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Encyclopedia > Negev

:For the light machine gun see IMI Negev. The IMI Negev is a light-weight, 5. ...

Wadi in Paran River, Negev, Israel.
Rocky exposures, Paran River, Negev, Israel.
Rock face in the Negev Desert near Beersheba on the way to Eilat.
Rock face in the Negev Desert near Beersheba on the way to Eilat.
Ruins in the Negev desert.
Ruins in the Negev desert.
View of the resort city, Eilat from the Negev.
View of the resort city, Eilat from the Negev.
Acacia tree in Makhtesh Gadol, Israel.
View in Timna Park, Negev, Israel.
View in Timna Park, Negev, Israel.
View in Timna Park, Negev, Israel.
View in Timna Park, Negev, Israel.

The Negev (Hebrew: נֶגֶב‎, Tiberian vocalization: Néḡeḇ; Arabic: النقب, an-Naqab) is the desert region of southern Israel which makes up the majority of Israel's official Southern District. The origin of the word Negev is from the Hebrew root denoting 'dry'. In the Bible the word Negev is also used for the direction 'south'.=D Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 750 pixels, file size: 206 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 750 pixels, file size: 206 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 750 pixels, file size: 215 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 750 pixels, file size: 215 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixels, file size: 1. ... Hebrew   (Standard) Bəʼer ŠévaÊ» Arabic بِئْرْ اَلْسَبْعْ ( ) Name Meaning Well of the Oath(see also) Government City Also Spelled Beer Sheva (officially) District South Population 185,500 (Metro 531,000) (2005) Jurisdiction 54,000 dunams (54 km²) Mayor Yaacov Turner Beersheba (Hebrew romanization Beer Sheva), the largest city in the... Hebrew אילת Founded in 1951 Government City (from 1959) District South Population 55,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 80,000 dunams (80 km²) Mayor Meir Yitzhak Halevi North Beach, Eilat, from southwest. ... Download high resolution version (4235x2613, 772 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (4235x2613, 772 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2012x2012, 527 KB)View of the resort town of Eilat from the Negev. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2012x2012, 527 KB)View of the resort town of Eilat from the Negev. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 750 pixels, file size: 262 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 750 pixels, file size: 262 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... For other uses, see Acacia (disambiguation). ... A makhtesh is a geological phenomenon in which a large closed body of water gradually drains through a narrow outlet; the erosion process creates a crater-like valley. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 539 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 539 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 389 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 389 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Arabic redirects here. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... The South District of Israel, highlighted. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ...

Contents

Geography

The Negev covers over some 13,000 km² (4,700 sq mi) or 55% of Israel. It forms an inverted triangle shape whose western side is contiguous with the desert of the Sinai Peninsula, and whose eastern border is the Wadi Arabah. The Negev has a number of interesting cultural and geological features. Among the latter are three enormous, craterlike erosion cirques or makhteshim, which are unique to the region: the Ramon Crater, haMakhtesh haGadol ("The Large Makhtesh"), and haMakhtesh haKatan ("The Small Makhtesh"). Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... Wadi alMujib, Jordan A wadi (Arabic: ) is traditionally a valley. ... Cloudbreak over Wadi Araba, Jordan. ... A makhtesh is a geological phenomenon in which a large closed body of water gradually drains through a narrow outlet; the erosion process creates a crater-like valley. ... , Ramon Crater Ramon Crater is the worlds biggest karst crater, located at the peak of Mount Negev, in the heart of Israels Negev Desert, some 85 kilometers south of the city of Beer-Sheva. ...


The Negev can be split into five different ecological regions: Northern, Western and Central Negev, the High Plateau and the Arava Valley. The Northern Negev, or Mediterranean Zone receives 300 mm of rain annually and has fairly fertile soils. The Western Negev receives 250 mm of rain per year, with light and partially sandy soils. Sand dunes can reach heights of up to 30 metres here. Home to the city of Beersheba, the Central Negev has an annual precipitation of 200 mm and is characterized by impervious soil, allowing minimum penetration of water with greater soil erosion and water runoff. The high plateau area of Ramat HaNegev (Hebrew: רמת הנגב‎, The Negev Heights) stands between 370 metre and 520 metre above sea level with extreme temperatures in summer and winter. The area gets 100 mm of rain per year, with inferior and partially salty soils. The Arava Valley along the Jordanian border stretches 180 km from Eilat in the south to the tip of the Dead Sea in the north. The Arava Valley is very arid with barely 50 mm of rain annually, the Arava has inferior soils in which little can grow without irrigation and special soil additives. Hebrew   (Standard) Bəʼer ŠévaÊ» Arabic بِئْرْ اَلْسَبْعْ ( ) Name Meaning Well of the Oath(see also) Government City Also Spelled Beer Sheva (officially) District South Population 185,500 (Metro 531,000) (2005) Jurisdiction 54,000 dunams (54 km²) Mayor Yaacov Turner Beersheba (Hebrew romanization Beer Sheva), the largest city in the... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Cloudbreak over Wadi Araba, Jordan. ...


History

Nomadic life in the Negev dates back 4000 years and the first urbanized settlements were established by a combination of Canaanite, Amalekite, and Edomite groups circa 2000 BC.[1] Pharaonic Egypt is credited with introducing copper mining and smelting in both the Negev and the Sinai between 1400 and 1300 BC.[1] [2] Canaanite can describe anything pertaining to Canaan: in particular, its languages and inhabitants. ... According to the Book of Genesis and 1 Chronicles, Amalek (עֲמָלֵק; Standard Hebrew ʿAmaleq, Tiberian Hebrew ʿĂmālēq) was the son of Eliphaz and the grandson of Esau (Gen. ... Edom (אֱדוֹם, Standard Hebrew Edom, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔḏôm) sounds like the Biblical Hebrew word for red and is a vividly apposite designation for the red sandstones of Edom. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south). ...


In the 9th century BC, development and expansion of mining in both the Negev and Edom (modern Jordan) coincided with the rise of the Assyrian Empire.[3]Bir es-Saba was the region's capital and a center for trade in the 8th century BC.[3] Small settlements of Jews in the areas around the capital and later further afield were existent between 1020 and 928 BC.[3] Edom (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; red) is a name given to Esau in the Hebrew Bible, as well as to the nation purportedly descended from him. ... This article concerns the ancient Mesopotamian kingdom. ... Beersheba or Beer Sheva (Hebrew באר שבע; Arabic بئر السبع Biʾr as-Sabʿ) is a city in Israel. ...


The 4th century BC arrival of the Nabateans resulted in the development of irrigation systems that supported at least five new urban centers: Oboda, Mamphis, Sobata, Elusa, and Nessana.[3] The Nabateans controlled the trade and spice route between their capital Petra and the Gazan seaports. Nabatean currency, as well as the remains of red and orange potsherds identified as a trademark of their civilization have been found along the route, remnants of which are also still visible.[3] Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans, a people of ancient Arabia, whose settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the border-land between Syria and Arabia from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ... Elusa is a Roman Catholic titular see in the former Roman Province of Palaestina Tertia, suffragan of the archbishopric of Petra. ... This article is about the Jordanian site of Petra. ... In archaeology, a sherd is a fragment of pottery or other ceramic. ...


Nabatean control of southern Palestine ended when the Roman empire annexed their lands in 106 AD.[3] The population, largely made up of Arabian nomads and Nabateans, remained largely tribal and independent of Roman rule, with an animist belief system.[3] For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Byzantine rule in the 4th century AD introduced Christianity to the population.[3] Agricultural-based cities were established and the population grew exponentially.[3] The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


The arrival of Muslim forces in the 7th century AD was accepted with relative ease by the population, due to their shared Arab background, and Islam was easily adopted by most as well.[3] Upon Islamic conquest, permanent agricultural sites were established and the Ummayads built hundred of farms and systematic terracing of wadis. The efforts, in part were made to settle the semi-nomadic Arab tribes of the area.[4] There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... A wadi is a dry riverbed that only contains water during times of heavy rain. ...



Nomadic tribes ruled the Negev largely independently and without interference for the next thousand years.[3] What is known of this time is largely derived from oral histories and folk tales of tribes from the Wadi Musa and Petra areas in present-day Jordan[5] Late in the rule of the Ottoman empire, an administrative center for southern Palestine was established in Bir es-Saba and schools and a railway station were built.[5] The authority of the tribal chiefs over the region was recognized by the Ottomans.[5] Look up Ottoman, ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Today

Today, the Negev is home to some 379,000 Jews and some 175,000 Bedouins. The region's largest city and administrative capital is Beersheba (pop. around 200,000), in the north. At its southern end is the Gulf of Eilat and the resort city of Eilat. Other towns include Dimona, Arad, Mitzpe Ramon as well as a number of small Bedouin towns, including Rahat and Tel Sheva. There are also several kibbutz settlements, including Revivim and Sde Boker; the latter became the home of Israel's first Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, after his retirement from politics. A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), is a desert-dwelling Arab nomadic pastoralist, found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev to the Arabian Desert. ... Hebrew   (Standard) Bəʼer ŠévaÊ» Arabic بِئْرْ اَلْسَبْعْ ( ) Name Meaning Well of the Oath(see also) Government City Also Spelled Beer Sheva (officially) District South Population 185,500 (Metro 531,000) (2005) Jurisdiction 54,000 dunams (54 km²) Mayor Yaacov Turner Beersheba (Hebrew romanization Beer Sheva), the largest city in the... Sinai Peninsula, with the Gulf of Aqaba (east) and the Gulf of Suez (west), as viewed from the Space Shuttle STS-40. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Hebrew אילת Founded in 1951 Government City (from 1959) District South Population 55,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 80,000 dunams (80 km²) Mayor Meir Yitzhak Halevi North Beach, Eilat, from southwest. ... Hebrew דימונה Arabic ديمونة Founded in 1955 Government City District South Population 33,900 Jurisdiction 6,000 dunams (6 km²) Mayor Yitzhak Rochberger Dimona (‎) is an Israeli city in the Negev desert, 36 kilometers to the south of Beer-Sheva and 35 kilometers west of the Dead Sea above the Arabah valley... For the archaeological site, see Tel Arad. ... , Mitzpe Ramon is a local council in the Negev desert of southern Israel. ... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), is a desert-dwelling Arab nomadic pastoralist, found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev to the Arabian Desert. ... Rahat is also a name for the Turkish Delight Lokum. ... Tel Sheva (Hebrew: תל שבע) is a Bedouin town (local council) in the Southern District of Israel, bordering Beer Sheva. ... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים; gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ... Revivim is a kibbutz founded in 1943 in the Negev in southern Israel. ... Sde-Boker is an Israeli Kibbutz in the Negev, in the Southern District of Israel, founded on May 15, 1952. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ...   (October 16, 1886 – December 1, 1973; Hebrew: ) was the first Prime Minister of Israel. ...


The desert is home to the Ben-Gurion University, whose faculties include the Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research and the Albert Katz International School for Desert Studies, both located on the Midreshet Ben-Gurion campus next to Sde Boker. The Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (אוניברסיטת בן-גוריון בנגב) was founded in 1969, in Beer Sheva, Israel. ... The Jacob Blaustein Instiutes for Desert Research is part of the Ben-Gurion University, and is located in the Midreshet Ben-Gurion campus in the centre of the Negev desert in Israel. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Midreshet Ben-Gurion. ... Midreshet Ben-Gurion (Hebrew: ) is a small settlement, near the kibbutz Sde-Boker in the Negev desert of Israel. ... Sde-Boker is an Israeli Kibbutz in the Negev, in the Southern District of Israel, founded on May 15, 1952. ...


Bedouins

Main article: Negev bedouins

The Negev bedouins are nomadic tribes who have discontinuously inhabited the desert for more than 7,000 years. Although unaffected by external influences throughout history, the tribal culture and way of life has changed dramatically recently.[6] The Negev Bedouins (Arabic: Badawit an-Naqab) are traditionally pastoral semi-nomadic Arab tribes indigenous to the Negev region, who hold close ties to the Bedouins of the Sinai. ...


The bedouins of the Negev survive on sheep and goat husbandry. Scarcity of water and of permanent pastoral land requires them to move constantly. The bedouins have established very few permanent settlements.[7]


Geology

The Negev is a rocky desert. It is a melange of brown, rocky, dusty mountains interrupted by wadis (dry riverbeds that bloom briefly after rain) and deep craters. The area actually was once the floor of a primordial sea, and a sprinkling of marine snail shells still covers the earth. This article is about arid terrain. ... Wadi alMujib, Jordan A wadi (Arabic: ) is traditionally a valley. ...


Climate

The whole Negev region is incredibly arid, receiving very little rain due to its location to the East of the Sahara (as opposed to the Mediterranean which lies to the West of most of Israel), and extreme temperatures due to its location 31 degrees north. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


The average rainfall totals for the May to October period are 0.[1]


Beer Sheva Average Conditions [2]Temperatures are in degrees Celsius. Beersheba or Beer Sheva (Hebrew באר שבע; Arabic بئر السبع Biʾr as-Sabʿ) is a city in Israel. ...

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
17 17 20 26 29 31 33 33 31 28 24 18
7 7 9 13 16 18 21 21 19 17 12 8

See also

The South District of Israel, highlighted. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Mariam Shahin. Palestine: A Guide. (2005) Interlink Books. ISBN:156656557
  2. ^ Juan Manuel Tebes. (2007) Centro y periferia en el mundo antiguo. El Negev y sus interacciones con Egipto, Asiria, y el Levante en la Edad del Hierro (1200-586 a.C.) CEHAO Monograph Series Vol. 1 Free access
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Mariam Shahin. Palestine:A Guide. (2005) Interlink Books. ISBN:156656557
  4. ^ Robert Schick (6 1998). "Archaeological Sources for the History of Palestine: Palestine in the Early Islamic Period: Luxuriant Legacy". Near Eastern Archaeology 61 (2): 74-1008. Retrieved on June 20, 2007. 
  5. ^ a b c Mariam Shahin. Palestine:A Guide. (2005) Interlink Books. ISBN:156656557
  6. ^ Kurt Goering (Autumn, 1979). "Israel and the Bedouin of the Negev". Journal of Palestine Studies 9 (1): 3-20. 
  7. ^ Israel Finkelstein; Avi Perevolotsky (Aug., 1990). "Processes of Sedentarization and Nomadization in the History of Sinai and the Negev". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (279): 67-88. 

External links

  • Wikitravel: Negev
  • Israel's Negev Information Site
  • Israel's Negev Desert
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Negev

  Results from FactBites:
 
Negev - definition of Negev in Encyclopedia (203 words)
The Negev (נגב, Standard Hebrew Négev / Nágev, Tiberian Hebrew Néḡeḇ / Nāḡeḇ; Arabic النقب; an-Naqab) is the desert region of southern Israel.
Geographically, the over 13,000km² Negev forms an inverted triangle whose western side is continuous with the desert of the Sinai peninsula, and whose eastern border is the Wadi Arabah.
Negev is also the name of an IMI light machine gun, designated IMI Negev.
The Negev (856 words)
In 1947 and 1948, when the boundaries of the Jewish and Arab states were being debated by diplomats, David Ben-Gurion insisted the Negev be part of the Jewish state.
The gateway to the Negev is a place that once was little more than a watering hole for Abraham's sheep.
The Central Negev is marked by Makhtesh Ramon, which is usually referred to as a crater, but is actually a valley surrounded by steep walls.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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