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Encyclopedia > Near Field Communication
An NFC mobile phone interacting with a 'smart poster'

Near Field Communication or NFC, is a short-range wireless technology which enables the communication between devices over a short distance (hands width). The technology is primarily aimed at usage in mobile phones. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 1300 pixel, file size: 644 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 1300 pixel, file size: 644 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


NFC is compatible with the existing contactless infrastructure already in use for public transportation and payment. Proximity card is a generic name for contactless integrated circuit device used for security access or payment systems. ...

Contents

Essential specifications

  • Works by magnetic field induction. It operates within the globally available and unlicensed RF band of 13.56 MHz.
  • Working distance: 0-20 centimeters
  • Speed: 106 kbit/s, 212 kbit/s or 424 kbit/s
  • There are two modes:
    • Passive Communication Mode: The Initiator device provides a carrier field and the target device answers by modulating existing field. In this mode, the Target device may draw its operating power from the Initiator-provided electromagnetic field, thus making the Target device a transponder.
    • Active Communication Mode: Both Initiator and Target device communicate by generating their own field. In this mode, both devices typically need to have a power supply.
  • NFC can be used to configure and initiate other wireless network connections such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or Ultra-wideband.

A patent licensing program for NFC is currently under development by Via Licensing Corporation, an independent subsidiary of Dolby Laboratories. Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings In physics, a magnetic field is a solenoidal vector field in the space surrounding moving electric charges and magnetic dipoles, such as those in electric currents and magnets. ... For magnetic induction, see Magnetic field. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Radio waves. ... A megahertz (MHz) is one million (106) hertz, a measure of frequency. ... In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ... An Ontario Highway 407 toll transponder In telecommunication, the term transponder (short-for Transmitter-responder and sometimes abbreviated to XPDR, XPNDR or TPDR) has the following meanings: An automatic device that receives, amplifies, and retransmits a signal on a different frequency (see also broadcast translator). ... Bluetooth logo This article is about the electronic protocol named after Harald Bluetooth Gormson. ... Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) is a standard for easy and secure establishment of a wireless home network, created by the Wi-Fi Alliance and officially launched on January 8, 2007. ... Ultra-wideband (also UWB, and ultra-wide-band, ultra-wide band, etc. ... Dolby Laboratories, Inc. ...


Uses and applications

NFC technology is currently mainly aimed at being used with mobile phones. There are three main use cases for NFC:

  • card emulation: the NFC device behaves like an existing contactless card)
  • reader mode: the NFC device is active and read a passive RFID tag, for example for interactive advertising)
  • P2P mode: two NFC devices are communicating together and exchanging information.)

Plenty of applications will be possible such as:

  • Mobile ticketing in public transport - an extension of the existing contactless infrastructure.
  • Mobile Payment - the mobile phone acts as a debit/ credit payment card.
  • Smart poster - the mobile phone is used to read RFID tags on outdoor billboards in order to get info on the move.

Other applications in the future could include: Mobile payment is paying for goods or services with a mobile device such as a mobile phone, Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), or other such device. ... An EPC RFID tag used for Wal-Mart Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. ...

An electronic ticket or e-ticket is used to represent the purchase of a seat on a passenger airline, usually through a website or by telephone. ... Electronic money (also known as electronic cash, electronic currency, digital money, digital cash, digital currency or scrip) refers to money which is exchanged only electronically. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... German identity card with a kinegram. ... Mobile Commerce (also known as M-Commerce, mCommerce or U-Commerce, owing to the ubiquitous nature of its services) is the ability to conduct commerce, using a mobile device e. ... Entry remote for a Chrysler vehicle. ...

Standardization bodies & industry projects

Standards

It was approved as an ISO/IEC standard on December 8, 2003 and as an ECMA standard later on. ISO has many meanings: Iso is the stem of the Latin transliteration of the Greek word ίσος (ísos, meaning equal). The iso- prefix in English derives from this and means equality or similarity. ... The initials IEC can stand for: Independent Electoral Commission Industrial Emergency Council Inertial electrostatic confinement (in fusion energy) Institut des Experts-comptables et des Conseils fiscaux Institut dEstudis Catalans, Catalan Studies Institute Interactive Evolutionary Computation International Education Centre International Electrical Congress International Electrotechnical Commission See also IEC connector for... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ecma International - European association for standardising information and communication systems came into existence in 1994, when the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) changed its name in order to reflect the international activities of the organisation (the long form of ECMA was dropped then, and capitalization changed to reflect this). ...


NFC is an open platform technology standardized in ECMA-340 and ISO/IEC 18092. These standards specify the modulation schemes, coding, transfer speeds and frame format of the RF interface of NFC devices, as well as initialization schemes and conditions required for data collision-control during initialization-for both passive and active NFC modes. Furthermore, they also define the transport protocol, including protocol activation and data-exchange methods. Air interface for NFC is standardized in: Ecma International - European association for standardising information and communication systems came into existence in 1994, when the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) changed its name in order to reflect the international activities of the organisation (the long form of ECMA was dropped then, and capitalization changed to reflect this). ... ISO has many meanings: Iso is the stem of the Latin transliteration of the Greek word ίσος (ísos, meaning equal). The iso- prefix in English derives from this and means equality or similarity. ... The initials IEC can stand for: Independent Electoral Commission Industrial Emergency Council Inertial electrostatic confinement (in fusion energy) Institut des Experts-comptables et des Conseils fiscaux Institut dEstudis Catalans, Catalan Studies Institute Interactive Evolutionary Computation International Education Centre International Electrical Congress International Electrotechnical Commission See also IEC connector for... The Transport protocol is a protocol on the transport layer of the OSI model. ...

  • ISO/IEC 18092/ECMA-340 : Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol-1(NFCIP-1)
  • ISO/IEC 21481/ECMA-352 : Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol-2 (NFCIP-2)

NFC Forum has in addition defined a common data format called NDEF, which can be used to store and transport different kinds of items, ranging from any MIME-typed object to ultra-short RTD -documents, such as URLs. ISO has many meanings: Iso is the stem of the Latin transliteration of the Greek word ίσος (ísos, meaning equal). The iso- prefix in English derives from this and means equality or similarity. ... The initials IEC can stand for: Independent Electoral Commission Industrial Emergency Council Inertial electrostatic confinement (in fusion energy) Institut des Experts-comptables et des Conseils fiscaux Institut dEstudis Catalans, Catalan Studies Institute Interactive Evolutionary Computation International Education Centre International Electrical Congress International Electrotechnical Commission See also IEC connector for... Ecma International - European association for standardising information and communication systems came into existence in 1994, when the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) changed its name in order to reflect the international activities of the organisation (the long form of ECMA was dropped then, and capitalization changed to reflect this). ... ISO has many meanings: Iso is the stem of the Latin transliteration of the Greek word ίσος (ísos, meaning equal). The iso- prefix in English derives from this and means equality or similarity. ... The initials IEC can stand for: Independent Electoral Commission Industrial Emergency Council Inertial electrostatic confinement (in fusion energy) Institut des Experts-comptables et des Conseils fiscaux Institut dEstudis Catalans, Catalan Studies Institute Interactive Evolutionary Computation International Education Centre International Electrical Congress International Electrotechnical Commission See also IEC connector for... Ecma International - European association for standardising information and communication systems came into existence in 1994, when the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) changed its name in order to reflect the international activities of the organisation (the long form of ECMA was dropped then, and capitalization changed to reflect this). ... Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet Standard that extends the format of e-mail to support: text in character sets other than US-ASCII; non-text attachments; multi-part message bodies; and header information in non-ASCII character sets. ...


NDEF is conceptually very similar to MIME. It is a dense binary format of so-called "records", in which each record can hold a different type of object. By convention, the type of the first record defines the context of the entire message.


NFC Forum

The NFC Forum is a non-profit industry association founded on March 18, 2004 by NXP Semiconductors, Sony Corporation and Nokia Corporation to advance the use of NFC short-range wireless interaction in consumer electronics, mobile devices and PCs. The NFC Forum will promote implementation and standardization of NFC technology to ensure interoperability between devices and services. In July 2007, there were over 115 members of the NFC Forum. is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses of NXP, see NXP (disambiguation). ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Nokia Corporation (OMX: NOK1V, NYSE: NOK, FWB: NOA3) is an international communications company, focused on the key growth areas of wireline and wireless telecommunications. ...


GSMA

The GSM Association (GSMA) is the global trade association representing 700 mobile phone operators across 218 countries of the world. The Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. ...


They have launched two initiatives:

On 13th February 2007, they published a white paper on NFC to give the point of view of mobile operators on the NFC ecosystem [2]. The Bouygues Télécom (IPA: ) is a French mobile phone company, part of the Bouygues group. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... “AT&T Wireless” redirects here. ... KPN (in full Koninklijke KPN N.V., Royal KPN NV) (NYSE: KPN) is a Dutch fixed-line and mobile telecommunications company, including both 2G and 3G mobile operations. ... Mobilkom Austria is a major Austrian mobile network operator. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... SFR (originally Société Française de Radiotéléphonie, no longer expanded) is a French mobile phone company. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... movistar logo since April 2005 movistar is a major mobile phone operator owned by Telefónica Móviles. ... Telenor (OSE: TEL, NASDAQ: TELN) is the incumbent telecommunications company in Norway, with headquarters located at Fornebu, close to Oslo. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... TIM (Telecom Italia Mobile) is Telecom Italias mobile phone subsidiary, and runs a GSM network in Italy (with a nearly 99% coverage), as well as in Greece, Turkey, Peru, Brazil and Bolivia In Europe, TIM is part of the FreeMove alliance. ... Vodafone Group Plc is a mobile network operator headquartered in Newbury, Berkshire, England. ... 3 is a brand used for nine mobile telecommunications networks in Europe, Asia and Australia. ...

  • the Pay buy mobile initiative seeks to define a common global approach to using Near Field Communications (NFC) technology to link mobile devices with payment and contactless systems. [3] [4]. To date, 30 mobile operators have joined this initiative.

StoLPaN

StoLPaN (‘Store Logistics and Payment with NFC’) is a pan-European consortium supported by the European Commission’s Information Society Technologies program. StoLPaN will examine the as yet untapped potential for bringing together the new kind of local wireless interface, NFC and mobile communication. The Commission seat in Brussels The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ... One of the thematic priorities in the European Union Sixth Framework Programme for research and technological development set for the period 2002-2006. ...


Other standardization bodies

Other standardization bodies are involved in NFC:

  • ETSI / SCP (Smart Card Platform) to specify the interface between the SIM card and the NFC chipset.
  • Global Platform to specify a multi-application architecture of the secure element.
  • |EMVCo for the impacts on the EMV payment applications.

The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is a standardization organization of the telecommunications industry (equipment makers and network operators) in Europe, with worldwide projection. ... It has been suggested that Chip and PIN be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Chip and PIN be merged into this article or section. ...

Current trials

There are numerous NFC pilots all around the world either underway or in progress:

  • Europe
    • Austria
      • Mobilkom Austria, University of Applied Sciences of Upper Austria, Samsung, NXP [5]
    • France
      • Orange, Groupe LaSer and Vinci Park, Samsung, NXP in Caen [6]
      • Bouygues Telecom, RATP (Paris metro authority), Gemalto, NEC, Inside Contactless in Paris metro [7]
      • NRJ Mobile (MVNO), Crédit Mutuel, CIC, Master Card, Gemalto, Sagem , Inside Contactless in Strasbourg [8]
      • SFR, Crédit Mutuel, CIC, Master Card, Gemalto, Sagem , Inside Contactless in Strasbourg [9]
      • Bouygues Telecom, SEMITAG, Transdev, Gemalto, Sagem, Inside Contactless in Grenoble [10]
      • Orange, Veolia, Clear Channel, Laser Cofinoga in Bordeaux [11]
      • Pegasus: multi-operator (Orange, Bouygues Telecom, SFR), multi-bank (BNP Paribas, Groupe Crédit Mutuel-CIC, Crédit Agricole, Société Générale) with Master Card and Visa Europe for mobile payment in two cities: Caen and Strasbourg [12]
    • Finland
      • City of Oulu, VTT [13]
      • Elisa, Gemalto [14]
    • The Netherlands
      • NEDAP NV Healthcare
      • JCB, KPN, CCV Holland B.V., Gemalto, KPN, Nokia, PaySquare, NXP Semiconductors, ViVOtech.
      • Roda Stadium, KPN, Philips, Bell ID, SmartPoint
      • Rabobank, Rabo Mobiel (MVNO), KPN, NXP
    • Germany
      • Rhein-Main Verkehrsverbund (public transport in the Rhein-Main region around Frankfurt - where the test is limited to), Vodafone, Nokia, NXP, Philips,
      • Vodafone, Deutsche Bahn, Motorola, Gieseke and Devrient
    • United Kingdom
      • Manchester City Football Club, Orange, Barclays, TfL Oyster card. [15]
      • O2, Consult Hyperion at the Wireless Festival in Hyde Park (wristband format) [16]
    • Spain
      • BBVA, Nokia and Ingenico
  • North America
    • USA
      • Cingular Wireless, Citigroup, New York subway, MasterCard Worldwide, Nokia , Venyon
      • ZTar (MVNO), Discover Financial Services LCC, Motorola, NXP, Inside Contactless that can be used with phones, cards, key fobs, and other devices.
      • 7-Eleven, Master Card in Dallas
      • Nokia, Philips, FlyBy at the Philips Arena in Atlanta

See also

Object hyperlinking is a neologism that refers to extending the Internet to objects and locations in the real world. ... An EPC RFID tag used for Wal-Mart Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. ... FeliCa is a contactless IC chip smart card system by Sony, primarily used in electronic money cards. ...

External Links


  Results from FactBites:
 
NXP Semiconductors (864 words)
Evolving from a combination of contactless identification and networking technologies, Near Field Communication (NFC) is a wireless connectivity technology that enables convenient short-range communication between electronic devices.
NFC offers the ultimate in convenience for connecting all types of consumer devices and enables rapid and easy communications.
NFC is central to NXP's vision of a world where everyone can always connect to information, entertainment and services - anytime and anywhere.
Near and far field - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (296 words)
In the study of diffraction and antenna design, the near field is that part of the radiated field that is within one quarter of a wavelength of the diffracting edge or the antenna.
In the study of diffraction and antenna design, the near field is that part of the radiated field that is within a small number of wavelengths of the diffracting edge or antenna.
The diffraction pattern in the near field typically differs significantly from that observed at infinity and varies with distance from the source.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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