Lundy Leon Day... The Cuban Stars (East) were a team of professional baseball players from Cuba and other Latin American countries who competed in the Negro leagues in the eastern United States from 1916 to 1933. ... The Hilldale Athletic Club (also known as Hilldale Daisies, Darby Daisies) was a Negro League baseball team based in Darby, Pennsylvania, outside Philadelphia. ... The Homestead Grays were a professional baseball team that played in the Negro Leagues in the United States. ... The Lincoln Giants were a Negro League baseball team based in New York City from 1911 through 1930. ... Birmingham Black Barons Leagues Negro Southern League Negro National League Negro American League Significant Players Joe Bankhead Lyman Bostock Willie Mays Satchel Paige Ted Radcliffe Harry Salmon Sam Streeter Mules Suttles LorenzoPiperDavis The Birmingham Black Barons was a professional baseball team based out of Rickwood Field in Birmingham... Chattanooga Black Lookouts Leagues Negro Southern League (1920, 1926-27) Significant Players Satchel Paige (1926-27) The Chattanooga Black Lookouts were a professional baseball team based in Chattanooga, Tennessee which played in the Negro Leagues. ... Chattanooga Choo-Choos Leagues Negro Southern League (1940-46) Significant Players Willie Mays (1946) The Chattanooga Choo-Choos were a professional baseball team based in Chattanooga, Tennessee. ... Chicago American Giants were a Chicago based Negro League baseball team, formed by player-manager Andrew Rube Foster. ... The Indianapolis ABCs were a Negro League baseball team that played both as an independent club and as a charter member of the first Negro National League (NNL). ... The Memphis Red Sox were a professional Negro League baseball team based in Memphis, Tennessee from the 1920s until the end of segregated baseball. ... The Monroe Monarchs were a professional baseball team based in Monroe, Louisiana which played in the Negro Leagues from the late 1920s to 1935. ... Nashville Elite Giants Leagues Independent (1921-1929) Negro National League (the first) (1930) Negro Southern League (1932) Negro National League (the second) (1933-1948) Negro American League (1949-1950) Significant Players Satchel Paige The Nashville Elite Giants were a professional baseball team that played in the Negro Leagues. ... The second Negro National League was established in 1933, two years after the first Negro National League had disbanded. ... Atlantic City Bacharach Giants Leagues Independent (1916-1922, 1930-1933) Eastern Colored League (1923-1928) American Negro League (1929) Negro National League (1934) Significant Players Oliver Ghost Marcelle Smokey Joe Williams John Henry Lloyd Dick Lundy Arthur Rats Henderson The Atlantic City Bacharach Giants were a professional baseball team that... Baltimore Black Box 1923 Leagues Independent (1916 - 1922, 1930 - 1931) Eastern Colored league (1923 - 1928 American Negro League (1929) East-West League (1932) Negro National League (1933 - 1934) Significant Players Satchel Paige michael Steele The Chosen One Jud “Boojum” Wilson Frank Warfield Oliver Ghost Marcelle Sir Richard Lundy Leon Day... Nashville Elite Giants Leagues Independent (1921-1929) Negro National League (the first) (1930) Negro Southern League (1932) Negro National League (the second) (1933-1948) Negro American League (1949-1950) Significant Players Satchel Paige The Nashville Elite Giants were a professional baseball team that played in the Negro Leagues. ... Chicago American Giants were a Chicago based Negro League baseball team, formed by player-manager Andrew Rube Foster. ... The Columbus Blue Birds were a professional baseball team based in Columbus, Ohio in 1933. ... The Detroit Stars were an American baseball team in the Negro Leagues. ... The Homestead Grays were a professional baseball team that played in the Negro Leagues in the United States. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The New York Cubans were a negro leagues baseball team that played during the 1930s and from 1939 to 1950. ... The Newark Eagles were a professional Negro League baseball team that played in the second Negro National League from 1936 to 1948. ... The Philadelphia Stars were a Negro League baseball team from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... The Pittsburgh Crawfords were a professional Negro League baseball team based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... The Washington Black Senators were a Negro League team based in Washington, DC. When the Washington Elite Giants moved to Baltimore, MD in 1938, the gap was filled in by the Black Senators. ... The Negro American League was one of the several Negro Leagues which were created during the time organized baseball was segregated. ... The Atlanta Black Crackers were a team in the Negro League that played from approximately 1921 to 1949. ... Nashville Elite Giants Leagues Independent (1921-1929) Negro National League (the first) (1930) Negro Southern League (1932) Negro National League (the second) (1933-1948) Negro American League (1949-1950) Significant Players Satchel Paige The Nashville Elite Giants were a professional baseball team that played in the Negro Leagues. ... Birmingham Black Barons Leagues Negro Southern League Negro National League Negro American League Significant Players Joe Bankhead Lyman Bostock Willie Mays Satchel Paige Ted Radcliffe Harry Salmon Sam Streeter Mules Suttles LorenzoPiperDavis The Birmingham Black Barons was a professional baseball team based out of Rickwood Field in Birmingham... Chicago American Giants were a Chicago based Negro League baseball team, formed by player-manager Andrew Rube Foster. ... Cincinnati Tigers Leagues Independent (1934-1936 Negro American League (1937) Significant Players Ted Double Duty Radcliffe Porter Moss Jesse Houston Roy Partlow The Cincinnati Tigers were a professional baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio, Ohio which played in the Negro Leagues. ... Cleveland Buckeyes Leagues Negro American League Significant Players Quincey Trouppe The Cleveland Buckeyes were a professional baseball that played in the Negro Leagues. ... The Cleveland Giants were a Negro Leagues baseball team. ... The Detroit Stars were an American baseball team in the Negro Leagues. ... The Indianapolis ABCs were a Negro League baseball team that played both as an independent club and as a charter member of the first Negro National League (NNL). ... The Indianapolis Clowns were a professional baseball team in the Negro American League. ... The Kansas City Monarchs were the longest-running franchise in the history of baseballs Negro Leagues. ... The Louisville Buckeyes were a professional baseball team based in Louisville, Kentucky which played in the Negro Leagues. ... The Memphis Red Sox were a professional Negro League baseball team based in Memphis, Tennessee from the 1920s until the end of segregated baseball. ... The New York Cubans were a negro leagues baseball team that played during the 1930s and from 1939 to 1950. ... The Philadelphia Stars were a Negro League baseball team from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... The St. ... The All Cubans were a team of Cuban professional baseball players that toured the United States during 1899 and 1902-05, playing against white semiprofessional and Negro league teams. ... The Kansas City Monarchs were the longest-running franchise in the history of baseballs Negro Leagues. ... Austin Black Senators Leagues Independent Texas Negro League Texas-Oklahoma Negro League Significant Players Hilton Smith Willie Wells The Austin Black Senators was a professional baseball team based in Austin, Texas, which played in the Negro Leagues. ... Chicago Columbia Giants Leagues Independent (1899-1900) Significant Players John W. Patterson Harry Buckner The Chicago Columbia Giants was a professional, black baseball team that played prior to the founding of the Negro Leagues. ... The Chicago Unions was a professional, black baseball team that played prior to the formation of the Negro Leagues. ... The Chicago Union Giants, the top black baseball team in the Midwest or West in the first decade of the twentieth century, changed its name in 1905 to the Leland Giants, after manager and owner Frank Leland. ... The Babylon Black Panthers were a professional African-American baseball club, said to be the first such professional team in the United States of America. ... The Cuban X-Giants were not Cuban, but were former Cuban Giants in large part. ... The Chicago Union Giants, the top black baseball team in the Midwest or West in the first decade of the twentieth century, changed its name in 1905 to the Leland Giants, after manager and owner Frank Leland. ... The Minneapolis Keystones was a small club of black baseball players formed in Minneapolis, Minnesota in the early 20th century. ... One of the top black baseball teams of the 1890s, the Page Fence Giants were based in Adrian, Michigan and named after the Page Woven Wire Fence Company. ... The Boston Royal Giants was a Negro League baseball team in Boston. ... The St. ... The Bismarck Churchills were an integrated semi-professional baseball team based in Bismarck, North Dakota in the 1930s. ... The Boston Royal Giants was a Negro League baseball team in Boston. ... The Brooklyn Bushwicks were an independent, semi-professional baseball team that played its games primarily in Dexter Park, Brooklyn from 1935 to 1951. ... The Detroit Wolves were a Negro Leagues baseball club that played for just one year (1932). ... Gilkersons Union Giants were an independent Negro semi-pro baseball team in the 1920s. ... Illinois Giants were a barnstorming Negro League baseball team in the 1920s. ... The Jamestown Red Sox were an integrated semi-professional baseball team based in Jamestown, North Dakota in the 1930s. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Philadelphia Tigers were a Negro League baseball team that played briefly in the 1928 Eastern Colored League before the circuit disbanded in early June. ... Promotional poster for a Zulu Cannibal Giants game. ... The Negro League World Series is a baseball tournament that took place at various times from the 1920s to the 1940s, matching the champions of various Negro Leagues. ... Negro League Baseball All-Star Games were the brainchild of Gus Greenlee, owner of the Pittsburgh Crawfords. ... The Negro Leagues Baseball Museum was founded in 1990 in Kansas City, Missouri. ... The baseball color line was the policy, unwritten for nearly its entire duration, which excluded African American baseball players from organized baseball in the United States before 1946. ... The people below are some of the most famous who played Negro League baseball, beginning with its first organized structure in 1920 until 1948, after Major League Baseballs color line barring African American players had been broken. ... Below is a list of the first black players in Major League Baseball by team and chronological order. ... Barnstorming was a popular form of entertainment in the 1920s in which stunt pilots would perform tricks with airplanes, often in groups as a flying circus. ... Baseball is a team sport which is played by several professional leagues throughout the world. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ... The American League (or formally the American League of Professional Baseball Clubs) is one of two leagues that make up Major League Baseball in the United States of America and Canada. ... National league can refer to: National Basketball League, in the United States and Canada, which merged with the rival Basketball Association of America to form the National Basketball Association National Football League, the major American football league in the United States National Hockey League, the major ice hockey league in... Part of the History of baseball series. ... See also: Central League (football) The Central League (セントラル・リーグ Sentoraru Riigu) is one of Japans two major professional baseball leagues (the other is the Pacific League). ... The Pacific League (パシフィック・リーグ Pashifikku Riigu) is one of Japans two major professional baseball leagues (the other is the Central League). ... The Korea Baseball Organization (KBO) of South Korea is the countrys professional baseball league. ... The Chinese Professional Baseball League (Traditional Chinese: 中華職業棒球大聯盟) or CPBL is the professional baseball league in Taiwan. ... The National Association of Professional Base Ball Players (NAPBBP), or simply the National Association (NA), was founded in 1871 and lasted through the 1875 season. ... The American Association (AA) was a baseball major league from 1882 to 1891. ... The Union Association was a league in Major League Baseball which lasted only for one season in 1884. ... The Federal League was the last major attempt to establish an independent major league in baseball in the United States in direct competition with and opposition to the established National and American Leagues in 1914 and 1915. ... The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League was a womens professional baseball league founded by Philip K. Wrigley which existed from 1943 to 1954. ... The Japanese Baseball League was a professional baseball league in Japan. ... The Taiwan Major League (TML 臺灣大聯盟) was a professional baseball league in Taiwan that existed from 1997 to 2003. ... The China Baseball League (中国棒球联赛) or Chinese Baseball League or CBL is a fledgling professional baseball league in the Peoples Republic of China, founded in 2002. ... The Australian Baseball League (ABL) was founded after the 1988 Claxton Shield; in the summer of 1989/90 the new League took to the field, with the Waverley Reds being the dominant team of the season. ... The Continental League (or formally the Continental League of Professional Baseball Clubs) was a proposed third major league for baseball, announced in 1959 and scheduled to begin play in the 1961 season. ... The Cuban League was one of the earliest and longest lasting professional baseball leagues outside of the United States, operating in Cuba from 1878 to 1961. ... The National Association of Base Ball Players (NABBP) was founded in 1857 by sixteen baseball clubs located in the New York metropolitan area. ... The International Baseball League of Australia was a baseball league which existed from 1999 to 2002. ... For the organization which many minor leagues belong to, see Minor League Baseball Part of the History of baseball series. ... For the organization which many minor leagues belong to, see Minor League Baseball Part of the History of baseball series. ... The International League (IL) is a minor league baseball league which operates in the eastern United States and Canada. ... The Pacific Coast League (PCL) is a minor league baseball league operating in the West and Midwest of the United States. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... For the organization which many minor leagues belong to, see Minor League Baseball Part of the History of baseball series. ... The Eastern League is a minor league baseball league which operates primarily in the northeastern United States, although it has had a team in Ohio since 1989. ... The Southern League is a minor league baseball league which operates in the Southern United States. ... The Texas League is a minor league baseball league which operates in the South Central United States. ... For the organization which many minor leagues belong to, see Minor League Baseball Part of the History of baseball series. ... The California League is a minor league baseball league which operates throughout the state of California. ... The Carolina League is a minor league baseball affiliation which operates in the South Atlantic region of the United States. ... The Florida State League is a minor league baseball league which operates in the state of Florida. ... For the organization which many minor leagues belong to, see Minor League Baseball Part of the History of baseball series. ... The Midwest League is a minor league baseball league which operates in the Midwestern United States. ... The South Atlantic League is a minor league baseball league which operates mostly in the southeastern United States, although it now has teams in New Jersey and Ohio. ... For the organization which many minor leagues belong to, see Minor League Baseball Part of the History of baseball series. ... The New York - Penn League is a minor league baseball league which operates in the northeastern United States. ... The Northwest League is a class A minor league. ... For the organization which many minor leagues belong to, see Minor League Baseball Part of the History of baseball series. ... The Appalachian League is a minor league baseball league which operates in the Virginia and Tennessee region. ... The Arizona League is a minor league baseball league that operates in Arizona. ... The Dominican Summer League is a branch of affiliated minor league baseball which is played in the Dominican Republic. ... The Gulf Coast League is a minor league baseball league which operates in Florida. ... Pioneers | logo = PioneerLeague. ... [ [ Image:VSL.gif|experiencia del ninguna de párrafo jugadores de poca o del liga del una de liga venezolana del verano es del la del derecha del la ] ] . en Venezuela de Aragua y Carabobo de los estados de los los del en del funciona del liga del la. ... The Western League ) is one of the two minor leagues of Japanese professional baseball. ... The Eastern League ) is one of two professional baseball minor leagues in Japan. ... A map of all United States-based Major League and Class AAA, AA, High-A, Low-A, and Short Season-A minor league baseball teams. ... Independent baseball leagues are professional baseball organizations located in the United States and Canada. ... This article refers to the modern American Association that started in 2006. ... The Atlantic League of Professional Baseball, based in Camden, New Jersey, is a professional, independent baseball organization located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic United States, especially the greater metropolitan areas of New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Maryland and Washington, D.C. It operates in cities not served by Major or... The Canadian-American Association of Professional Baseball, based in Durham, North Carolina, is a professional, independent baseball league located in the Northeastern United States and the Canadian province of Quebec. ... The Continental Baseball League , based in Addison, Texas, is a professional, independent baseball organization located in the U.S. state of Texas. ... The Frontier League, based in Troy, Illinois, is a professional, independent baseball organization located in the Midwestern United States and Western Pennsylvania. ... The Golden Baseball League, based in Dublin, California, is a professional independent baseball league with teams in the western United States and Canada. ... This article refers to the modern Northern League. ... The United League Baseball, based in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex, is an independent baseball league which operates in the Southeastern United States. ... The Intercounty Baseball League (IBL) is a semi-professional, independent baseball organization located in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... A map of all United States-based Major League and Class AAA, AA, High-A, Low-A, and Short Season-A minor league baseball teams. ... The Arizona Winter League is the winter professional baseball league of the Golden Baseball League. ... The Texas Winter League is the winter professional baseball league of United League Baseball. ... The Arizona Fall League is a minor league baseball league which operates during the Fall in Arizona at three spring training complexes. ... Hawaii Winter Baseball, based in Honolulu, Hawaii, is a professional baseball league located on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. ... The China Baseball League (中国棒球联赛) or Chinese Baseball League or CBL is a fledgling professional baseball league in the Peoples Republic of China, founded in 2002. ... Serie A1 is the highest level of professional baseball in Italy and is overseen by FIBS. It is currently a 9 team league that plays a 48 game schedule from April to September. ... The Baseball-Bundesliga is the elite competition for the sport of baseball in Germany. ... The Israel Baseball League (IBL) (Hebrew: ליגת הבייסבול הישראלית) is a new professional baseball league in Israel. ... Honkbal Hoofdklasse, Dutch for Major League Baseball, is the highest level of professional baseball in the Netherlands. ... Baseball Philippines is a start-up baseball circuit formed in 2007 by a joint venture between Community Sports Incorporated and Pureplay Sports Management Incorporated in partnership with the Philippine Amateur Baseball Association and sanctioned by the Philippine Sports Commission. ... Division de Honor de Beisbol is the highest level of professional baseball in Spain and is overseen by RFEBS. It is currently a 12 team league that plays a 48 game schedule from March to May. ... Elitserien is the highest league of baseball in Sweden and is operated by the Swedish Baseball and Softball Federation. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... African American history is the portion of American history that specifically discusses the African American or Black American ethnic group in the United States. ... The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... The word Maafa (also known as the African Holocaust or Holocaust of Enslavement) is derived from a Kiswahili word meaning disaster, terrible occurrence or great tragedy. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Military history of African Americans is that of African Americans in the United States since the arrival of the first black slaves in 1619 to the present day. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... For the automotive term, see redline. ... American Civil Rights Movement redirects here. ... Reparations for slavery is a movement in the United States, which suggests that the government apologize to slave descendants for their hardships, and bestow on them reparations, whether it be in the form of money, land, or other goods. ... Image File history File links AmericaAfrica. ... In the United States, African American culture or Black culture includes the various cultural traditions of African American communities. ... African American studies, or Black studies, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of African Americans. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In the United States, Historically black colleges and universities (HBCU) are colleges or universities that were established before 1964 with the intention of serving the African American community. ... Kwanzaa (or Kwaanza) is a week-long Pan-African festival primarily honoring African-American heritage. ... African American art is a broad term describing the visual arts of the American black community. ... African American dances in the vernacular tradition (academically known as African American vernacular dance) are those dances which have developed within African American communities in everyday spaces, rather than in dance studios, schools or companies. ... The Color Purple by Alice Walker African American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. ... An African American man gives a piano lesson to a young African American woman, in 1899 or 1900, in Georgia, USA. Photograph from a collection of W.E.B. DuBois. ... This is a list of museums about, or otherwise focused on African Americans. ... African American neighborhoods or black neighborhoods are types of ethnic enclaves found in many cities in the United States. ... The term black church or African American church refers to predominantly African American Christian churches that minister to black communities in the United States. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, economic condition of the black man and woman of America and belief that God will bring... Black Hebrew Israelites (also Black Hebrews, African Hebrew Israelites, and Hebrew Israelites) are groups of people of African ancestry situated mostly in the United States who claim to be descendants of the ancient Israelites. ... This article is about the West African religion. ... Hoodoo is a form of predominantly African American, Christian, traditional folk magic. ... For other uses, see Santeria (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Black Capitalism is a name for a movement among African Americans to build wealth through the ownership and development of businesses. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African American organization founded to promote civil rights and self-defense. ... Pan-African people are all people with African physical features. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the Nas song called Black Republican, see Hip Hop Is Dead. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Logo. ... “CORE” redirects here. ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... National Urban League Logo The National Urban League (NUL) is a nonpartisan civil rights organization based in New York City that advocates on behalf of African Americans and against racial discrimination in the United States. ... The Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) is a non-profit organization founded in Chicago, Illinois, in 1915 as The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History by Carter G. Woodson and Jesse E. Moorland. ... United Negro College Fund logo The United Negro College Fund (UNCF) is a Fairfax, Virginia-based American philanthropic organization that fundraises college tuition money for African-American students and general scholarship funds for 39 historically black colleges and universities. ... National Black Chamber of Commerce The National Black Chamber of Commerce, (NBCC), was “incorporated in March of 1993, in Washington D.C.” The organizations mission is “To economically empower and sustain African American communities, through the process of entrepreneurship and capitalistic activity within the United States and via interaction with... Not to be confused with National Panhellenic Conference. ... The Links, Incorporated is an exclusive non-profit organization based upon the ideals of combining friendship and community service and was was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on November 9, 1946, from a group of ladies known as the Philadelphia Club to have focuses on civic, cultural, and educational endeavors[1... The National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) was founded in 1935 by Mary McLeod Bethune, child of slave parents, distinguished educator and government consultant. ... The Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association (CIAA) is a college athletic conference made up of historically black colleges in the southeastern United States. ... logo of Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference The Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (SIAC) is a College athletic conference consisting of historically black colleges located in the southern United States. ... The Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference (MEAC) is a collegiate athletic conference which consists of historically black colleges in the southeastern United States. ... The Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC) is a college athletic conference made up of historically black universities in the southern United States. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Gullah language (Sea Island Creole English, Geechee) is a creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called Geechees), an African American population living on the Sea Islands and the coastal region of the U.S. states of South Carolina and Georgia. ... Louisiana Creole (Créole Louisiane and Kourí-Viní, as it is known in and near St. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Notable African-Americans or Black Americans // List of African American writers List of African American nonfiction writers List of composers of African descent African Americans in the United States Congress (includes a long list) List of African American Republicans List of civil rights leaders List of African American abolitionists List... African-Americans are a demographic minority in the United States. ... This is a list of landmark legislation, court decisions, executive orders, and proclamations in the United States significantly affecting African Americans. ... This is an alphabetical list of African-American-related topics: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A African American African American contemporary issues African American culture...

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Negro League Baseball Dot Com - The Online Home of Negro League Baseball History (1083 words)
The Negro League luminaries will be inducted during ceremonies to be held at the Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, NY on July 30.
The Negro League-Cuban League baseball connection was a very important factor in the development of the game in both countries, and we can think of no better repository of the history than the recollections of Monte Irvin and Connie Marrero.
With fan interest in Negro League baseball history reaching higher and higher levels during the past few years, it is good to see some attention being focused on Cuba--a home away from home for many Negro League stars in the pre-Castro years.
Negro League History 101 - An Introduction To The Negro Leagues (0 words)
While it would be quite a stretch to say that professional baseball in the North was integrated between the end of the Civil War and 1890, quite a number of African-Americans played alongside white athletes on minor league and major league teams during the period.
The Negro Southern League was in continuous operation from 1920 through the 1940s and held the position as fl baseball's only operating major circuit for the 1931 season.
In 1937 the Negro American League was launched, bringing into its fold the best clubs in the South and Midwest, and stood as the opposing circuit to Greenlee's Negro National League until the latter league disbanded after the 1949 season.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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