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Encyclopedia > Necrosis

Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. Necrosis is less orderly than apoptosis, which is part of programmed cell death. In contrast with apoptosis, cleanup of cell debris by phagocytes of the immune system is generally more difficult, as the disorderly death generally does not send cell signals which tell nearby phagocytes to engulf the dying cell. This lack of signalling makes it harder for the immune system to locate and recycle dead cells which have died through necrosis than if the cell had undergone apoptosis. The release of intracellular content after cellular membrane damage is the cause of inflammation in necrosis. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow // Apoptosis is a process of deliberate life relinquishment by a cell in a multicellular organism. ... Programmed cell death (PCD) is the deliberate suicide of an unwanted cell in a multicellular organism. ... A phagocyte is a cell that ingests and destroys foreign matter such as microorganisms or debris via a process known as phagocytosis. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Overview of signal transduction pathways In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in... Steps of a macrophage ingesting a pathogen: a. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ...

Contents

Causes

There are many causes of necrosis including prolonged exposure to injury, infection, cancer, infarction, poisons, bites from some spiders such as brown recluses and inflammation. Severe damage to one essential system in the cell leads to secondary damage to other systems, a so-called "cascade of effects". Necrosis can arise from lack of proper care to a wound site. Necrosis is accompanied by the release of special enzymes, that are stored by lysosomes, which are capable of digesting cell components or the entire cell itself. The injuries received by the cell may compromise the lysosome membrane, or may initiate an unorganized chain reaction which causes the release in enzymes. Unlike apoptosis, cells that die by necrosis may release harmful chemicals that damage other cells. Biopsy material necrosis is halted by fixation or freezing. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the dangerous substance. ... A brown recluse spider The brown recluse spider is a venomous spider of the family Sicariidae and the genus and species Loxosceles reclusa. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Organelles. ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow // Apoptosis is a process of deliberate life relinquishment by a cell in a multicellular organism. ... In the fields of histology, pathology, and cell biology, fixation is a chemical process by which biological tissues are preserved from decay. ...


Morphologic patterns

There are seven distinctive morphologic patterns of necrosis:

The coagulation of blood is a complex process during which blood forms solid clots. ... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), more commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Its a Type of Necrosis which is a charateristic of focal bacterial or fungal Infections In which the affected cell is compleatly digested. ... Pus is a whitish-yellow or yellow substance produced during inflammatory responses of the body that can be found in regions of pyogenic bacterial infections. ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... In medicine, ischemia (Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction, hema or haema is blood) is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. ... The classic lesion is the gumma, a granulomatous lesion thought to be caused by reaction to spirochaete in the tissue. ... Families Spirochaetaceae Brachyspiraceae    Brachyspira    Serpulina Leptospiraceae    Leptospira    Leptonema The spirochaetes (or spirochetes) are a phylum of distinctive bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In testicular torsion the spermatic cord that provides the blood supply to a testicle is twisted, cutting off the blood supply, often causing orchalgia. ... Caseous (or cream cheese) necrosis appears as a soft and white proteinaceous dead cell mass. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... A computer-generated image of a type of pancreatic lipase (PLRP2) from the guinea pig. ... A pregnant womans breasts. ... This type of necrosis is confined to inflammation of the arteries and often presents with vasculitis (primary inflammation of vessels) and hypertenstion. ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Fibrin is a protein involved in the clotting of blood. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... Eosinophilic is a technical term used by histologists. ...

Arachnogenic necrosis

Spider bites are cited as causing necrosis in some areas. These claims are widely disputed. In the US at least, only the bites of spiders in the genus Loxosceles or brown recluse have been proven to consistently cause necrosis.[1] Many other spider species are claimed to cause necrosis but in most cases firm evidence is lacking. Partially this is because the early bite is often painless and the spider species cannot be identified. Chelicerae of a black wishbone (Nemesiidae) spider, a mygalomorph Spiders are widely known, and feared by some, for their including necrotic wounds, systemic toxicity, and in some cases, death. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


Spiders proven to cause necrosis:

Spiders suspected of, but not shown to cause necrosis: A brown recluse spider The brown recluse spider is a venomous spider of the family Sicariidae and the genus and species Loxosceles reclusa. ... Binomial name Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet, 1849) The Chilean recluse spider is a venomous spider, Loxosceles laeta, of the family Sicariidae (formerly of the family Loxoscelidae). ...

Binomial name Lampona cylindrata L. Koch, 1866 Lampona murina L. Koch, 1873 The white-tailed spider, (common species are Lampona cylindrata, Lampona murina) are a medium-sized spider from southern and eastern Australia, so named because of the whitish tips at the end of their abdomens. ... Binomial name {Walckenaer, 1802} The hobo spider (Tegenaria agrestis) is a member of the genus of spiders known colloquially as funnel web spiders. ... Genera Clubiona Elaver The sac spiders of the family Clubionidae have a very confusing taxonomic history. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Atkins J, Wingo C, Sodeman W (1957). "Probable cause of necrotic spider bite in the Midwest". Science 126 (3263): 73. PMID 13442644. 
  2. ^ Isbister G, Gray M (2003). "White-tail spider bite: a prospective study of 130 definite bites by Lampona species.". Med J Aust 179 (4): 199-202. PMID 12914510. 
  3. ^ Vetter R, Isbister G (2004). "Do hobo spider bites cause dermonecrotic injuries?". Ann Emerg Med 44 (6): 605-7. PMID 15573036. 
  4. ^ Vetter R, Isbister G, Bush S, Boutin L (2006). "Verified bites by yellow sac spiders (genus Cheiracanthium) in the United States and Australia: where is the necrosis?". Am J Trop Med Hyg 74 (6): 1043-8. PMID 16760517. 

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Avascular Necrosis- Health Encyclopedia and Reference (333 words)
Avascular necrosis (of bone) is deterioration of bone due to a diminished blood supply.
The reduced blood flow to the bone may be the result of blockage by a blood clot, medication, or the deliberate stoppage of flow during surgery or because of measures taken to control a hemorrhage (major bleed).
Avascular necrosis of the bone is a complication of corticosteroid use, trauma, systemic lupus erythematosus, pancreatitis, alcoholism, gout, and sickle cell disease, as well as other diseases.
Acute tubular necrosis Encyclopedia Search - Drug Price Search (803 words)
Necrosis - renal tubular; ATN; Necrosis - acute tubular
Acute tubular necrosis is a kidney disorder involving damage to the renal tubule cells, resulting in acute kidney failure.
Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is caused by ischemia of the kidneys (lack of oxygen to the tissues), or by exposure to materials that are poisonous to the kidney (nephrotoxic agents).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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