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Encyclopedia > Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Preceded by:
Smenkhkare?
Pharaoh of Egypt
18th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Tutankhamun?
Reign 13351333 BC
Praenomen

Ankhkheperure
Living are the Manifestations of Re[1]
Nomen



Neferneferuaten
Perfect One of the Aten's Perfection
Consort(s) Smenkhkare?
Died 1333 BC

Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten is believed to have been a female Pharaoh towards the end of the Amarna era, belonging to the Eighteenth Dynasty; the succession of this period is far from clear. Manetho's Epitome mentions a certain Akenkeres who was a king's daughter and ruled Egypt for 12 years and 1 month.[2] Akenkeres or Achencheres is probably the Greek form of her prenomen, Ankh[et]kheperure, as Rolf Krauss and Marc Gabolde have previously argued.[3] Manetho places her immediately before Rathothis who ruled Egypt for 9 years. The latter king is likely Tutankhamun who is attested by a Year 10 hieratic wine jar docket from his tomb and, hence, enjoyed a reign of 9 full years.[4][5] Once an otiose decade is removed from the original 12 year figure, Neferneferuaten would have ruled Egypt for 2 years and 1 month which conforms well with a long Year 3 graffito attested for her in the Theban Tomb of Pere (TT139).[6] The beginning of this graffito reads as: Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[2] Nomen Smenkhkare-Djeserkheperu Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Manifestations[1] Consort(s) Meritaten Died 1333 BC Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare; meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty, successor of... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re Nomen Tutankhaten Living Image of the Aten Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis Horus name Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth Nebty name Neferhepusegerehtawy One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands[1] Wer-Ah-Amun... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... (Redirected from 1330 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... (Redirected from 1333 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[2] Nomen Smenkhkare-Djeserkheperu Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Manifestations[1] Consort(s) Meritaten Died 1333 BC Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare; meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty, successor of... (Redirected from 1333 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ...

"Year 3, 3rd month of the Inundation, day 10. The king of Upper and Lower Egypt, lord of the Two Lands, Ankhkheprure--beloved of Aten, son of Re Nefereneferuaten beloved of Waenre (ie: Akhenaten)...Giving praise to Amun, kissing the ground before Onnophris by the wab-priest and scribe of divine offerings of Amun in the temple of Ankhkheprure in Thebes, Pawah, born to Itefseneb."[7]

Since Neferneferuaten is attested in her third regnal year by Pawah who served as a minor Priest to the god Amun, which had been persecuted during Akhenaten's reign, this implies she had already reached an accommodation with the Amun priesthood in her short reign even prior to the start of Tutankhamun's reign. [1] Aten (or Aton) was the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of Ra. ... Neferkheperre-waenre Beautiful are the Manifestations of Re[2] the one of Re Nomen Akhenaten Servant of the Aten[1] (after Year 4 of his reign) Amenhotep Horus name Kanakht-Meryaten The strong bull, beloved of the Aten Nebty name Wernesytemakhetaten Great of kingship in Akhetaten Golden Horus Wetjesrenenaten Who... Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. ... Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. ...


Gender and Identity

The precise identity of this female Pharaoh whose praenomen is Ankhkheprure remains a mystery. The set of royal names associated with Neferneferuaten is Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten, a queen who rose to the throne of Egypt. She was likely either Meritaten, Smenkhkare's widow[8] or Neferneferuaten Tasherit, the fourth daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti as James P. Allen suggests in 'The Amarna Succession'[9] rather than Nefertiti herself. A funerary shabti of Nefertiti was found at Amarna in the 1980s and showed that Nefertiti died and was buried as only a Queen or 'King's Wife' rather than as a pharaoh in her own right.[10] If Neferneferuaten was Meritaten, the latter may have succeeded her short-lived husband Smenkhkare on the throne for 2 years. Various Egyptologists today agree that this ruler was a woman who was different from the male king Ankheperure Smenkhkare due to the feminine royal epithet's attached to her name. The epithet 'desired of Waenre' (ie: Akhenaten) in Neferneferuaten's nomen is occasionally replaced with the feminine term "Effective for her husband."[11] This proves that Neferneferuaten was a woman--and not the male king Smenkhkare whose mummy is believed to have been found in KV55. Her throne name Ankhkheperure is occasionally written in the feminine form Ankhetkheperure, with the feminine form "t". This may suggest that Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten was Meritaten--the spouse and immediate predecessor of her husband Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare although this remains to be proven.[12] Another candidate for this female ruler is princess Neferneferuaten Tasherit, Akhenaten and Nefertiti's fourth daughter who shared the same birth name as this king. The British Egyptologist Aidan Dodson--in the Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt--writes that "the latest evidence seems to point to a male king Smenkhkare, [being] succeeded by a woman named Neferneferuaten" who was probably Meritaten.[13] In a footnote to his comments, Dodson writes that the new conclusive evidence concerning the female gender of Neferneferuaten "makes impossible" his previous published 18th dynasty geneaological reconstruction which The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... Meritaten (her name means Beloved of Aten РAten was the sun-god her father worshipped) was the firstborn of the six daughters of Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti. ... A painting of the princesses Neferneferuaten (left) and Neferneferure (right) discovered in a private house at Tell el Amarna. ... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ... Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[2] Nomen Smenkhkare-Djeserkheperu Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Manifestations[1] Consort(s) Meritaten Died 1333 BC Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare; meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty, successor of... Edward R. Ayrton discovered Tomb KV55 in Egypts Valley of the Kings on January 6, 1907; Ayrtons sponsor, Theodore M. Davis, published an account of the dig (The Tomb of Queen T̨yi) in 1910. ... A painting of the princesses Neferneferuaten (left) and Neferneferure (right) discovered in a private house at Tell el Amarna. ... Meritaten (her name means Beloved of Aten РAten was the sun-god her father worshipped) was the firstborn of the six daughters of Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti. ...

"viewed Smenkhkare and Neferneferuaten as [being] one and the same [person]."[14]

A fragmentary stela from Amarna, now known as the Coregency Stela, adds more evidence as well as more confusion on the situation. The stela originally portrayed three figures, identified as Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and Meritaten. However, at some point in time after the stela was made, Nefertiti's name had been chiselled out and replaced with the royal name Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten, and Meritaten's name had been replaced with that of Akhenaten and Nefertiti's third daughter, Ankhesenpaaten. Why Nefertiti's clearly feminine figure would be renamed with a throne name is still debated to this day, as is the reason for Meritaten's usurpation by Ankhesenpaaten. Some suggest the fact that a man named Smenkhkare appears in the public record about the same time that Nefertiti disappeared, but was still portrayed as having performed the rites reserved for the heir to the throne at Akhenaten's funeral, indicates that Smenkhkare and Nefertiti were the same person. However, the body of the KV55 Amarna king has been consistently proven to be that of a young male who was between 18 to 22 years old when he died; this ruler here can only be Smenkhkare who is attested as king in the tomb of Meryre II alongside his Queen Meritaten.[15] Since we know that both Akhenaten and later Smenkhkare were Pharaohs when Meritaten held the title of "Great Royal Wife"--the theory that Smenkhkare was actually Nefertiti is untenable since Smenkhkare was a male ruler. Moreover, there would have been no need for Nefertiti to impersonate a man and taken her eldest daughter as a spouse--since everyone at court knew about Nefertiti's foremost status as Akhenaten's chief wife. Significantly, Amarna Letter 11 calls Meritaten the 'mistress' of the royal house; such a designation could only have been accorded to Meritaten if her mother, Nefertiti, had died and she had been selected to be Akhenaten's next chief wife instead.[16] Finally, it must be emphasised that Manetho's Epitome specifically records that a 'king's daughter' Akenkeres had succeeded her father in the late 18th dynasty. This was evidently a reference to Neferneferuaten's feminine prenomen Ankh(et)kheperure and must be an allusion to the fact that Akhenaten was succeeded by one of his daughters rather than by his wife Nefertiti who likely predeceased him. Stele is also a concept in plant biology. ... Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnä) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of... Ankhesenamun, also known as Ankhesepaaten, was the third of six known daughters of the Pharaoh Akhenaten by his wife Nefertiti. ... Edward R. Ayrton discovered Tomb KV55 in Egypts Valley of the Kings on January 6, 1907; Ayrtons sponsor, Theodore M. Davis, published an account of the dig (The Tomb of Queen Tîyi) in 1910. ... Meryre was High Priest of the Aten at Akhetaten. ... Meritaten (her name means Beloved of Aten – Aten was the sun-god her father worshipped) was the firstborn of the six daughters of Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti. ...


A problematic succession

While the identity of Akenkheres as a female king appears to be more or less accepted in the Egyptological community, the Amarna succession is problematic. Some Egyptologists including Aidan Dodson (in the above cited example) view her as Meritaten, the spouse of Smenkhkare. In this scenario, Meritaten would have succeeded to the throne as Neferneferuaten--using part of her mother Neferitaten's titles--after the shortlived reign of her husband Smenkhkare. This would account for her position before Rathothis (ie: Tutankhamun) in Manetho's Epitome. In contrast, other scholars maintain that the ruler Neferneferuaten is strongly linked with Akhenaten--in which case, she would have been Akhenaten's wife and coregent before ruling Egypt for 2 years--part of which is subsumed in the coregency with the former--before dying or marrying Smenkhkare. In this situation (which Allen) supports, Neferneferuaten would merely have intervened between the rule of Akhenaten and Smenkhkare.[17] The implications here is that Smenkhkare was the direct predecessor of Tutankhamun instead. It should be noted that a third regnal year is attested at Amarna on vessels for certain goods which cannot belong to Akhenaten who only established his new capital city of Akhetaten in his fifth regnal year as the earliest dated boundary stela of this city reveals.[18] As Erik Hornung writes:

A regnal year 3 is...attested at Amarna in the labels on vessels for various commodities. Year 3 continues year 1 and 2 of King 'Ankhkheprure' as labels of year 2 and 3 belonging to a single delivery of olive oil prove (Helck, Untersuchungen, 88-89). There are only 3 wine jar labels of year 3 which cannot represent a complete vintage, because the yearly mean of wine jar labels is 50 to 60. The disproportion is explicable if the change in regnal year 2 to 3 occured during the sealing of the wine jars. Thus King 'Ankhkheprure' would have counted his reign from a day in ca. II Akhet (Krauss, MDOG, 129, 1997), which may have coincided with the occurence of Akhenaten's death.[19]

It is uncertain if the Ankhkheprure mentioned here was Smenkhkare or Neferneferuaten; Hornung selects the former option based on the traditional view that Smenkhkare directly succeeded Akhenaten. (something which is disputed by other scholars) However, the Year 3 dates for this pharaoh establish that one of these two kings enjoyed a full 2 year reign at Akhetaten. Akhet is a double CD released in 2003. ...


References

  1. ^ Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames and Hudson, 2006 paperback. p.120
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ The Amarna Succession see p.14, footnote 60
  4. ^ P. Tallet, "Une jarre de l'an 31 et une jarre de l'an 10 dans la cave de Toutânkhamon", BIFAO 96 (1996), pp.375-382
  5. ^ K.A. Kitchen, Book Review of Rolf Krauss' Das Ende der Amarnazeit in JEA 71 (1985) Review Supplement, p.43 Kitchen equates Rathothis with Tutankhamun here
  6. ^ Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss and David Warburton (editors), Handbook of Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill: 2006, pp.207 & 493
  7. ^ Nicholas Reeves, Akhenaten: Egypt's Heretic King, Thames & Hudson, p.163
  8. ^ Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt: A Genealogical Sourcebook of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson, 2004. p.155
  9. ^ The Amarna Succession, pp.14-15
  10. ^ C.E. Loeben, "Eine Bestattung der großen königlichen Gemachlin Nofretete in Amarna? Die Totenfigur der Nofretete", MDAIK 42 (1986), pp.99-107
  11. ^ J.P. Allen, "Nefertiti and Smenkh-ka-re", GM 141 (1994), pp.7-17
  12. ^ Dodson & Hilton, op. cit., p.150
  13. ^ Dodson & Hilton, op. cit., p.150
  14. ^ Dodson & Hilton, op. cit., p.285, footnote 111
  15. ^ William Murnane, OLZ 96 (2001), p.22
  16. ^ The Amarna Succession p.15 n.64
  17. ^ The Amarna Succession p.5 & 16
  18. ^ William Murnane & C.C. Van Sicclen, The Boundary Stelae of Akhenaten, Kegan Paul, 1993, pp.73-86
  19. ^ Hornung, Krauss and Warburton, op. cit., p.208

 
 

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