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Encyclopedia > Neanderthal
Neanderthal
Fossil range: Pleistocene

H. neanderthalensis La Chapelle aux Saints.
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Genus: Homo
Species: H. neanderthalensis
Binomial name
Homo neanderthalensis
King, 1864
Synonyms

Palaeoanthropus neanderthalensis
H. s. neanderthalensis Look up neanderthal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 470 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1098 × 1400 pixel, file size: 877 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Homo neanderthalensis (I took this photo in october 2005) skull discovered in 1908 at la Chapelle aux saints (France) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... Latin name redirects here. ... In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ...

The Neanderthal (IPA: /niːˈændərθɑːl/, also with /neɪ-/, and /-tɑːl/), or Neandertal, was a species of the Homo genus (Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis)[1] which inhabited Europe and parts of western and central Asia. The first proto-Neanderthal traits appeared in Europe as early as 350-500,000 years ago.[2] By 130,000 years ago, complete Neanderthal characteristics had appeared and by 50,000 years ago, Neanderthals disappeared from Asia, although they did not reach extinction in Europe until 30,000 years ago. No Neanderthal skeletons of younger dating have been found, though it has been suggested that Neanderthals survived longer in Southern Iberia.[3][4] Neanderthal may have coexisted with modern humans up to 15,000 years after Homo sapiens had migrated into Europe.[5][6][7] It is believed that the population of Neanderthals was never much more than 10,000 individuals.[8] Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ...


Neanderthals had many adaptations to a cold climate, such as large braincase, short, robust builds, and rather large noses — traits selected by nature in cold climates.[citation needed] Their cranial capacity was larger than modern humans, indicating that their brains may have been larger, which may be due to their more robust build.[citation needed] On average, Neanderthal males stood about 1.65 m tall (just under 5' 5") and were heavily built with robust bone structure. Females were about 1.53 to 1.57 m tall (about 5'–5'2").[9] For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Cranial capacity is a measure of the volume of the interior of the cranium (also called the braincase or brainpan) of those vertebrates who have both a cranium and a brain. ...


The characteristic style of stone tools in the Middle Paleolithic is called the Mousterian culture, after a prominent archaeological site where the tools were first found. The Mousterian culture is typified by the wide use of the Levallois technique. Mousterian tools were often produced using soft hammer percussion, with hammers made of materials like bones, antlers, and wood, rather than hard hammer percussion, using stone hammers. Near the end of the time of the Neanderthals, they created the Châtelperronian tool style, considered more advanced than that of the Mousterian. They either invented the Châtelperronian themselves or borrowed elements from the incoming modern humans who are thought to have created the Aurignacian. Ancient stone tools A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made of stone. ... Mousterian is a name given by archaeologists to a style of predominantly flint tools (or industry) associated primarily with Homo neanderthalensis and dating to the Middle Paleolithic, the middle part of the Old Stone Age. ... The Levallois technique is a name given by archaeologists to a distinctive type of flint knapping developed by humans during the Palaeolithic period. ... This article is about the geological substance. ... Châtelperronian was the earliest industry of the Upper Palaeolithic in central and south western France. ... Aurignacian is the name of a culture of the Upper Palaeolithic present in Europe and south west Asia. ...

Contents

Etymology and classification

Type Specimen, Neanderthal 1.

The Neandertal is a small valley of the river Düssel in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia, located about 12 km (7.5 mi) west of Düsseldorf, the capital city of North Rhine-Westphalia. Neanderthal is now spelled two ways: the old spelling of the German word Thal, meaning "valley or dale", was changed to Tal in 1901, but the former spelling is often retained in English and always in scientific names, while the modern spelling is used in German while referring to the valley itself. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1013x1573, 868 KB) Description calotte crânienne découverte à Neandertal en 1856 (premier Homo neanderthalensis reconnu comme tel) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Neanderthal Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1013x1573, 868 KB) Description calotte crânienne découverte à Neandertal en 1856 (premier Homo neanderthalensis reconnu comme tel) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Neanderthal Metadata... Binomial name Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 The Neanderthal or Neandertal was a species of genus Homo (Homo neanderthalensis) that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago (in the Middle Palaeolithic, early Stone Age). ... The Düssel is a small right tributary of the River Rhine in North Rhine Westphalia. ... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... Düsseldorf (IPA: ) is the capital city of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and one of the economic and cultural centres of Germany and western Europe. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley (also called a vale or dale) is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is a standard convention used for naming species. ...


The Neander Valley was named after theologian Joachim Neander, who lived nearby in Düsseldorf in the late seventeenth century. In turn, Neanderthals were named after "Neander Valley", where the first Neanderthal remains were found. The term Neanderthal Man was coined in 1863 by Anglo-Irish geologist William King. Binomial name Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 The Neanderthal or Neandertal was a species of genus Homo (Homo neanderthalensis) that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago (in the Middle Palaeolithic, early Stone Age). ... Joachim Neander (Neumann) (1650 - May 31, 1680) was a Calvinist teacher who became famous for creating the words to the church choral Praise to the Lord, the Almighty (German: Lobet den Herren, den mächtigen König der Ehren) in 1679. ... Düsseldorf (IPA: ) is the capital city of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and one of the economic and cultural centres of Germany and western Europe. ... Anglo-Irish was a term used historically to describe a ruling class inhabitants of Ireland who were the descendants and successors of the Protestant Ascendancy[1], mostly belonging to the Anglican Church of Ireland or to a lesser extent one of the English dissenting churches, such as the Methodist church. ... The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ...


The original German pronunciation (regardless of spelling) is with the sound /t/. (See German phonology.) In English the term is commonly anglicised to /θ/ (th as in thin), though scientists frequently use /t/. "Neander" is a classicized form of the common German surname Neumann. Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


For some time, professionals debated whether Neanderthals should be classified as Homo neanderthalensis or as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, the latter placing Neanderthals as a subspecies of Homo sapiens. Recent genetic simulations suggested that 5% of human DNA can only be accounted for by assuming a substantial contribution of Neanderthaler to the European gene pool of up to 25%.[10] Some scientists, for example Milford Wolpoff, claim that fossil evidence suggests that the two species interbred. This would support the argument that the two were the same biological species. Others, for example Cambridge Professor Paul Mellars, say "no evidence has been found of cultural interaction"[11] and evidence from mitochondrial DNA studies have been interpreted as evidence that Neanderthals were not a subspecies of H. sapiens.[12] This article is about the zoological term. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... Milford H. Wolpoff (born 1942, Chicago, Illinois) is a physical anthropologist. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... This article is about a biological term. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in England. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... Human evolution is a multidisciplinary scientific inquiry which seeks to understand and describe the origin and development of humanity. ...


Discovery

Location of Neander Valley, Germany. (The highlighted area is the modern federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia.)

Neanderthal skulls were first discovered in Engis, Belgium (1829) and in Forbes' Quarry, Gibraltar (1848), both prior to the "original" discovery in a limestone quarry of the Neander Valley in Erkrath near Düsseldorf in August, 1856, three years before Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species was published.[13] Image File history File links Neanderthal_position. ... Image File history File links Neanderthal_position. ... Location of Neander Valley, Germany The Neanderthal (Neandertal) is a small valley of the river Düssel in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia, between the cities of Erkrath and Mettmann, near the capital city of North Rhine-Westphalia Düsseldorf. ... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Engis is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... The Neanderthal (Neandertal) is a small valley of the river Düssel in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, near the city of Mettmann. ... Erkrath is a North-Rhine-Westphalian (Germany) city directly on the Düssel river. ... Düsseldorf (IPA: ) is the capital city of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and one of the economic and cultural centres of Germany and western Europe. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal...


The type specimen, dubbed Neanderthal 1, consisted of a skull cap, two femora, three bones from the right arm, two from the left arm, part of the left ilium, fragments of a scapula, and ribs. The workers who recovered this material originally thought it to be the remains of a bear. They gave the material to amateur naturalist Johann Carl Fuhlrott, who turned the fossils over to anatomist Hermann Schaaffhausen. The discovery was jointly announced in 1857. Type specimens When a new species is discovered, more important than creating a new and unique name for the species is developing a reasonably detailed description. ... The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous, and strongest bone of the mammalian bodies. ... The pelvis (pl. ... Left scapula - front view () Left scapula - rear view () In anatomy, the scapula, or shoulder blade, is the bone that connects the humerus (arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone). ... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Johann Carl Fuhlrott was born December 31, 1803 in Leinefelde, Germany, and died October 17, 1877 in Elberfeld, (Wuppertal). ... Hermann Schaaffhausen Hermann Schaaffhausen was a Professor of Anatomy at the University of Bonn. ...


The original Neanderthal discovery is now considered the beginning of paleoanthropology. These and other discoveries led to the idea that these remains were from ancient Europeans who had played an important role in modern human origins. The bones of over 400 Neanderthals have been found since. Paleoanthropology, which combines the disciplines of paleontology and physical anthropology, is the study of ancient humans as found in fossil hominid evidence such as petrifacted bones and footprints. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ...


Notable fossils

  • La Ferrassie 1: A fossilized skull discovered in La Ferrassie, France by R. Capitan in 1909. It is estimated to be 70,000 years old. Its characteristics include a large occipital bun, low-vaulted cranium and heavily worn teeth.
  • Shanidar 1: Found in the Zagros Mountains in northern Iraq; a total of nine skeletons found believed to have lived in the Middle Paleolithic Period. One of the nine remains had an amputated arm. This is significant due to the fact that it shows that stone tools were present in that era. Also, another Neanderthal had been buried with flowers, showing that some type of burial ceremony may have occurred.
  • La Chappelle-aux-Saints 1: Called the Old Man, a fossilized skull discovered in La Chapelle-aux-Saints, France by A. and J. Bouyssonie, and L. Bardon in 1908. Characteristics include a low vaulted cranium and large browridge typical of Neanderthals. Estimated to be about 60,000 years old, the specimen was severely arthritic and had lost all his teeth, with evidence of healing. For him to have lived on would have required that someone process his food for him, one of the earliest examples of Neanderthal altruism (similar to Shanidar I.)
  • Le Moustier: A fossilized skull, discovered in 1909, at the archeological site in Peyzac-le-Moustier, Dordogne, France. The Mousterian tool culture is named after Le Moustier. The skull, estimated to be less than 45,000 years old, includes a large nasal cavity and a somewhat less developed brow ridge and occipital bun as might be expected in a juvenile.
  • Neanderthal 1: Initial Neanderthal specimen found during an archaeology dig in August 1856. Discovered in a limestone quarry at the Feldhofer grotto in Neanderthal, Germany. The find consisted of a skull cap, two femora, the three right arm bones, two of the left arm bones, ilium, and fragments of a scapula and ribs.
  • Kebara 2

La Ferrassie 1 is a fossilized skull of the species Homo neanderthalensis. ... Shanidar The cave site of Shanidar is located at the foothills of the Zagros Mountains in north-eastern Iraq. ... La Chappelle-aux Saints 1 (AKA The Old Man) is a fossilized skull of the species Homo neanderthalensis. ... Le Moustier is a fossilized skull of the species Homo neanderthalensis. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Anatomy

Compared to modern humans, Neanderthals were similar in height but with more robust bodies, and had distinct morphological features, especially of the cranium, which gradually accumulated more derived aspects, particularly in certain relatively isolated geographic regions. Evidence suggests that they were much stronger than modern humans;[14] their relatively robust stature is thought to be an adaptation to the cold climate of Europe during the Pleistocene epoch. Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of organisms. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ...


A 2007 study confirmed that some Neanderthals had red hair and pale skin color; however, the mutation in the MC1R gene arose independently of the mutation which causes a similar pigmentation pattern in modern humans.[15][16] Human skin color can range from very dark brown to nearly colorless (appearing pinkish white due to the blood in the skin) in different people. ... Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl na Uniprot na Refseq Location na Pubmed search The melanocortin 1 receptor (also known as melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor or Mc1r) is one of the key proteins in regulating hair and skin color. ...


Distinguishing physical traits

Neanderthal cranial anatomy.
Comparison of crania, sapiens (left) and neanderthalensis (right).

The following is a list of physical traits which distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans; however, not all of them can be used to distinguish specific Neanderthal populations, from various geographic areas or periods of evolution, from other extinct humans. Also, many of these traits occasionally manifest in modern humans, particularly among certain ethnic groups. Nothing is known about the shape of soft parts such as eyes, ears, and lips of Neanderthals.[17] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x535, 60 KB) Summary Translated from French Wikipedia and added additional detail Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x535, 60 KB) Summary Translated from French Wikipedia and added additional detail Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (800x1142, 312 KB) Description comparaison des crânes dHomo sapiens (gauche) et Homo neanderthalensis (droite) - DAO Vincent Mourre 2006 comparison of Homo sapiens (left) and Homo neanderthalensis (right) skulls Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (800x1142, 312 KB) Description comparaison des crânes dHomo sapiens (gauche) et Homo neanderthalensis (droite) - DAO Vincent Mourre 2006 comparison of Homo sapiens (left) and Homo neanderthalensis (right) skulls Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ...

  • Cranial
    • Suprainiac fossa, a groove above the inion
    • Occipital bun, a protuberance of the occipital bone which looks like a hair knot
    • Projecting mid-face
    • Low, flat, elongated skull
    • A flat basicranium[17][18][18]
    • Supraorbital torus, a prominent, trabecular (spongy) browridge
    • 1200-1750 cm³ skull capacity (10% greater than modern human average)
    • Lack of a protruding chin (mental protuberance; although later specimens possess a slight protuberance)
    • Crest on the mastoid process behind the ear opening
    • No groove on canine teeth
    • A retromolar space posterior to the third molar
    • Bony projections on the sides of the nasal opening
    • Distinctive shape of the bony labyrinth in the ear
    • Larger mental foramen in mandible for facial blood supply
    • Broad, projecting nose
  • Sub-cranial
    • Considerably more robust
    • Large round finger tips
    • Barrel-shaped rib cage
    • Large kneecaps
    • Long collar bones
    • Short, bowed shoulder blades
    • Thick, bowed shaft of the thigh bones
    • Short shinbones and calf bones
    • Long, gracile pelvic pubis (superior pubic ramus)
    • Bowed Femur

The inion is the most prominent projection of the occipital bone at the lower rear part of the skull. ... Occipital bun is a morphological term used to describe a prominent bulge, or projection, of the occipital bone at the back of the skull. ... The occipital bone, a saucer-shaped membrane bone situated at the back and lower part of the cranium, is trapezoid in shape and curved on itself. ... Supraorbital ridges seen in Australopithecus africanus The supraorbital ridge, supraorbital torus, superciliary ridge, arcus superciliaris, or brow ridge, refer to a bony ridge located above the eye sockets of all primates. ... The mastoid process (or mastoid bone) is a conical bump of the posterior portion of the temporal bone that is situated behind the ear in humans and many other vertebrates and serves as a site of neck muscle attachment (the Sternocleidomastoid, Splenius capitis, and Longissimus capitis). ... The Canine teeth are the long, pointed teeth used for grabbing hold of and tearing apart foods, also called cuspids, dogteeth or fangs. Species that feature them, such as humans and dogs, usually have four, two in the top jaw, two in the lower, on either side of the Incisors. ... The Retromolar Space (gap) is a space or gap at the rear of a mandible between the back of the last molar and the anterior edge of the ascending ramus where it crosses the alveolar margin. ... (adj. ... For more uses of the word labyrinth, see Labyrinth (disambiguation) The labyrinth is a system of fluid passages in the inner ear, including both the cochlea which is part of the auditory system, and the vestibular system which provides the sense of balance. ... The mental foramen is a foramen in the mandible. ... For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The human rib cage is a part of the human skeleton within the thoracic area. ... Left scapula - front view () Left scapula - rear view () In anatomy, the scapula, or shoulder blade, is the bone that connects the humerus (arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone). ...

Language

See also: Origin of language

The idea that Neanderthals lacked complex language was widespread,[citation needed] despite concerns about the accuracy of reconstructions of the Neanderthal vocal tract, until 1983, when a Neanderthal hyoid bone was found at the Kebara Cave in Israel. The hyoid is a small bone which connects the musculature of the tongue and the larynx, and by bracing these structures against each other, allows a wider range of tongue and laryngeal movements than would otherwise be possible. The presence of this bone implies that speech was anatomically possible. The bone which was found is virtually identical to that of modern humans.[19] The origin of language (glottogony) is a topic that has attracted considerable speculation throughout human history. ... The hyoid bone (Os Hyoideum; Lingual Bone) is a bone in the human neck, not articulated to any other bone; it is supported by the muscles of the neck and in turn supports the root of the tongue. ... Neanderthal Burial of Kebara Kebara Cave ( Hebrew: מערת כבארה Mearat Kebara, Arabic: مغارة الكبارة Mugharet el-Kebara) is an Israeli limestone cave locality of the Wadi Kebara, situated at 60 - 65 metres ASL on the western escarpment of the Carmel Range, some 10km north-east of Caesarea. ... For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... The larynx (plural larynges), colloquially known as the voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ...


The morphology of the outer and middle ear of Neanderthal ancestors, Homo heidelbergensis, found in Spain, suggests they had an auditory sensitivity similar to modern humans and very different from chimpanzees. They were probably able to differentiate between many different sounds.[20] Binomial name †Homo heidelbergensis Schoetensack, 1908 Homo heidelbergensis (Heidelberg Man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo and the direct ancestor of Homo neanderthalensis in Europe. ...


Neurological evidence for potential speech in neanderthalensis exists in the form of the hypoglossal canal. The canal of neanderthalensis is the same size or larger than in modern humans, which are significantly larger than the canal of australopithecines and modern chimpanzees. The canal carries the hypoglossal nerve, which controls the muscles of the tongue. This indicates that neanderthalensis had vocal capabilities similar to modern humans.[21] A research team from the University of California, Berkeley, led by David DeGusta, suggests that the size of the hypoglossal canal is not an indicator of speech. His team's research, which shows no correlation between canal size and speech potential, shows there are a number of extant non-human primates and fossilized australopithecines which have equal or larger hypoglossal canal.[22] The hypoglossal canal is a bony canal in the occipital bone of the skull that transmits the hypoglossal nerve from its point of entry near the medulla oblongata to its exit from the base of the skull near the jugular foramen. ... This term australopithecine refers to two very closely related hominin genera: Australopithecus Paranthropus When used alone, the term refers to both genera together. ... Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzees, also called chimps, are the common name for two species in the genus Pan. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ...


Another anatomical difference between Neanderthals and Modern humans is their lack of a mental protuberance (the point at the tip of the chin). This may be relevant to speech as the mentalis muscle, one of the muscles which move the lower lip, is attached to the tip of the chin. While some Neanderthal individuals do possess a mental protuberance, their chins never show the inverted T-shape of modern humans.[23] In contrast, some Neanderthal individuals show inferior lateral mental tubercles (little bumps at the side of the chin). The symphysis of the external surface of the mandible divides below and encloses a triangular eminence, the mental protuberance, the base of which is depressed in the center but raised on either side to form the mental tubercle. ...


A recent extraction of DNA from Neanderthal bones indicates that Neanderthals had the same version of the FOXP2 gene as modern humans. This gene is known to play a role in human language.[24] FOXP2 (forkhead box P2) is a gene that is implicated in the development of language skills,[1] including grammatical competence. ...


Steven Mithen (2006) proposes that the Neanderthals had an elaborate proto-linguistic system of communication which was more musical than modern human language, and which predated the separation of language and music into two separate modes of cognition.[25] Proto-language may refer to either: a language that preceded a certain set of given languages, or a system of communication during a stage in glottogony that may not yet be properly called a language. ... In the history of music, prehistoric music (previously called primitive music) is all music produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...


Tools

Neanderthal Hunter, (American Mus. Nat. Hist.) .
Neanderthal Tool Maker.

Neanderthal and Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites show a smaller and different toolkit than those which have been found in Upper Paleolithic sites, which were perhaps occupied by modern humans which superseded them. Fossil evidence indicating who may have made the tools found in Early Upper Paleolithic sites is still missing. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1640x2212, 438 KB)--204. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1640x2212, 438 KB)--204. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1640x2212, 466 KB)This is a 3D stereo image which can be viewed in 3D with RED-CYAN plastic or paper glases. ... Image File history File links 3d_glasses_red_cyan. ... Image File history File links Neandertal. ... Image File history File links Neandertal. ... The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ...


Neanderthals are thought to have used tools of the Mousterian class, which were often produced using soft hammer percussion, with hammers made of materials like bones, antlers, and wood, rather than hard hammer percussion, using stone hammers. A result of this is that their bone industry was relatively simple. However, there is good evidence that they routinely constructed a variety of stone implements. Neanderthal (Mousterian) tools most often consisted of sophisticated stone-flakes, task-specific hand axes, and spears. Many of these tools were very sharp. There is also good evidence that they used a lot of wood, objects which are unlikely to have been preserved until today.[26] Mousterian is a name given by archaeologists to a style of predominantly flint tools (or industry) associated primarily with Homo neanderthalensis and dating to the Middle Paleolithic, the middle part of the Old Stone Age. ... In archaeology, a lithic flake is a thin, sharp fragment of stone that results from the process of lithic reduction. ... A hand axe is a bifacial Paleolithic core tool. ... Spears were one of the most common personal weapons from the late Bronze Age until the advent of firearms. ...


Also, while they had weapons, whether they had implements which were used as projectile weapons is controversial. They had spears, made of long wooden shafts with spearheads firmly attached, but they are thought by some to have been thrusting spears.[27] Still, a Levallois point embedded in a vertebra shows an angle of impact suggesting that it entered by a "parabolic trajectory" suggesting that it was the tip of a projectile.[28] Moreover, a number of 400,000 year old wooden projectile spears were found at Schöningen in northern Germany. These are thought to have been made by the Neanderthal's ancestors, Homo erectus or Homo heidelbergensis. Generally, projectile weapons are more commonly associated with H. sapiens. The lack of projectile weaponry is an indication of different sustenance methods, rather than inferior technology or abilities. The situation is identical to that of native New Zealand Maori - modern Homo sapiens, who also rarely threw objects, but used spears and clubs instead.[29] Nonetheless, the fact that it is much safer to strike prey or foes from a distance where they cannot strike back would put anyone depending on close quarter weapons at a tactical disadvantage. For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... A projectile is any object sent through space by the application of a force. ... Spears were one of the most common personal weapons from the late Bronze Age until the advent of firearms. ... The Levallois technique is a name given by archaeologists to a distinctive type of flint knapping developed by humans during the Palaeolithic period. ... Schöningen is a city of 13,500 inhabitants (2003) in Helmstedt, Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Binomial name (Dubois, 1892) Synonyms † Pithecanthropus erectus † Sinanthropus pekinensis † Javanthropus soloensis † Meganthropus paleojavanicus Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo. ... Binomial name †Homo heidelbergensis Schoetensack, 1908 Homo heidelbergensis (Heidelberg Man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo and the direct ancestor of Homo neanderthalensis in Europe. ...


Although much has been made of the Neanderthal's burial of their dead, their burials were less elaborate than those of anatomically modern humans. The interpretation of the Shanidar IV burials as including flowers, and therefore being a form of ritual burial,[30] has been questioned.[31] On the other hand, five of the six flower pollens found with Shanidar IV are known to have had 'traditional' medical uses, even among relatively recent 'modern' populations. In some cases Neanderthal burials include grave goods, such as bison and aurochs bones, tools, and the pigment ochre. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The cave site of Shanidar is located at the foothills of the Zagros Mountains in north-eastern Iraq. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... In archaeology and anthropology grave goods are the items interred along with the body. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) A wisent (Å»ubr) The Wisent or European Bison (Bison bonasus) (pronounced ) is a bison species and the heaviest land animal in Europe. ... Binomial name Subspecies Bos primigenius primigenius   (Bojanus, 1827) Bos primigenius namadicus   (Falconer, 1859) Bos primigenius mauretanicus   (Thomas, 1881) See Ur (rune) for the rune. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... This article is about the color. ...


Neanderthals also performed many sophisticated tasks which are normally associated only with humans. For example, it is known that they controlled fire, constructed complex shelters, and skinned animals. A trap excavated at La Cotte de St Brelade in Jersey gives testament to their intelligence and success as hunters [32]. For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ...


Particularly intriguing is a hollowed-out bear femur with holes which may have been deliberately bored into it. This bone was found in western Slovenia in 1995, near a Mousterian fireplace, but its significance is still a matter of dispute. Some paleoanthropologists have hypothesized that it was a flute, while others believe it was created by accident through the chomping action of another bear. See: Divje Babe. The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous, and strongest bone of the mammalian bodies. ... Divje Babe is an archeological site located near Idrija in northwestern Slovenia. ...


Habitat and range

Sites where typical Neanderthal fossils have been found.

Early Neanderthals lived in the Last Glacial age for a span of about 100,000 years. Because of the damaging effects which the glacial period had on the Neanderthal sites, not much is known about the early species. Places where their remains are known include France and Spain, as well as Britain [33], Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, Greece[34] and Israel. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 519 pixelsFull resolution (924 × 600 pixel, file size: 336 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) map of main sites where classical Neandertal fossil where found. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 519 pixelsFull resolution (924 × 600 pixel, file size: 336 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) map of main sites where classical Neandertal fossil where found. ...


Classic Neanderthal fossils have been found over a large area, from northern Germany to Israel and Mediterranean countries like Spain and Italy in the south and from England in the west to Uzbekistan in the east. This area probably was not occupied all at the same time; the northern border of their range in particular would have contracted frequently with the onset of cold periods. On the other hand, the northern border of their range as represented by fossils may not be the real northern border of the area they occupied, since Middle-Palaeolithic looking artifacts have been found even further north, up to 60° on the Russian plain.[35]Recent evidence has extended the Neanderthal habitat range by about 1,250 miles (2,010 km) east into southern Siberia's Altay Mountains.[36][37] This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Ritual defleshing

Neanderthals hunted large animals, such as the mammoth. Stone-tipped wooden spears were used for hunting and stone knives were used for butchering the animals. They are also believed to have gathered wild plants like their ancestors, Homo erectus. However, they are believed to have practiced ritual defleshing. This hypothesis has been represented after researchers found marks on Neanderthal bones similar to the bones of a dead deer eaten by Neanderthals. Binomial name (Dubois, 1892) Synonyms † Pithecanthropus erectus † Sinanthropus pekinensis † Javanthropus soloensis † Meganthropus paleojavanicus Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo. ...


Intentional burial and the inclusion of grave goods are the most typical representations of ritual behavior in the Neanderthals and denote a developing ideology. However, another much debated and controversial manifestation of this ritual treatment of the dead comes from the evidence of cut-marks on the bone which has historically been viewed as evidence of ritual defleshing.


Neanderthal bones from various sites (Combe-Grenal and Abri Moula in France, Krapina in Croatia and Grotta Guattari in Italy) have all been cited as bearing cut marks made by stone tools.[38] However, results of technological tests reveal varied causes. Krapina is a town in northern Croatia, center of the Krapina-Zagorje county, population 12,950 (2001). ...


Re-evaluation of these marks using high-powered microscopes, comparisons to contemporary butchered animal remains and recent ethnographic cases of excarnation mortuary practises have shown that perhaps this was a case of ritual defleshing. In archaeology and anthropology the term excarnation refers to the burial practice adopted by some societies of removing the flesh of the dead, leaving only the bones. ...

  • At Grotta Guattari, the apparently purposefully widened base of the skull (for access to the brains) has been shown to be caused by carnivore action, with hyena tooth marks found on the skull and mandible.
  • According to some studies, fragments of bones from Krapina show marks which are similar to those seen on bones from secondary burials at a Michigan ossuary (14th century AD) and are indicative of removing the flesh of a partially decomposed body.
  • According to others, the marks on the bones found at Krapina are indicative of ritual defleshing, although whether this was for nutritional or ritual purposes cannot be determined with certainty.[39]
  • Analysis of bones from Abri Moula in France does seem to suggest cannibalism was practiced here. Cut-marks are concentrated in places expected in the case of butchery, instead of defleshing. Additionally the treatment of the bones was similar to that of roe deer bones, assumed to be food remains, found in the same shelter.[40]

The evidence indicating cannibalism would not distinguish Neanderthals from modern Homo sapiens. Ancient and existing Homo sapiens, including the Korowai, are known to have practiced cannibalism and/or mortuary defleshing. Subfamilies and Genera Hyaeninae Crocuta Hyaena Parahyaena Protelinae Proteles Hyenas or Hyænas are moderately large terrestrial carnivores native to Africa, Arabia, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. ... The Korowai, also called the Kolufo, are a people of southeastern Papua ( the southeastern part of the western part of New Guinea). ...


Pathology

Within the west Asian and European record there are five broad groups of pathology or injury noted in Neanderthal skeletons.


Fractures

Neanderthals seemed to suffer a high frequency of fractures, especially common on the ribs (Shanidar IV, La Chapelle-aux-Saints ‘Old Man’), the femur (La Ferrassie 1), fibulae (La Ferrassie 2 and Tabun 1), spine (Kebara 2) and skull (Shanidar I, Krapina, Sala 1). These fractures are often healed and show little or no sign of infection, suggesting that injured individuals were cared for during times of incapacitation. The pattern of fractures, along with the absence of throwing weapons, suggests that they may have hunted by leaping onto their prey and stabbing or even wrestling it to the ground.[41] The cave site of Shanidar is located at the foothills of the Zagros Mountains in north-eastern Iraq. ... The Tabun Cave was occupied intermittently during the Lower and Middle Paleolithic ages (half a million to some 40,000 years ago). ... Neanderthal Burial of Kebara Kebara Cave ( Hebrew: מערת כבארה Mearat Kebara, Arabic: مغارة الكبارة Mugharet el-Kebara) is an Israeli limestone cave locality of the Wadi Kebara, situated at 60 - 65 metres ASL on the western escarpment of the Carmel Range, some 10km north-east of Caesarea. ... Krapina is a town in northern Croatia, center of the Krapina-Zagorje county, population 12,950 (2001). ... Sala is the name of: Sala Municipality - a municipality in Sweden Sala, Slovakia - a town in Slovakia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Trauma

Particularly related to fractures are cases of trauma seen on many skeletons of Neanderthals. These usually take the form of stab wounds, as seen on Shanidar III, whose lung was probably punctured by a stab wound to the chest between the 8th and 9th ribs. This may have been an intentional attack or merely a hunting accident; either way the man survived for some weeks after his injury before being killed by a rock fall in the Shanidar cave. Other signs of trauma include blows to the head (Shanidar I and IV, Krapina), all of which seemed to have healed, although traces of the scalp wounds are visible on the surface of the skulls. The cave site of Shanidar is located at the foothills of the Zagros Mountains in north-eastern Iraq. ... The cave site of Shanidar is located at the foothills of the Zagros Mountains in north-eastern Iraq. ...


Degenerative disease

Arthritis is particularly common in the older Neanderthal population, specifically targeting areas of articulation such as the ankle (Shanidar III), spine and hips (La Chapelle-aux-Saints ‘Old Man’), arms (La Quina 5, Krapina, Feldhofer) knees, fingers and toes. This is closely related to degenerative joint disease, which can range from normal, use-related degeneration to painful, debilitating restriction of movement and deformity and is seen in varying degree in the Shanidar skeletons (I-IV). Osteoarthritis (OA, also known as degenerative arthritis or degenerative joint disease, and sometimes referred to as arthrosis or osteoarthrosis), is a condition in which low-grade inflammation results in pain in the joints, caused by wearing of the cartilage that covers and acts as a cushion inside joints. ...


Hypoplastic disease

Dental enamel hypoplasia is an indicator of stress during the development of teeth and records in the striations and grooves in the enamel periods of food scarcity, trauma or disease. A study of 669 Neanderthal dental crowns showed that 75% of individuals suffered some degree of hypoplasia and the nutritional deficiencies were the main cause of hypoplasia and eventual tooth loss. All particularly aged skeletons show evidence of hypoplasia and it is especially evident in the Old Man of La Chapelle-aux-Saints and La Ferrassie 1 teeth. Hypoplasia is an incomplete or arrested development of an organ or a part [1]. It is descriptive of many medical conditions such as: Underdeveloped breasts during puberty. ...


Infection

Evidence of infections on Neanderthal skeletons is usually visible in the form of lesions on the bone, which are created by systematic infection on areas closest to the bone. Shanidar I has evidence of the degenerative lesions as does La Ferrassie 1, whose lesions on both femora, tibiae and fibulae are indicative of a systemic infection or carcinoma (malignant tumour/cancer).

Reconstruction of a NeanderthaI child from Gibraltar (Anthropological Institute, University of Zürich).

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (512x643, 94 KB) Reconstructing the face of the Gibraltar 2 (Devils Tower) Neanderthal child E. Daynès, Paris FILE SOURCE: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (512x643, 94 KB) Reconstructing the face of the Gibraltar 2 (Devils Tower) Neanderthal child E. Daynès, Paris FILE SOURCE: http://www. ...

The fate of the Neanderthals

Possible theories for the fate of Neanderthals include the following:

  • Neanderthals evolved to a separate species which became extinct (see Neanderthal extinction hypotheses) and were replaced by early modern humans traveling from Africa.[42]
  • Neanderthals was a contemporary subspecies which incidentally bred with Homo sapiens and disappeared through absorption (see Neanderthal interaction with Cro-Magnons)
  • Neanderthals never split from Homo sapiens and most of their populations transformed into anatomically modern humans between 50-30 kya (see Multiregional origin of modern humans).

According to the traditional view, modern humans (Homo sapiens) began replacing Neanderthals around 45,000 years ago, as the Cro-Magnon people appeared in Europe, pushing populations of Neanderthals into regional pockets, where they held on for thousands of years, such as modern-day Croatia, Iberia, and the Crimean peninsula.[clarify] The last known population was located around a cave system on the remote south-facing coast of Gibraltar, from 30,000 to 24,000 years ago. Around 45,000 years ago, the Neanderthals began to be displaced by, or assimilated with, modern humans (Homo sapiens), as the Cro-Magnon people appeared in Europe. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... For the avant garde collective, see Cromagnon (band). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The Crimea (officially Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukrainian transliteration: Avtonomna Respublika Krym, Ukrainian: Автономна Республіка Крим, Russian: Автономная Республика Крым, pronounced cry-MEE-ah in English) is a peninsula and an autonomous republic of Ukraine on the northern coast of the Black Sea. ... Gorhams Cave is a cave in Gibraltar, considered to be one of the last known habitations of the Neanderthals. ...


The validity of such an extensive period of cornered Neanderthal groups is recently questioned. There is no longer certainty regarding the identity of the humans who produced the Aurignacian culture, even though the presumed westward spread of anatomically modern humans (AMHs) across Europe is still based on the controversial first dates of the Aurignacian. Currently, the oldest European anatomically modern Homo sapiens is represented by a robust modern human mandible discovered at Pestera cu Oase (south-west Romania), dated to 34–36 kya (thousand years ago). Human skeletal remains from the German site of Vogelherd, so far regarded the best association between anatomically modern Homo sapiens and Aurignacian culture, were revealed to represent intrusive Neolithic burials into the Aurignacian levels and subsequently all the key Vogelherd fossils are now dated to 3.9–5.0 thousand years ago instead.[43] As for now, the expansion of the first anatomically modern humans into Europe can't be located by diagnostic and well-dated anatomically modern human fossils "west of the Iron Gates of the Danube" before 32 kya.[44] Moreover, these oldest anatomically modern European also possessed distinct Neanderthal features not present in ancestral modern humans in Africa, including a large bulge at the back of the skull, a more prominent projection around the elbow joint, and a narrow socket at the shoulder joint. Analysis of one skeleton's shoulder showed that these humans, like Neanderthal, did not have the full capability for throwing spears.[45] Aurignacian is the name of a culture of the Upper Palaeolithic present in Europe and south west Asia. ... Aurignacian is the name of a culture of the Upper Palaeolithic present in Europe and south west Asia. ...


Consequently, the exact nature of biological and cultural interactions between Neanderthals and other human groups between 50 and 30 thousand years ago is currently hotly contested. A new proposal resolves the issue by taking the Gravettians rather than the Aurignacians as the anatomically modern humans which contributed to the post-30 kya Eurasian genetic pool.[46] Correspondingly, the human skull fragment found at the Elbe River bank at Hahnöfersand near Hamburg was once radiocarbon dated to 36,000 years ago and seen as possible evidence for the intermixing of Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans. It is now dated to the more recent Mesolithic.[47] The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ...


Modern human findings in Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal of 24,500 years ago, allegedly featuring Neanderthal admixtures, have been published.[48] However, the paleontological analysis of modern human emergence in Europe has been shifting from considerations of the Neanderthals to assessments of the biology and chronology of the earliest modern humans in western Eurasia. This focus, involving morphologically modern humans before 28,000 years ago shows accumulating evidence that they present a variable mosaic of derived modern human, archaic human, and Neanderthal features.[49][50] The site and the Upper Paleolithic human burial The Lagar Velho site is a rock-shelter in the Lapedo valley, a limestone canyon ca. ...


Genome

Further information: Neanderthal Genome Project

While previous investigations concentrated on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) — which, due to strictly matrilineal inheritance and subsequent vulnerability to genetic drift, is of limited value to disprove interbreeding — more recent investigations have access to growing strings of deciphered nuclear DNA (nDNA). In July 2006, the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and 454 Life Sciences announced that they would be sequencing the Neanderthal genome over the next two years. ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ...


In July 2006, the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and 454 Life Sciences announced that they would be sequencing the Neanderthal genome over the next two years. At three-billion base pairs, the Neanderthal genome is roughly the size of the human genome and likely shares many identical genes. It is thought that a comparison of the Neanderthal genome and human genome will expand understanding of Neanderthals as well as the evolution of humans and human brains.[51] The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology is a research institute for evolutionary anthropology based in Leipzig, Germany. ... 454 Life Sciences is a biotechnology company based in Branford, Connecticut specializing in high-throughput DNA sequencing using a novel massively parallel sequencing-by-synthesis approach. ... In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (or primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A graphical representation of the normal human karyotype. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A graphical representation of the normal human karyotype. ...


DNA researcher Svante Pääbo has tested more than 70 Neanderthal specimens and found only one which had enough DNA to sample. Preliminary DNA sequencing from a 38,000-year-old bone fragment of a femur bone found at Vindija cave in Croatia in 1980 shows that Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens share about 99.5% of their DNA. From mtDNA analysis estimates, the two species shared a common ancestor about 500,000 years ago. An article appearing in the journal Nature has calculated the species diverged about 516,000 years ago, whereas fossil records show a time of about 400,000 years ago. From DNA records, scientists hope to falsify or confirm the theory that there was interbreeding between the species.[52] A 2007 study pushes the point of divergence back to around 800,000 years ago.[53] Svante Pääbo is a biologist specializing in evolutionary genetics. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... This page discusses how a theory or assertion is falsifiable (disprovable opp: verifiable), rather than the non-philosophical use of falsification, meaning counterfeiting. ...


Edward Rubin of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California states that recent genome testing of Neanderthals suggests human and Neanderthal DNA are some 99.5 percent to nearly 99.9 percent identical.[54][55] Edward Rubin is a researcher at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. ... The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), formerly the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory and usually shortened to Berkeley Lab or LBL, is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory conducting unclassified scientific research. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ...


On November 16, 2006, Science Daily published scientific test results demonstrating that Neanderthals and ancient humans probably did not interbreed. Scientists with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) sequenced genomic nuclear DNA (nDNA) from a fossilized Neanderthal femur. Their results more precisely indicate a common ancestor about 706,000 years ago, and a complete separation of the ancestors of the species about 376,000 years ago. Their results show that the genomes of modern humans and Neanderthals are at least 99.5% identical, but despite this genetic similarity, and despite the two species having cohabitated the same geographic region for thousands of years, there is no evidence of any significant crossbreeding between the two. Edward Rubin, director of both JGI and Berkeley Lab’s Genomics Division: “While unable to definitively conclude that interbreeding between the two species of humans did not occur, analysis of the nuclear DNA from the Neanderthal suggests the low likelihood of it having occurred at any appreciable level.”


On the other hand, a 2006 investigation suggested that at least 5% of the genetic material of modern Europeans and West Africans has an archaic origin, due to interbreeding with Neanderthal and a hitherto unknown archaic African population.[10] Plagnol and Wall arrived at this result by first calculating a "null model" of genetic characteristics which would fulfill the requirement of descendence from Homo sapiens sapiens in a straight line. Next they compared this model to the current distribution and characteristics of existing genetic polymorphisms, and concluded that this "null model" deviated considerably from what would be expected. Genetic simulations indicated this 5% of DNA not accounted for by the null model corresponds to a substantial contribution to the European gene pool of up to 25%. Future investigation—including a full scale Neanderthal genome project—is expected to cast more light on the subject of genetic polymorphisms to supply more details. Contrary to the investigation of mtDNA, the study of polymorph mutations has the potential to answer the question whether—and to what extent—Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens interbred.[56] There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


A main proponent of the interbreeding hypothesis is Erik Trinkaus of Washington University. In a 2006 study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Trinkaus and his co-authors report a possibility that Neanderthals and humans did interbreed. The study claims to settle the extinction controversy; according to researchers, the human and neanderthal populations blended together through sexual reproduction. Trinkaus states, "Extinction through absorption is a common phenomenon."[57] and "From my perspective, the replacement vs. continuity debate that raged through the 1990s is now dead".[58] Erik Trinkaus is a prominent paleoanthropologist and expert on Neanderthal biology and evolution. ... Washington University in St. ... The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United States National Academy of Sciences. ...


Key dates

  • 1829: Neanderthal skulls were discovered in Engis, Belgium.
  • 1848: Skull of an ancient human was found in Forbes' Quarry, Gibraltar. Its significance was not realised at the time.
  • 1856: Johann Karl Fuhlrott first recognised the fossil called “Neanderthal man”, discovered in Neanderthal, a valley near Mettmann in what is now North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
  • 1880: The mandible of a Neanderthal child was found in a secure context and associated with cultural debris, including hearths, Mousterian tools, and bones of extinct animals.
  • 1899: Hundreds of Neanderthal bones were described in stratigraphic position in association with cultural remains and extinct animal bones.
  • 1908: A nearly complete Neanderthal skeleton was discovered in association with Mousterian tools and bones of extinct animals.
  • 1953-1957: Ralph Solecki uncovered nine Neanderthal skeletons in Shanidar Cave in northern Iraq.
  • 1975: Erik Trinkaus’s study of Neanderthal feet confirmed that they walked like modern humans.
  • 1987: Thermoluminescence results from Palestine fossils date Neanderthals at Kebara to 60,000 BP and modern humans at Qafzeh to 90,000 BP. These dates were confirmed by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dates for Qafzeh (90,000 BP) and Es Skhul (80,000 BP).
  • 1991: ESR dates showed that the Tabun Neanderthal was contemporaneous with modern humans from Skhul and Qafzeh.
  • 1997 Matthias Krings et al. are the first to amplify Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) using a specimen from Feldhofer grotto in the Neander valley. Their work is published in the journal Cell.
  • 2000: Igor Ovchinnikov, Kirsten Liden, William Goodman et al. retrieved DNA from a Late Neanderthal (29,000 BP) infant from Mezmaikaya Cave in the Caucausus.
  • 2005: The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology launched a project to reconstruct the Neanderthal genome.
  • 2006: The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology announced that it planned to work with Connecticut-based 454 Life Sciences to reconstruct the Neanderthal genome.

Engis is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... Gorhams Cave is a cave in Gibraltar, considered to be one of the last known habitations of the Neanderthals. ... Johann Carl Fuhlrott was born December 31, 1803 in Leinefelde, Germany, and died October 17, 1877 in Elberfeld, (Wuppertal). ... The Neanderthal (Neandertal) is a small valley of the river Düssel in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, near the city of Mettmann. ... Mettmann is a North-Rhine-Westphalian (Germany) town and the administrative centre of the District of Mettmann, Germanys most densely populated rural district. ... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... Anthropologist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He joined the faculty at Columbia University (1959–88), and his best-known excavations were at the Neanderthal site at Shanidar Cave in Iraq. ... Erik Trinkaus is a prominent paleoanthropologist and expert on Neanderthal biology and evolution. ... Some mineral substances such as fluorite store energy when exposed to ultraviolet or other ionising radiation. ... Neanderthal Burial of Kebara Kebara Cave ( Hebrew: מערת כבארה Mearat Kebara, Arabic: مغارة الكبارة Mugharet el-Kebara) is an Israeli limestone cave locality of the Wadi Kebara, situated at 60 - 65 metres ASL on the western escarpment of the Carmel Range, some 10km north-east of Caesarea. ... Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) or Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) is a spectroscopic technique which detects species that have unpaired electrons, generally meaning that the molecule in question is a free radical if it is an organic molecule, or that it has transition metal ions if it is an inorganic complex. ... Es Skhul (meaning kids) is a cave site situated c. ... Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) or Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) is a spectroscopic technique which detects species that have unpaired electrons, generally meaning that the molecule in question is a free radical if it is an organic molecule, or that it has transition metal ions if it is an inorganic complex. ... The Tabun Cave was occupied intermittently during the Lower and Middle Paleolithic ages (half a million to some 40,000 years ago). ... The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology is a research institute for evolutionary anthropology based in Leipzig, Germany. ... 454 Life Sciences is a biotechnology company based in Branford, Connecticut specializing in high-throughput DNA sequencing using a novel massively parallel sequencing-by-synthesis approach. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Popular culture

Popular literature has tended to greatly exaggerate the ape-like gait and related characteristics of the Neanderthals. It has been determined that some of the earliest specimens found in fact suffered from severe arthritis. The Neanderthals were fully bipedal and had a slightly larger average brain capacity than a typical modern human, though it is thought the brain may have been structured or organized differently. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Depictions of Neanderthals in popular culture have tended to greatly exaggerate the ape-like gait and related characteristics of the Neanderthals. ... This article is about the biological superfamily. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... A biped is an animal that travels across surfaces supported by two legs. ...


In popular idiom the word neanderthal is sometimes used as an insult, to suggest that a person combines a deficiency of intelligence and an attachment to brute force, as well as perhaps implying the person is old fashioned or attached to outdated ideas, much in the same way as "dinosaur" is also used. Counterbalancing this are sympathetic literary portrayals of Neanderthals, as in the novel The Inheritors by William Golding, Isaac Asimov's The Ugly Little Boy, and Jean M. Auel's Earth's Children series, though Auel repeatedly compares Neanderthals to modern humans unfavorably within the series, showing them to be less advanced in nearly every facet of their lives. Instead she gives them access to a 'race memory' and uses it to explain both their cultural richness and eventual stagnation. A more serious treatment is offered by Finnish palaeontologist Björn Kurtén, in several works including Dance of the Tiger, and British psychologist Stan Gooch in his hybrid-origin theory of humans. The Neanderthal Parallax, a trilogy of science fiction novels dealing with neanderthals, written by Robert J. Sawyer, explores a scenario where neanderthals are seen as a distinct species from humans and survive in a parallel universe version of earth. The novels explore what happens when they, having developed a sophisticated technological culture of their own, open a portal to this version of the earth. The three novels are titled Hominids, Humans, and Hybrids, respectively, and all form essentially one story. The Inheritors is a 1955 novel by the British author William Golding, better known for Lord of the Flies. ... Sir William Gerald Golding (19 September 1911 – 19 June 1993) was a British novelist, poet and Nobel Prize for Literature laureate best known for his novel Lord of the Flies. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... The Ugly Little Boy is a science fiction short story by Isaac Asimov. ... Jean Marie Auel (born February 18, 1936 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American writer. ... Earths Children is a series of historical fiction novels written by Jean M. Auel. ... Björn Olof Lennartson Kurtén (1924 – 1988) was a distinguished vertebrate paleontologist. ... Dance of the Tiger is a short novel published in 1980 written by Björn Kurtén that deals with the interaction between Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons. ... Born 1932 in London, England, Stan Gooch is a British psychologist and the leading proponent of the Hybrid-origin theory, which hypothesizes that modern humans originated approximately 40,000 years B.P. as a result of interbreeding between at least two types of archaic human species, for example Cro-magnon... The Neanderthal Parallax is a trilogy of novels by Robert J. Sawyer. ... Robert J. Sawyer is a Canadian hard science fiction writer, born in Ottawa in 1960 and now resident in Mississauga. ...


See also

This is a list of archeological sites where remains and/or tools of Neanderthals were found. ... In July 2006, the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and 454 Life Sciences announced that they would be sequencing the Neanderthal genome over the next two years. ... List of fossil sites: // ^ http://www. ... The following charts give a brief overview of several notable primate fossil finds relating to human evolution. ... Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... For other uses, see Caveman (disambiguation). ... The site and the Upper Paleolithic human burial The Lagar Velho site is a rock-shelter in the Lapedo valley, a limestone canyon ca. ... The Almas, Mongolian for wild man, is a cryptozoological species of presumed hominid reputed to inhabit the Caucasus and Pamir Mountains of central Asia, and the Altai Mountains of southern Mongolia. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Tattersall I, Schwartz JH (1999). "Hominids and hybrids: the place of Neanderthals in human evolution". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (13): 7117–9. PMID 10377375. “on the view that these distinctive hominids merit species recognition in their own right as Homo neanderthalensis (e.g., refs. 4 and 5), at least as many still regard them as no more than a strange variant of our own species, Homo sapiens (6, 7)  Available on-line
  2. ^ J. L. Bischoff et al. (2003). "The Sima de los Huesos Hominids Date to Beyond U/Th Equilibrium (>350 kyr) and Perhaps to 400–500 kyr: New Radiometric Dates". J. Archaeol. Sci. (30): 275. 
  3. ^ [1] Climate forcing and Neanderthal extinction in Southern Iberia: insights from a multiproxy marine record - Francisco J. Jiménez-Espejo et al.
  4. ^ The early Upper Paleolithic human skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and modern human emergence in Iberia - Cidália Duarte, João Maurício, Paul B. Pettitt, Pedro Souto, Erik Trinkaus, Hans van der Plicht, and João Zilhão, PNAS Vol. 96, Issue 13, 7604-7609, June 22, 1999 [2]
  5. ^ Rincon, Paul (2006-09-13). Neanderthals' 'last rock refuge'. BBC News. Retrieved on 2006-09-19.
  6. ^ Mcilroy, Anne (2006-09-13). Neanderthals may have lived longer than thought. Globe and Mail. Retrieved on 2006-09-19.
  7. ^ Richard G. Klein (March 2003). "PALEOANTHROPOLOGY: Whither the Neanderthals?". Science 299 (5612): 1525-1527. doi:10.1126/science.1082025. 
  8. ^ "Stone Age feminism? Females joining hunt may explain Neanderthals' end." Nickerson, Colin. Boston Globe, November 10, 2007[3]
  9. ^ The icy truth behind Neanderthals
  10. ^ a b Plagnol V, Wall JD: Possible ancestral structure in human populations. PLoS Genet 2006, 2:e105.[4]
  11. ^ Modern humans, Neanderthals shared earth for 1,000 years. ABC News (Australia) (2005-09-01). Retrieved on 2006-09-19.
  12. ^ Hodges, S. Blair (2000-12-07). Human Evolution: A start for population genomics. Nature Publishing Group (Nature. 2000 Dec 7;408(6813):652-3). 
  13. ^ Human Ancestors Hall: Homo neanderthalensis
  14. ^ Science & Nature - Wildfacts - Neanderthal
  15. ^ Laleuza-Fox, Carles; Holger Römpler et al (2007-10-25). "A Melanocortin 1 Receptor Allele Suggests Varying Pigmentation Among Neanderthals". Science. doi:10.1126/science.1147417. Retrieved on 2007-10-26. 
  16. ^ Paul Rincon (2007-10-25). Neanderthals 'were flame-haired'. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-10-25.
  17. ^ Scientists Build 'Frankenstein' Neanderthal Skeleton.
  18. '^ B. Arensburg et al. (1990). "A reappraisal of the anatomical basis for speech in Middle Palaeolithic hominids". American Journal of Physical Anthropology '83 (2): 137-146. 
  19. ^ B. Arensburg, A. M. Tillier, B. Vandermeersch, H. Duday, L. A. Schepartz & Y. Rak (April 1989). "A Middle Palaeolithic human hyoid bone". Nature (338): 758-760. doi:10.1038/338758a0. 
  20. ^ Martinez, I., L. Rosa, J.-L. Arsuaga, P. Jarabo, R. Quam, C. Lorenzo, A. Gracia, J.-M. Carretero, J.M. Bermúdez de Castro, E. Carbonell (July 2004). "Auditory capacities in Middle Pleistocene humans from the Sierra de Atapuerca in Spain". PNAS 101 (27): 9976-9981. 
  21. ^ Richard F. Kay, Matt Cartmill, and Michelle Balow (April 1998). "The hypoglossal canal and the origin of human vocal behavior". PNAS 95 (9): 5417-5419. 
  22. ^ David DeGusta, W. Henry Gilbert and Scott P. Turner (Feb 1999). "Hypoglossal canal size and hominid speech". PNAS 96 (4): 1800-1804. 
  23. ^ Jeffrey Schwartz, Ian Tattersall (May 2000). "The human chin revisited: What is it, and who has it?". Journal of Human Evolution 38: 367-409. 
  24. ^ Neanderthals Had Important Speech Gene, DNA Evidence Shows
  25. ^ Steven Mithen, The Singing Neanderthals: the Origins of Music, Language, Mind and Body (2006).
  26. ^ Henig, Martin. "Odd man out: Neanderthals and modern humans." British Archeology, #51, Feb 2000. [5]
  27. ^ Churchill S.E. (2002) Of assegais and bayonets: Reconstructing prehistoric spear use. Evolutionary Anthropology, 11, 185-186
  28. ^ Boëda E., Geneste J.M., Griggo C., Mercier N., Muhesen S., Reyss J.L., Taha A. & Valladas H. (1999) A Levallois point embedded in the vertebra of a wild ass (Equus africanus): Hafting, projectiles and Mousterian hunting. Antiquity, 73, 394-402
  29. ^ Schwimmer, E.G. "Warfare of the Maori." Te Ao Hou: The New World, #36, Sept 1961, pp. 51-53. [6]
  30. ^ R. S. Solecki (1975). "Shanidar IV, a Neanderthal flower burial in northern Iraq". [[Science (journal)|]] 190 (28): 880. 
  31. ^ J. D. Sommer (1999). "The Shanidar IV 'Flower Burial': A Reevaluation of Neanderthal Burial Ritual". Cambridge Archæological Journal 9: 127–129. 
  32. ^ A History of Britain, Richard Dargie (2007), p. 9
  33. ^ A History of Britain, Richard Dargie (2007), p. 9
  34. ^ Ancient tooth provides evidence of Neanderthal movement
  35. ^ Pavlov, P., W. Roebroeks, and J. I. Svendsen (2004). "The Pleistocene colonization of northeastern Europe: A report on recent research". Journal of Human Evolution 47 (1-2): 3-17. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.05.002. 
  36. ^ Fossil DNA Expands Neanderthal Range
  37. ^ Neandertals Ranged Much Farther East Than Thought
  38. ^ Andrea Thompson (2006-12-04). Neanderthals Were Cannibals, Study Confirms. Health SciTech. LiveScience.
  39. ^ Pathou-Mathis M (2000). "Neanderthal subsistence behaviours in Europe". International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 10: 379-395. 
  40. ^ Defleur A, White T, Valensi P, Slimak L, Cregut-Bonnoure E (1999). "Neanderthal cannibalism at Moula-Guercy, Ardèche, France". Science 286: 128-131. 
  41. ^ T.D. Berger and E. Trinkaus (1995). "Patterns of trauma among Neadertals". Journal of Archaeological Science 22: 841 - 852. Retrieved on 2007-06-28. 
  42. ^ First genocide of human beings occurred 30,000 years ago
  43. ^ Conard, N.J. et al. (2004) Unexpectedly recent dates for human remains from Vogelherd. Nature 430, 198–201 [7]; [8]
  44. ^ Trinkaus, E. (2005) Early modern humans. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 34, 207–230 [9]
  45. ^ [10] Humans and Neanderthals interbred, 2 November 2006 by Jacqui Hayes, Cosmos Online
  46. ^ Rapid ecological turnover and its impact on Neanderthal and other human populations - Clive Finlayson and Jose´ S. Carrión, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 22, Issue 4 , April 2007, Pages 213-222 [11]
  47. ^ From the First Humans to the Mesolithic Hunters in the Northern German Lowlands, Current Results and Trends - THOMAS TERBERGER. From: Across the western Baltic, edited by: Keld Møller Hansen & Kristoffer Buck Pedersen, 2006, ISBN 87-983097-5-7, Sydsjællands Museums Publikationer Vol. 1 [12]
  48. ^ The early Upper Paleolithic human skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and modern human emergence in Iberia - Cidália Duarte, João Maurício, Paul B. Pettitt, Pedro Souto, Erik Trinkaus, Hans van der Plicht, and João Zilhão, PNAS Vol. 96, Issue 13, 7604-7609, June 22, 1999 [13]
  49. ^ An early modern human from the Petera cu Oase, Romania - Erik Trinkaus et al, PNAS | September 30, 2003 | vol. 100 | no. 20 | 11231-11236 [14]
  50. ^ Early modern humans from the Petera Muierii, Baia de Fier, Romania - Andrei Soficaru*, Adrian Dobo, and Erik Trinkaus, PNAS | November 14, 2006 | vol. 103 | no. 46 | 17196-17201 [15]
  51. ^ Moulson, Geir. "Neanderthal genome project launches", MSNBC.com, Associated Press. Retrieved on 2006-08-22. 
  52. ^ New Machine Sheds Light on DNA of Neanderthals - New York Times
  53. ^ Pennisi, Elizabeth (2007-05-18). "ANCIENT DNA: No Sex Please, We're Neandertals". Science 316 (5827): 967. doi:10.1126/science.316.5827.967a. Retrieved on 2007-05-18. 
  54. ^ Neanderthal bone gives DNA clues
  55. ^ Scientists decode Neanderthal genes
  56. ^ Review: Archaic admixture in the human genome - Jeffrey D Wall and Michael F Hammer, Elsevier Ltd., 2006 [16]PDF (90.0 KiB)
  57. ^ Humans and Neanderthals interbred
  58. ^ Modern Humans, Neanderthals May Have Interbred

Solecki, Ralph S. "Shanidar." Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. 2007. Grolier Online. 25 Nov. 2007 <http://gme.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=0264140-0>. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Science, the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), is one of the worlds most prestigious scientific publications. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The domain name bbc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United States National Academy of Sciences. ... The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United States National Academy of Sciences. ... The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United States National Academy of Sciences. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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References

  • Derev’anko, Anatoliy P. 1998 The Paleolithic of Siberia. New Discoveries and Interpretations. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.
  • C. David Kreger (2000-06-30) Homo Neanderthalensis
  • Dennis O'Neil (2004-12-06) Evolution of Modern Humans Neandertals retrieved 12/26/2004
  • Fink, Bob (1997) The Neanderthal Flute... (Greenwich, Canada) ISBN 0-912424-12-5
  • Hickmann, Kilmer, Eichmann (ed.) (2003) Studies in Music Archaeology III International Study Group on Music Archaeology's 2000 symposium. ISBN 3-89646-640-2
  • Serre et al. (2004). "No evidence of Neandertal mtDNA contribution to early modern humans". PLoS Biology 2 (3): 313–7. PMID 15024415. 
  • Eva M. Wild, Maria Teschler-Nicola, Walter Kutschera, Peter Steier, Erik Trinkaus & Wolfgang Wanek (05 2005). "Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladeč". Nature 435: 332–5.  link for Nature subscribers
  • Boë, Louis-Jean, Jean-Louis Heim, Kiyoshi Honda and Shinji Maeda. (2002) "The potential Neandertal vowel space was as large as that of modern humans." Journal of Phonetics, Volume 30, Issue 3, July 2002, Pages 465-484
  • Lieberman, Philip. (2007). "Current views on Neanderthal speech capabilities: A reply to Boe et al. (2002)". Journal of Phonetics, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 552-563.
  • Neanderthal DNA Sequencing

Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mladeč is a village 20 km NW of Olomouc in central Moravia, Czech Republic. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
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  • BBC.co.uk - 'Neanderthals "had hands like ours": The popular image of Neanderthals as clumsy, backward creatures has been dealt another blow', Helen Briggs, BBC (March 27, 2003)
  • GeoCities.com - 'The Neanderthal Sites at Veldwezelt-Hezerwater, Belgium'
  • Greenwych.ca - 'Neanderthal Flute: Oldest Musical Instrument's 4 Notes Matches 4 of Do, Re, Mi Scale - Evidence of Natural Foundation to Diatonic Scale (oldest known musical instrument), Greenwich Publishing
  • Greenwych.ca - 'Chewed or Chipped? Who Made the Neanderthal Flute? Humans or Carnivores?' Bob Fink, Greenwich Publishing (March, 2003)

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The following charts give a brief overview of several notable primate fossil finds relating to human evolution. ... Human evolutionary genetics studies how one human genome differs from the other, the evolutionary past that gave rise to it, and its current effects. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Neanderthal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3371 words)
Neanderthal is now spelled two ways: the spelling of the German word Thal, meaning "valley or dale", was changed to Tal in the early 20th century, but the former spelling is often retained in English and always in scientific names, while the modern spelling is used in German.
Dental enamel hypoplasia is an indicator of stress during the development of teeth and records in the striations and grooves in the enamel periods of food scarcity, trauma or disease.
The Neanderthals were fully bipedal and had a slightly larger average brain capacity than a typical modern human, though it is thought the brain structure was organised differently.
Neanderthal - Wikipedia (870 words)
Neanderthals or Neandertals were a species of genus Homo who inhabited Europe and parts of what is now western Asia during the last ice age.
The distinction arises because Cro-Magnons and Neanderthals are both believed to have lived in a way we would now call nomadic, whereas in those genocides of the colonial era in which differential disease susceptibility was most significant, it resulted from the contact between colonisers with a long history of agriculture and nomadic hunter-gatherer peoples.
The Neanderthals were fully bipedal and had a slightly larger average brain capacity than that of a typical modern human (though the brain structure was organised somewhat differently).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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