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Encyclopedia > Nefertiti
Nefertiti
in hieroglyphs



The iconic bust of Nefertiti, part of the Ägyptisches Museum Berlin collection, currently on display in the Altes Museum.
The iconic bust of Nefertiti, part of the Ägyptisches Museum Berlin collection, currently on display in the Altes Museum.

Nefertiti (pronounced at the time something like *nafratiːta[1]) (c. 1370 BC - c. 1330 BC) was the Great Royal Wife (or chief consort/wife) of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten. She was the mother-in-law and probable stepmother of the Pharaoh Tutankhamun. Nefertiti may have also ruled as pharaoh in her own right under the name Neferneferuaten briefly after her husband's death and before the accession of Tutankhamun, although this identification is called into doubt by the latest research.[citation needed] Her name roughly translates to "the beautiful (or perfect) one has arrived". She also shares her name with a type of elongated gold bead, called nefer, that she was often portrayed as wearing. She was made famous by her bust, now in Berlin's Altes Museum, shown to the right. The bust is one of the most copied works of ancient Egypt. It was attributed to the sculptor Thutmose, and was found in his workshop. The bust itself is notable for exemplifying the understanding Ancient Egyptians had regarding realistic facial proportions. She had many titles; for example, at Karnak there are inscriptions that read Heiress, Great of Favours, Possessed of Charm, Exuding Happiness, Mistress of Sweetness, beloved one, soothing the king's heart in his house, soft-spoken in all, Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt, Great King's Wife, whom he loves, Lady of the Two Lands, Nefertiti'. Nefertiti and her husband were known for changing Egypt's religion. They changed it from a polytheistic religion, to a monotheistic religion. They believed only in the sun god, Aten. Nefertiti was known throughout Egypt for her beauty. She was very proud of her long, swan like neck. She even invented her own makeup using the Galena plant. A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (500x752, 162 KB) Summary Description: Bust of queen Nefertiti in the Altes Museum, Berlin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (500x752, 162 KB) Summary Description: Bust of queen Nefertiti in the Altes Museum, Berlin. ... Bust of Nefertiti The Egyptian Museum of Berlin (German: Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung) is home to one of the worlds most important collections of Ancient Egyptian artefacts. ... Berlin, Old Museum, June 2003 The Altes Museum or Old Museum (until 1845 Royal Museum) located on Berlins Museum Island was built between 1825 and 1828 by the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the neoclassical style to house the Prussian Royal familys art collection. ... Nefertiti is an album recorded in June and July 1967 by the second Miles Davis quintet and is the groups last fully acoustic album. ... (Redirected from 1370 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1420s BC 1410s BC 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC - 1370s BC - 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC Events and Trends Significant People The end of the rule of Amenophis III... (Redirected from 1330 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... Great Royal Wife (or ḥmt nswt wrt) is the term used to refer to the chief wife of an Egyptian pharaoh on the day of his coronation. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... King Tut redirects here. ... Bust of Richard Bently by Roubiliac A bust is a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ... Berlin, Old Museum, June 2003 The Altes Museum or Old Museum (until 1845 Royal Museum) located on Berlins Museum Island was built between 1825 and 1828 by the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the neoclassical style to house the Prussian Royal familys art collection. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... Thutmoses bust of Nefertiti, now in Berlins Egyptian Museum The Kings Favourite and Master of Works, the Sculptor Thutmose (also spelled Djhutmose and Thutmosis) was apparently the court sculptor of Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten in the latter part of his reign. ... A workshop is a room or building which provides both the area and tools (or machinery) that may be required for the manufacture or repair of manufactured goods. ... This article is about the Karnak temple complex in Egypt. ...

Contents

Family

See also : Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt Family Tree
A standing/striding figure of Nefertiti made of limestone. Originally from Amarna, part of the Ägyptisches Museum Berlin collection.
A standing/striding figure of Nefertiti made of limestone. Originally from Amarna, part of the Ägyptisches Museum Berlin collection.

Nefertiti's parentage is not known with certainty, but it is now generally believed that she was the daughter of Ay, later to be pharaoh.[2] Another theory that gained some support identified Nefertiti with the Mitanni princess Tadukhipa. The name Nimerithin has been mentioned in older scrolls, as an alternative name, but this has not yet been officially confirmed. The Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt family tree is complex and unclear, especially at its end. ... Bust of Nefertiti The Egyptian Museum of Berlin (German: Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung) is home to one of the worlds most important collections of Ancient Egyptian artefacts. ... For other uses, see AY. Nomen: Itinetjer Ay Gods father, Ay Horus name: Kanakht Tekhenkhau The strong bull, the one of glittering crowns Nebty name: Sekhempehti dersetet Who is mighty of strength, who subdues the Asiatics Golden Horus: Heqamaat sekhepertawy The ruler of truth, who creates the two lands... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... Tadukhipa, in Hurrian language Tadu-Hepa, was the daughter of Tushratta, king of Mitanni (reigned ca. ...


The exact dates of when Nefertiti was married to Amenhotep IV and later, promoted to his Queen are uncertain. However, the couple had six known daughters. This is a list with suggested years of birth:

A "house altar" depicting Akhenaten, Nefertiti and three of their Daughters; limestone; New Kingdom, Amarna period, 18th dynasty; c. 1350 BC - Collection: Ägyptisches Museum Berlin, Inv. 14145
A "house altar" depicting Akhenaten, Nefertiti and three of their Daughters; limestone; New Kingdom, Amarna period, 18th dynasty; c. 1350 BC - Collection: Ägyptisches Museum Berlin, Inv. 14145

In Year 4 of his reign (1346 BC) Amenhotep IV started his worship of Aten. The king led a religious revolution, in which Nefertiti played a prominent role. This year is also believed to mark the beginning of his construction of a new capital, Akhetaten, at what is known today as Amarna. In his Year 5, Amenhotep IV officially changed his name to Akhenaten as evidence of his new worship. The date given for the event has been estimated to fall around January 2 of that year. In Year 7 of his reign (1343 BC) the capital was officially moved from Thebes to Amarna, though construction of the city seems to have continued for two more years (till 1341 BC). The new city was dedicated to the royal couple's new religion. Nefertiti's famous bust is also thought to have been created around this time. Meritaten (her name means Beloved of Aten – Aten was the sun-god her father worshipped) was the firstborn of the six daughters of Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti. ... (Redirected from 1356 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC - 1350s BC - 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1350 BC - Pharaoh Amenhotep IV Akhenaton rises to... Meketaten was the second daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. ... -1... Tutankhamen receives flowers from Ankhesenamun Ankhesenamun (b. ... A painting of the princesses Neferneferuaten (left) and Neferneferure (right) discovered in a private house at Tell el Amarna. ... -1... A painting of the princesses Neferneferuaten (left) and Neferneferure (right) discovered in a private house at Tell el Amarna. ... -1... hieroglyphic ligature spelling out setepenre. Common title used by kings of Egypt meaning Elect of Re. Also the name of the youngest daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. ... (Redirected from 1339 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 636 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2454 × 2313 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 636 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2454 × 2313 pixel, file size: 3. ... -1... [1] Aten (or Aton) was the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of Ra. ... Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnä) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... (Redirected from 1343 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC - 1340s BC - 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC Events and Trends 1347 BC - Legendary King Erechtheus II is reportedly killed by... Thebes Thebes (, ThÄ“bai) was a city in Ancient Egypt located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). It was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome. ... Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnä) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of... -1...


In an inscription estimated to November 21 of year 12 of the reign (approx. 1338 BC)[citation needed], her daughter Meketaten is mentioned for the last time; she is thought to have died shortly after that date. Circumstantial evidence which shows that she predeceased her husband at Akhetaten include several shabti fragments of the Queen's burial which are now located in the Louvre and Brooklyn Museums.[3] A relief in Akhenaten's tomb in the Royal Wadi at Amarna appears to show her funeral. is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... (Redirected from 1338 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... The Royal Wadi (known locally as Wadi Abu Hassah el-Bahari) at Amarna is a where the Royal Family of Amarna were to be buried. ...

Close-up of a limestone relief depicting Nefertiti smiting a female captive on a royal barge. On display at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Close-up of a limestone relief depicting Nefertiti smiting a female captive on a royal barge. On display at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

During Akhenaten's reign (and perhaps after) Nefertiti enjoyed unprecedented power, and by the twelfth year of his reign, there is evidence that she may have been elevated to the status of co-regent[4]: equal in status to the pharaoh himself. She was often depicted on temple walls the same size as the king, signifying her importance, and shown worshiping the Aten alone. Perhaps most impressively, Nefertiti is shown on a relief from the temple at Amarna which is now in the MFA in Boston, smiting a foreign enemy with a mace before the Aten. Such depictions had traditionally been reserved for the pharaoh alone, and yet Nefertiti was depicted as such. Paul Gauguin, Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? (Doù venons-nous? Que faisons-nous? Où allons-nous?) (1897). ...


Death

About Year 14 of Akhenaten's reign (1336 BC), Nefertiti herself vanishes from the historical record, and there is no word of her after that date. Theories include a sudden death by a plague that was sweeping through the city or another natural death. A previous theory that she fell into disgrace is now discredited since the deliberate erasures of the monuments belonging to a queen of Akhenaten has now been shown to refer to Kiya instead.[5] Regardless, the verifiable knowledge of this episode has been completely lost to history. (Redirected from 1336 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... A plaster study of a young woman wearing large earings, generally identified as Kiya. ...


In keeping with the theory that she became pharaoh upon her husband's death, it is thought by some scholars that Nefertiti changed her name to Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten, a conjectural pharaoh who may have been the one responsible for abandoning the Aten religion, and moving the capital back to Thebes. This would have been the only way to please both the people and the powerful priests of Amun. Nefertiti would have prepared for her death and for the succession of her daughter, now named Ankhsenamun, and her stepson, Tutankhamun. They would have been educated in the traditional way, worshiping the old gods. This theory has Neferneferuaten dying after two years of kingship. Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[1] Nomen Neferneferuaten Perfect One of the Atens Perfection Consort(s) Smenkhkare? Died 1333 BC Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten is believed to have been a female Pharaoh towards the end of the Amarna era, belonging to the Eighteenth Dynasty; the succession of this period...


She was succeeded by Tutankhamen, who is thought to have been a nephew of Akhenaten. He married Nefertiti's daughter Ankhesenpaaten. The royal couple were young and inexperienced, by any estimation of their age, and Ankhesenpaaten bore two stillborn (and premature) daughters whose mummies were found by Howard Carter in Tutankhamen's tomb. Some theories believe that Nefertiti was still alive and held influence on the younger royals. If this is the case, that influence and presumably Nefertiti's own life would have ended by year 3 of Tutankhaten's reign (1331 BC). In that year, Tutankhaten changed his name to Tutankhamun, as evidence of his return to the official worship of Amun, and his abandonment of Amarna to return the capital to Thebes. Ankhesenamun, also known as Ankhesepaaten, was the third of six known daughters of the Pharaoh Akhenaten by his wife Nefertiti. ... (Redirected from 1331 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... For other uses, see Amun (disambiguation). ...


As can be seen by the suggested identifications between Tadukhipa, Nefertiti, Smenkhkare and Kiya, the records of their time and their lives are largely incomplete, and the findings of both archaelogists and historians may develop new theories vis-à-vis Nefertiti and her precipitous exit from the public stage. For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ...


Burial

No concrete information is available regarding Nefertiti's death[citation needed], but the location of Nefertiti's body has long been a subject of curiosity and speculation. There are many theories regarding her death and burial.


The "Younger Lady"

In the most recent research effort led by Egyptian archaeologist Zahi Hawass, a mummy known as the "The Younger Lady" was put through CT scan analysis and researchers concluded that she may be Tutankhamun's biological mother, Queen Kiya, not Queen Nefertiti. Fragments of shattered bone were found in the sinus, and blood clots were found, so the theory that the damage was inflicted post-mummification was rejected and a murder scenario was deemed more likely. Another reasoning to support Kiya's placement in KV35 is that after Tutankhamun returned Egypt to the traditional religion, he also moved his closest relatives, father, grand mother, and biological mother, to the Valley of the Kings to be buried with him (matching the list of figurines and drawings in his tomb). Nefertiti may still be in an undiscovered tomb. negron305 Cat scan redirects here. ... Tomb KV35 in the Valley of the Kings (Luxor, Egypt) is the tomb of Amenhotep II. It was discovered by Victor Loret in March 1898. ... The pharaohs solid gold funerary mask was laid to rest with him in KV62 The wall decorations in KV62s burial chamber are modest in comparison to other tombs in the Valley Tomb KV62 in Egypts Valley of the Kings is the Tomb of Tutankhamun, famous the world...


Previously, on June 9, 2003, archaeologist Joann Fletcher, a specialist in ancient hair from the University of York in England, announced that Nefertiti's mummy may have been one of the anonymous mummies stored in tomb KV35 in the Valley of the Kings known as "the Younger Lady". However, an independent scholar in the field of Egyptology, Marianne Luban, had already made the same speculation as early as 1999 in an article posted on the Internet, entitled "Do We Have the Mummy of Nefertiti?"[6] is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. JoAnn Fletcher is an Hononorary Research Fellow in the Department of Archaeology at the University of York and Consultant Egyptologist for Harrogate Museums and Arts. ... This article is about the British university. ... Tomb KV35 in the Valley of the Kings (Luxor, Egypt) is the tomb of Amenhotep II. It was discovered by Victor Loret in March 1898. ... Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to...


Luban's points upholding the identification are the same as those of Joann Fletcher. Furthermore, Fletcher suggested that Nefertiti was in fact the Pharaoh Smenkhkare. Some Egyptologists hold to this view though the majority believe Smenkhkare to have been a separate person. Dr. Fletcher led an expedition funded by the Discovery Channel that examined what they believed to have been Nefertiti's mummy. Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[2] Nomen Smenkhkare-Djeserkheperu Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Forms[1] Consort(s) Meritaten Died 1335 BC Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare; meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty who may... Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[2] Nomen Smenkhkare-Djeserkheperu Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Forms[1] Consort(s) Meritaten Died 1335 BC Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare; meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty who may... Discovery Channel is a cable and satellite TV channel founded by John Hendricks which is distributed by Discovery Communications. ...


The team claimed that the mummy they examined was damaged in a way suggesting the body had been deliberately desecrated in antiquity. Mummification techniques, such as the use of embalming fluid and the presence of an intact brain, suggested an eighteenth dynasty royal mummy. Other features the team used to support their claims were the age of the body, the presence of embedded nefer beads, and a wig of a rare style worn by Nefertiti. They further claimed that the mummy's arm was originally bent in the position reserved for pharaohs, but was later snapped off and replaced with another arm in a normal position. For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ...


However most Egyptologists, among them Kent Weeks and Peter Locavara, generally dismiss Fletcher's claims as unsubstantiated. They claim that ancient mummies are almost impossible to identify with a particular person without DNA; and as bodies of Nefertiti's parents or children have never been identified, her conclusive identification is impossible. Any circumstantial evidence, such as hairstyle and arm position, is not reliable enough to pinpoint a single, specific historical person. The cause of damage to the mummy can only be speculated upon, and the alleged revenge is an unsubstantiated theory. Bent arms, contrary to Fletcher's claims, were not reserved exclusively to pharaohs; this was also used for other members of the royal family. The wig found near to the mummy is of unknown origin, and cannot be conclusively linked to that specific body. Finally, the 18th dynasty was one of the largest and most prosperous dynasties of ancient Egypt, and a female royal mummy could be any of a hundred royal wives or daughters from 18th dynasty's more than 200 years on the throne. Dr. Kent R. Weeks (b. ... This is a list of mummies who have been DNA tested along with a brief decription of when and where they lived. ...


In addition, there is controversy about both the age and gender of the mummy. On June 12, 2003, Zahi Hawass, head of Egypt's Supreme Council for Antiquities, also dismissed the claim, citing insufficient evidence. On August 30, 2003, Reuters further quoted Dr. Hawass as saying, "I'm sure that this mummy is not a female", and "Dr Fletcher has broken the rules and therefore, at least until we have reviewed the situation with her university, she must be banned from working in Egypt."[7] Hawass has claimed that the mummy is female and male on different occasions.[8] is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Zahi Hawass signs an autograph (Aug. ... Part of the Egyptian Ministry of Culture, the Supreme Council of Antiquities (commonly abbreviated SCA) is responsible for the conservation, protection and regulation of all antiquities and archaeological excavations in Egypt. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ...


The Elder Lady?

A KMT article called "Who is The Elder Lady mummy?" suggests that the elder lady mummy may be Nefertiti's body. This may be possible due to the fact that the mummy is around her mid-thirties or early forties, Nefertiti's guessed age of death. Also, unfinished busts of Nefertiti appear to resemble the mummy's face. Though other suggestions include Ankhesenamun and, the favorite candidate, Tiye. More evidence to support this identification is that the mummy's teeth look like that of a 29-38 year old, Nefertiti's most likely age of death. It has recently been found that the elder lady is queen Tiye due to the age of the mummy (55) and the DNA analysis between the body of Akhenaten's mummy (KV55) and the lock of hair found in Tutankhamun's tomb.[citation needed] Ankhesenpaaten was the third of six known daughters of the Pharaoh Akhenaten by his wife Nefertiti. ... Tiye. ...


Iconic status

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Nefertiti

Nefertiti's place as an icon in popular culture is secure as she has become somewhat of a celebrity. After Cleopatra she is the second most famous "Queen" of Egypt in the Western imagination and influenced through photographs that changed standards of feminine beauty of the 20th century, and is often referred to as "the most beautiful woman in the world". [9][10] This article is about the religious artifacts. ... Cleopatra redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The character Cortana from the video game Halo: Combat Evolved was originally based on images of Nefertiti.[11] A.I.s from this game's story universe often take the form of mythological or historical characters. Cortana is a fictional artificial intelligence in the Halo series of video games. ... Halo: Combat Evolved, or simply Halo, is a video game in the first-person shooter (FPS) genre, created by the Microsoft-owned Bungie Studios. ...


References

  1. ^ James Allen, Middle Egyptian, (Cambridge University Press), 2004.
  2. ^ Egypt State Information Service - Famous women
  3. ^ Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, (Thames & Hudson), 2004, p.156
  4. ^ Reeves, Nicholas. Akhenaten: Egypt's False Prophet. p.172 Thames & Hudson. 2005. ISBN 0-500-285527
  5. ^ Dodson & Hilton, op. cit., p.156
  6. ^ Do We Have the Mummy of Nefertiti?
  7. ^ Hawass comments - No Discrimination
  8. ^ Times Online - King Tut tut tut
  9. ^ Queen Nefertiti of Egypt
  10. ^ Nefertiti - Crystalinks
  11. ^ Lorraine Mclees (2003-05-20). Cortana's face was modeled after an Egyptian queen. Halo.Bungie.Org. Retrieved on 2008-01-05.
Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt is taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from 2920 BC, following the Protodynastic Period of Egypt, until 2575 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. ... Narmer was an Egyptian Pharaoh who ruled in the 31st century BC. Thought to be the successor to the predynastic Scorpion and/or Ka, he is considered by some to be the founder of the First dynasty, and therefore the first king of all Egypt. ... Hor-Aha was the 2nd Pharaoh of the 1st dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ... Khasekhemwy (? -2686 BC; sometimes spelled Khasekhemui) was the 5th and final Pharaoh of the 2nd dynasty of Egypt. ... Image File history File links Ankh. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile... Netjerikhet Consort(s) Inetkawes, Hetephernebti Unknown Father Khasekhemwy? Mother Nimaethap? Major Monuments Pyramid of Djoser Netjerikhet Djoser (Turin King List Dsr-it; Manetho Tosarthros) is the best-known pharaoh of the Third dynasty of Egypt, for commissioning the official Imhotep to build his Step Pyramid at Saqqara. ... Sneferu He of Beauty[1] Horus name Neb-maat[2] Nebty name Neb-maat-nebty[2] Golden Horus Bik-nub[2] Consort(s) Hetepheres I Issues Khufu Father Huni Mother Meresankh I Died 2589 BC Major Monuments Bent Pyramid, Red Pyramid Sneferu, also spelt as Snefru or Snofru (in Greek... For other uses, see Khufu (disambiguation). ... The Pyramid of Khafra and the Great Sphinx of Giza Portrait of Khafra, originally found at Mit Rahina, now residing in the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo. ... Men-kau-re[1] Eternal like the Souls of Re Nomen Consort(s) Khamerernebty II Issues Khuenre, Shepseskaf, Khentkawes Father Khafre Mother Khamaerernebty I Died 2504 BC Burial Pyramid at Giza Major Monuments Pyramid at Giza Menkaura (or Men-Kau-Re; Mycerinus in Latin; Mykerinos in Greek) was a pharaoh... nomen or birth name Pepi II (c. ... The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty... nomen or birth name Nebhotepre Mentuhotep II (2046-1995 BCE) was a Pharaoh of the 11th dynasty, the son of Intef III of Egypt and a minor queen called Iah. ... nomen or birth name Amenemhat I was the first ruler of the Twelfth Dynasty (the dynasty debated to be the beginning of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt). ... Kheperkare The Ka of Re is created Nomen Senusret Man of Wosret Horus name Ankh mesut Living of births Nebty name Ankh mesut Living of births Golden Horus Ankh mesut Living of births Consort(s) Neferu III Issue Ameny, Amenemhat-ankh, Itakayt, Sebat, Neferusobek, Neferuptah Father Amenemhat I Mother Neferitatenen... Khakhaure (The king of the two lands, The kas of Ra have appeared) Nomen Senusret (The son of Ra, man of the strong one) Horus name Netcher Kheperu (Horus, divine of form) Nebty name Netcher Mesut (The two ladies, divine of birth) Golden Horus Kheper (The golden Horus has... ny m3ˁt rˁ (Nimaatre)[1] Belonging to the truth of Re Nomen Amenemhat[1] Amun is in front Horus name Wahankh[1] Long of life Nebty name Itjijautawy[1] Who comes to the inheritance of the two lands Golden Horus ˁ3 ba(u) (Aabaw)[1] Great of power Issues... Sobek-kare Sobek is the Ka of Re Nomen Sobekneferu The beauties of Sobek Horus name Meritra Beloved of Re Nebty name Satsekhem Nebettawy Daughter of the powerful one, Mistress of the two lands Golden Horus Djedetkhau Established of crowns Died 1802 BC Sobekneferu (sometimes written Nefrusobek) was an Egyptian... The maximum territorial extent of Egypt (XVth century BC) The New Kingdom, sometimes referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... Nebpehtire[4] The Lord of Strength is Re Nomen Ahmose[3] The Moon is Born Horus name Aakheperu[5] Great of Developments[6] Nebty name Tutmesut[5] Perfect of Birth[6] Golden Horus Tjestawy[5] He who Knots Together the Two Lands[6] Consort(s) Ahmose-Nefertari Gods Wife... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau[1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... King Tut redirects here. ... Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issue Tia, Amennefernebes, Ramesses II, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre... Nomen: Ramesses meryamun Ramesses (Re has fashioned him), beloved of Amun. ... Nomen: Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Children Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pentawere, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiy-Merenese Died 1155 BC Burial KV11 Monuments Medinet Habu Usimare Ramesses III (also written Ramses... Gold burial mask of King Psusennes I, discovered 1940 by Pierre Montet. ... Nomen: Shoshenq Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian Å¡Å¡nq), also known as Shishak, Sheshonk or Sheshonq I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq), was a Meshwesh Libyan king of Egypt and founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty. ... Piye, whose name was once transliterated as Py(ankh)i. ... Taharqa (also spelled Tirhakah, Taharka, Manethos Tarakos) was king of Egypt, and a member of the Nubian or Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, whose reign is usually dated 690 BC to 664 BC. He was also the son of Piye, the Nubian king of Napata who had first conquered... Wahibre Nomen Psamtik Horus name Aaib Nebty name Neba Golden Horus Qenu Issues Nitocris I Died 610 BC Burial Sais Psammetichus, or Psamtik I, was the first of three kings of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt. ... Nomen: Necho Horus name: Maaib Nebty name: Maakheru Golden Horus: Merynetjeru Consort(s) Khedebarbenet Died 595 BC Necho II (sometimes Nekau) was a king of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (610 BC - 595 BC), and the son of Psammetichus I by his Great Royal Wife Mehtenweskhet. ... Nectanabo Kheperkara (or more properly Nekhtnebef) was a pharaoh of the Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt. ... Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: , Ptolemaios Soter, i. ... Cleopatra redirects here. ... Ptolemy XIII (lived 62 BC/61 BC -January 13? 47 BC, reigned 51 BC - January 13?, 47 BC) was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. ... Tetisheri was the matriarch of the Egyptian royal family of the late 17th Dynasty and early 18th Dynasty. ... Queen Ahmose-Nefertari of Egypt was the sister-wife of Egypts Pharaoh King Ahmose I. She had two children-Amenhotep I and Aahhotep II, who wed each other and had the Princess Aahmes. ... Queen Ahmose was the mother of Hatshepsut of Egypt. ... Tiye. ... Tutankhamen receives flowers from Ankhesenamun Ankhesenamun (b. ... A picture of Nefertari taken in her Abu Simbel temple. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... This article is about the ancient Egyptian official. ... Weni the Elder was a court official of the 6th dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ... Ahmose, son of Ebana served in the Egyptian military under the pharaohs Tao II Seqenenre, Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, and Thutmose I. His autobiography has survived intact on the wall of his tomb and has proven a valuable source of information on the late 17th Dynasty and the early 18th... Ineofficial of the 18th Dynasty, responsible for major constructions un Egypt| Thutmose II]], Hatshepsut, and Thutmose III. Ineni came from an aristocratic family and likely began his career as an architect under Amenhotep I. Amenhotep I commissioned Ineni to expand the Temple of Karnak. ... Senemut was an 18th dynasty Ancient Egyptian architect and government official. ... Rekhmire was an 18th dynasty official, serving as Governor of the Town (Thebes) and Vizier during the reigns of Tuthmosis III and Amenhotep II. He is noted for constructing a lavishly decorated tomb for himself in the Valley of the Nobles, containing lively, well preserved scenes of daily life during... Yuya (sometimes Iouiya) also known as Yaa, Ya, Yiya, Yayi, Yu, Yuyu, Yaya, Yiay, Yia, Yuy[1] was a powerful Egyptian courtier of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (circa 1390 BC). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Maya (Egyptian official). ... Yuny was an official through the reign of Ramesses II, in the 19th Dynasty, serving as chief scribe of the court, the overseer of priests, and royal steward. ... Chancellor Bay on the door jamb of the Amada temple, Nubia, shown adoring the cartouch of Siptah Chancellor Bay was an important non-Egyptian official who rose to prominence and high office under Seti II Userkheperure Setepenre and later became an influential powerbroker in the closing stages of the 19th... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... Pothinus (early 1st Century BC - 48 or 47 BC) was regent for Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ...

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Welcome to the Nefertiti Hotel & Aladin Tours, Luxor, Egypt (146 words)
The Nefertiti Hotel and Aladin Tours are run by the El-Sahabi family, an old Bedouin family who have been involved in the tourism business for many generations.
Both are now managed by the youngest son Aladin.
Nefertiti Hotel, El Sahabi Street, via Karnak Temple St, Luxor, Egypt.
Nefertiti - Crystalinks (1447 words)
Nefertiti was the wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep IV (later Akhenaten), and mother-in-law of the Pharaoh Tutankhamun.
Nefertiti's central role in the adpotion of this new religion is witnessed in the artistic representations which adorn temple walls.
Nefertiti's place as an icon in popular culture is secure: she has become a celebrity, the second most famous "Queen" of Egypt in the European imagination and influenced through photographs the changed standards of feminine beauty of the 20th century.
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