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Encyclopedia > NeXT
NeXT Software, Inc.
The NeXT logo designed by Paul Rand.
Fate Bought by Apple, Inc.
Successor Apple, Inc.
Founded 1985 (California, Flag of the United States United States)
Defunct 1996
Location Redwood City, California
Flag of the United States United States
Industry Computer hardware
Computer software
Products NeXT Computer
NeXTcube
NeXTstation
NeXTdimension
NeXTSTEP
OPENSTEP
WebObjects
Key people Steve Jobs, Chairman and CEO
Ross Perot, Director
John Patrick Crecine, Director
Avie Tevanian, VP of Engineering
Mitchell Mandich, VP of Sales and Services
Peak size 240 (1993)[1] employees

NeXT Software, Inc. (formerly NeXT Computer, Inc.) was a computer company headquartered in Redwood City, California, that developed and manufactured a series of computer workstations intended for the higher education and business markets. Image File history File links NeXT_logo. ... Paul Rand (born Peretz Rosenbaum, August 15, 1914 – November 26, 1996) was a well-known American graphic designer, best known for his corporate logo designs. ... Apple Inc. ... Apple Inc. ... This article is about the year. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Redwood City is a suburb located on the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... It has been suggested that Peripheral be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Computer program. ... The NeXT logo, designed by Paul Rand. ... The NeXT Computer and NeXTcube were high-end workstation computers developed, manufactured and sold by NeXT from 1988 until 1993. ... NeXTstation was a high-end workstation computer developed, manufactured and sold by NeXT from 1990 until 1993. ... NeXTdimension was an accelerated 32 bit color board manufactured and sold by NeXT that gave the NeXTcube color capabilities with PostScipt. ... NEXTSTEP is the original object-oriented, multitasking operating system that NeXT Computer, Inc. ... The OPENSTEP desktop. ... WebObjects is a Java Web application server by Apple Computer. ... Steven Paul Jobs (born February 24, 1955) is the co-founder and CEO of Apple and was the CEO of Pixar until its acquisition by Disney. ... H. Ross Perot (born June 27, 1930) is an American businessman from Texas, who is best known for seeking the office of President of the United States in 1992 and 1996. ... John Patrick Crecine (Pat) (born 1939) was a U.S. educator and held tenured, professorships in public policy, political science, and sociology at the University of Michigan (1968-1975), in political economy and social and decision sciences at Carnegie Mellon University (1975-87), and in industrial and systems engineering, and... As of 2005 Avadis Avie Tevanian is the Chief Software Technology Officer at Apple Computer. ... A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ... A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ... For other meanings, see Next. ... This article is about the machine. ... Redwood City is a suburb located on the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ...


NeXT was founded in 1985 by Steve Jobs after his resignation from Apple Computer. In addition to its hardware, NeXT developed the NEXTSTEP operating system, later retooled as a programming environment capable of running on several different operating systems, most notably Solaris. This put NEXTSTEP in direct competition with Windows NT and Cairo, a vaporware object-oriented version of Windows NT. In 1993, NeXT withdrew from the hardware business and, on December 20, 1996, was bought by Apple for US$400 million.[2] Parts of NeXT's software were later used as the foundation for Mac OS X.[3] Steven Paul Jobs (born February 24, 1955) is the co-founder and CEO of Apple and was the CEO of Pixar until its acquisition by Disney. ... Apple Inc. ... It has been suggested that Peripheral be merged into this article or section. ... NEXTSTEP is the original object-oriented, multitasking operating system that NeXT Computer, Inc. ... // An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer. ... API and Api redirect here. ... Solaris is a computer operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... Cairo was the code name for a project at Microsoft from 1991 to 1996. ... Vaporware is software or hardware product which is announced by a developer well in advance of release, but which then fails to emerge, either with or without a protracted development cycle. ... An object-oriented operating system is an operating system which internally uses object-oriented methodologies. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Mac OS X (IPA: ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ...

Contents

History

1985–1986: Early years

In 1984, Apple co-founder Steve Jobs was the head of Apple's SuperMicro division, which was responsible for the development of the Macintosh and Lisa personal computers. The division failed to release upgraded versions of the Macintosh and most of the Macintosh Office.[4] As a result, sales plummeted,[5] and Apple was forced to write off millions of dollars in unsold inventory.[6] Apple CEO John Sculley was forced to oust Jobs from power at Apple, replacing him with Jean-Louis Gassée in 1985.[7] Later that year, Jobs began a power struggle to regain control of the company. The board of directors sided with Sculley, while Jobs toured Europe and the Soviet Union on behalf of Apple.[8][9] Steven Paul Jobs (born February 24, 1955) is the co-founder and CEO of Apple and was the CEO of Pixar until its acquisition by Disney. ... For other uses, see Macintosh (disambiguation) and Mac. ... The Apple Lisa was a revolutionary personal computer designed at Apple Computer during the early 1980s. ... John Sculley (born April 6, 1939) was president of PepsiCo during the 1970s and early 1980s until he became CEO of Apple Computer on April 8, 1983. ... Jean-Louis Gassée (born March 1944 in Paris, France) was an executive at Apple Computer from 1981 to 1990. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The Macintosh had been successful on university campuses mostly because of the Apple University Consortium, which sold more than $50 million in computers by February of 1984.[10] The Apple University Consortium allowed students and institutions to buy the computers at significant discounts.[11][12] In his role as chairman, Jobs visited university buying departments, and also faculty members to sell Macintoshes.[13] Jobs met Paul Berg, a Nobel Laureate, at a luncheon held in Silicon Valley to honor François Mitterrand.[14][9] Berg was frustrated by the expense of teaching students about recombinant DNA from textbooks instead of in the wet lab. The wet labs were prohibitively expensive for lower level courses. Berg suggested to Jobs that he use his influence at Apple to create a 3M workstation, named so because they had more than one megabyte of RAM, a megapixel display and megaflop performance.[9] Paul Berg, born June 30, 1926 in Brooklyn, New York, USA, is an American biochemist and professor emeritus at Stanford University. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) was President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is an artificial DNA sequence resulting from the combination of different DNA sequences. ... Wet Laboratories are defined as laboratories where chemicals, drugs, or other material or biological matter are tested and analyzed requiring water, direct ventilation, and specialized piped utilities. ... 3M was an ideal first proposed in the early 1980s for technical/academic computers: at least a megabyte of memory, a million pixel display and a megaFLOPS processing power. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ...


Jobs was intrigued by Berg's concept for a workstation and contemplated starting a higher education computer company in the Fall of 1985. After several months of being sidelined at Apple, he resigned on Friday, September 13, 1985, telling the board of directors that his new company would not compete with Apple and might even consider licensing its designs back to Apple to market under the Macintosh brand.[9] Jobs was joined by former Apple employees Bud Tribble, George Crow, Rich Page, Susan Barnes, Susan Kare, and Dan’l Lewin and named his new company Next Computer, Inc. After consulting with major educational buyers from around the country (including a follow-up meeting with Paul Berg), a tentative specification was drawn up. The workstation would be powerful enough to run wet lab simulations and cheap enough for freshmen to use in their dorm rooms.[15] is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Guy Bud Tribble, MD, PhD, is Vice President of Software Technology at Apple Computer. ... George Crow was a member of the original Apple Macintosh team in 1984 at Apple Computer. ... Rich Page was the manager of the Lisa group at Apple Computer in the 1980s, and he later joined Steve Jobs at NeXT. External links Folklore. ... Susan Barnes is a marketer. ... Susan Kare (born 1954) is an artist and graphic designer who created many of the interface elements for the Apple Macintosh in the 1980s. ... Danl Lewin is the corporate Vice president of strategic and emerging business development at Microsoft Corporation. ... Freshmen can refer to multiple things: For the comic book, see Freshmen_(comics). ...


Before the specifications were finished, Apple sued NeXT for "nefarious schemes" to take advantage of insider information its cofounders were privy to.[16][14] Jobs remarked, "It is hard to think that a $2 billion company with 4,300-plus people couldn't compete with six people in blue jeans."[14] The suit was eventually dismissed before trial, but was a major boon for Next's image in the computer industry. An insider is a member of any group of people of limited number and generally restricted access. ...


Jobs recruited graphic designer Paul Rand in 1986 to create a brand identity for Next for $100,000. Rand created a 100 page brochure detailing everything about the brand, including the precise angle the cube logo was to be tilted (28°) and a brand new name, NeXT.[17] The first major outside investment was from Ross Perot, who originally saw NeXT employees and Jobs featured on The Entrepreneurs, a television show.[9] He decided to invest US$20 million in 1987 for 16% of NeXT's stock, pricing the company at $125 million. He subsequently joined the board of directors in 1988.[18] Paul Rand (born Peretz Rosenbaum, August 15, 1914 – November 26, 1996) was a well-known American graphic designer, best known for his corporate logo designs. ... H. Ross Perot (born June 27, 1930) is an American businessman from Texas, who is best known for seeking the office of President of the United States in 1992 and 1996. ...


1987–1993: NeXT Computer, Inc.

By mid-1986, it was clear that no existing operating system (OS) would be able to meet their tentative specification for an object-oriented programming environment and user interface. This forced a major change in the business plan: not only would NeXT create an object-oriented programming environment, they would need to build hardware and a Unix-like Mach-based OS on which the toolkit would run.[4] A team led by Avie Tevanian, one of the Mach engineers at Carnegie Mellon University who had since joined the company, were to develop the operating system, whilst the hardware division led by Rich Page, one of the cofounders who had previously led the Apple Lisa team, were to develop and design the hardware. The name of the company was changed to NeXT Computer, Inc.. // An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer. ... Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a computer programming paradigm in which a software system is modeled as a set of objects that interact with each other. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... It has been suggested that Peripheral be merged into this article or section. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... Mach is an operating system microkernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University to support operating system research, primarily distributed and parallel computation. ... As of 2005 Avadis Avie Tevanian is the Chief Software Technology Officer at Apple Computer. ... Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Rich Page was the manager of the Lisa group at Apple Computer in the 1980s, and he later joined Steve Jobs at NeXT. External links Folklore. ... The Apple Lisa was a revolutionary personal computer designed at Apple Computer during the early 1980s. ...

A NeXTcube with the built-in magneto-optical drive and magnesium enclosure.
A NeXTcube with the built-in magneto-optical drive and magnesium enclosure.

NeXT's workstation was named simply the "NeXT Computer" and featured a distinctive case designed by frogdesign[19] which led to its nickname of "the Cube". It was based on the new 25 MHz Motorola 68030 Central processing unit (CPU). The Motorola 88000 RISC chip was originally considered, but the needed quantity was not available at the time.[20] Image File history File links NeXTcube. ... Image File history File links NeXTcube. ... The NeXT Computer and NeXTcube were high-end workstation computers developed, manufactured and sold by NeXT from 1988 until 1993. ... Magneto-optical disc. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... The NeXT Computer and NeXTcube were high-end workstation computers developed, manufactured and sold by NeXT from 1988 until 1993. ... frog design is an internationally renowned creative consultancy. ... Motorola 68030 Processor from a Macintosh IIsi The Motorola 68030 is a 32-bit microprocessor in Motorolas 68000 family. ... “CPU” redirects here. ... The 88000 (m88k for short) is a microprocessor design produced by Motorola. ... Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ...


The NeXT Computer was slower than many Unix workstations becoming available at that time, but cost about half as much[citation needed]. It included 8 MB of random access memory (RAM), a 256 MB MO drive, Ethernet, NuBus and a 17-inch MegaPixel grayscale display measuring 1120×832 pixels. Meanwhile, a typical PC included 640 KiB of RAM, the 8086, 8088, 286 or 386 CPU, a 640×350 16-color or 720×348 monochrome display, a 10 to 20 megabyte hard drive and no networking capabilities. Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... “RAM” redirects here. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... NuBus is a 32-bit parallel computer bus, originally developed at MIT as a part of the NuMachine workstation project, and eventually used by Apple Computer and NeXT Computer. ... This example shows an image with a portion greatly enlarged, in which the individual pixels are rendered as little squares and can easily be seen. ... According to the International Electrotechnical Commission a kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage. ... The 8086[1] is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture. ... The Intel 8088 is an Intel microprocessor based on the 8086, with 16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data bus. ... AMD 80286 at 12 MHz. ... The Intel386[1] is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 2007. ... For the scientific and engineering discipline studying computer networks, see Computer networking. ...


At the time, most workstations and high-end personal computers shipped with a hard drive between the size of 10 and 40 MB. Floppy disks were used to load the OS and additional software. This was becoming a problem, as the user needed to swap between floppy disks to load an ever-growing number of applications. At the time, a 640 MB drive cost approximately US$5,000. In an attempt to solve this issue, the NeXT Computer used a removable-medium 256 MB magneto-optical drive (MO) manufactured by Canon. These drives were relatively new to the market, the NeXT being the first computer to use them. They were much cheaper than hard drives but they were slower and made it impossible to move files between computers without a network since there was only one magneto-optical drive on the cube. Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ... Magneto-optical disc. ... Canon Inc. ...


By 1987, NeXT's first factory was completed in Fremont, California; it was capable of producing 150,000 machines per year.[14] Prototype workstations were shown to standing ovations on October 12, 1988, and several magazines reviewed the system — all concentrating on the hardware. By 1989, the machines were in testing, and NeXT started selling limited numbers to universities with a beta version of the OS installed. When asked if he was upset that the computer's debut was delayed by several months, Jobs responded, "Late? This computer is five years ahead of its time!"[21] Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Fremont (IPA: ) is a city in California that was incorporated on January 23, 1956, from the merger of five smaller communities: Centerville, Irvington, Mission San Jose, Niles, and Warm Springs. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Software testing is a process used to identify the correctness, completeness and quality of developed computer software. ...


In 1988, Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates commented on the NeXTcube: "He [Steve Jobs] put a microprocessor in a box. So what?". He was later asked if he intended to develop for the NeXT platform, replying "Develop for it? I'll piss on it."[14] In February 1989, Sun Microsystems' Scott McNealy was asked what he thought of the NeXTcube, replying, "it's the wrong operating system, the wrong processor, and the wrong price."[14] Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... For other persons named Bill Gates, see Bill Gates (disambiguation). ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... Scott McNealy holding Suns new UltraSPARC T1 processor, unveiled on November 14, 2005. ...


BusinessLand, a large office-supply chain which had a large sales force that targeted large companies sold Compaq personal computers, which did not have a huge sales force to counter IBM, the company abruptly stopped selling the brand. After BusinessLand stopped selling Compaq computers in 1989, NeXT struck a deal to sell the NeXT Computer in select markets and its successors nationwide, a drastic move from NeXT's original business model to only sell directly to students and educational institutions.[22] BusinessLand founder David Norman predicted that sales of the NeXT Computer would surpass sales of Compaq PC's after 12 months.[23] Compaq Computer Corporation is an American personal computer company founded in 1982, and now a brand name of Hewlett-Packard. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ...

A NeXTstation with the original keyboard, mouse and the NeXT MegaPixel monitor.
A NeXTstation with the original keyboard, mouse and the NeXT MegaPixel monitor.

Canon invested US$100 million in 1989, a 16.67% stake.[24] The machines were finally released on the retail market in 1990, for the price of US$9,999. At the time Jobs was concerned that the market was quickly stratifying and the window of opportunity to introduce any new platform was rapidly closing. NeXT’s original investor Ross Perot resigned from the board of directors in June 1991 after losing confidence in the company. NeXTstation (mono) Description: NeXTstation with monochrome monitor Source: picture taken by myself, [[15 April], 2004 Photographer: Alexander Schaelss License: GNU FDL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... NeXTstation (mono) Description: NeXTstation with monochrome monitor Source: picture taken by myself, [[15 April], 2004 Photographer: Alexander Schaelss License: GNU FDL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... NeXTstation was a high-end workstation computer developed, manufactured and sold by NeXT from 1990 until 1993. ... The NeXT MegaPixel Display was a range of CRT-based computer monitors manufactured and sold by NeXT for the NeXTcube and NeXTstation workstations. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... H. Ross Perot (born June 27, 1930) is an American businessman from Texas, who is best known for seeking the office of President of the United States in 1992 and 1996. ...


The magneto-optical drive was expensive and had performance and reliability problems despite being faster than a floppy drive. Disks cost about US$100 each, and the drive was not sufficient to run as the primary medium running the NeXTSTEP operating system. After a few years, most of the magneto-optical drives had failed and become useless. In 1990, NeXT released a second generation of workstations in an attempt to solve these problems, by replacing the magneto-optical drive with a 2.88 MB floppy drive. The new range comprised a revised NeXT Computer, renamed the NeXTcube and a more conventional "pizza box" workstation, the NeXTstation. The new computers were cheaper and used the newer and faster 68040 processor. However, the 2.88 MB floppies were expensive and never took off as a successor to the 1.44 MB floppy. NeXT quickly realized this, and switched to CD-ROM. Color graphics options were also available for these models in the form of the NeXTstation Color and the NeXTdimension graphics processor board for the NeXTcube. NEXTSTEP is the original object-oriented, multitasking operating system that NeXT Computer, Inc. ... The NeXT Computer and NeXTcube were high-end workstation computers developed, manufactured and sold by NeXT from 1988 until 1993. ... In computing, a pizza box is a style of case for computers. ... NeXTstation was a high-end workstation computer developed, manufactured and sold by NeXT from 1990 until 1993. ... The Motorola 68040 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... NeXTdimension was an accelerated 32 bit color board manufactured and sold by NeXT that gave the NeXTcube color capabilities with PostScipt. ...


In 1992, NeXT launched "Turbo" variants of the NeXTcube and NeXTstation with a 33 MHz 68040 and maximum RAM capacity increased to 128 MB.


NeXT's long-term aim was to migrate to a RISC architecture; the project was referred to as the NeXT RISC Workstation or NRW. Initially the NRW was to be based on the Motorola 88110 processor, but due to a lack of confidence in Motorola's commitment to the 88k architecture, it was later redesigned around dual PowerPC 601s. [25] [26] Pre-production motherboards and enclosures were produced, but the NRW did not enter production before NeXT exited the hardware market. The NeXT RISC Workstation, or NRW, was an unreleased computer workstation designed by NeXT during the early 1990s as a successor to the NeXTcube and NeXTstation workstations. ... The 88000 (m88k for short) is a microprocessor design produced by Motorola. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The first issue of NeXTWORLD magazine debuted in 1991. It was published in San Francisco by Integrated Media, and edited by Michael Miley and later Dan Ruby. It was the first and only mainstream periodical to discuss NeXT computers, operating system and software. Publication was ceased in 1994, after four volumes had been released.[27] A NeXTWORLD Expo followed as a developer conference, held in 1991 and 1992 at the San Francisco Civic Center and in 1993 at the Moscone Center in San Francisco, with Steve Jobs as the keynote speaker.[28] NeXT sold 20,000 computers in 1992 (controversially, NeXT counted upgrade motherboards on backorder as sales), a small number compared to their competitors. The company reported annual sales of US$140 million, encouraging Canon to invest a further $30 million to keep the company afloat.[29] This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... A Business conference is an event organized by an association, inividual, publication or private company for the purpose of networking, education or to discuss a business topic. ... Colored flags flying high outside the Moscone Convention Center The Moscone Center is San Francisco, Californias largest convention center and exhibition hall. ...

The NeXT Computer used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN became the world's first Web server.
The NeXT Computer used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN became the world's first Web server.

Several developers used the NeXT platform to write programs that would make them famous. Tim Berners-Lee used a NeXT Computer in 1991 to create the first web browser and web server, the beginning of the World Wide Web as it is known today.[30] Also, in the early 1990s, John Carmack used a NeXTcube to build two of his pioneering games: Wolfenstein 3D and Doom. Altsys re-wrote their drawing program FreeHand (then at version 3) for NeXTstep, adding many page layout features and marketing as Altsys Virtuoso, versions 1 and 2; ultimately v2 was then ported back to Windows and the Mac OS as FreeHand 4. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2163x1456, 591 KB) Summary Description : LE premier serveur Web Source : http://robert. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2163x1456, 591 KB) Summary Description : LE premier serveur Web Source : http://robert. ... Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... The inside/front of a Dell PowerEdge web server The term Web server can mean one of two things: A computer program that is responsible for accepting HTTP requests from clients, which are known as Web browsers, and serving them HTTP responses along with optional data contents, which usually are... Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... John D. Carmack II (born August 20, 1970) is a widely recognized figure in the video game industry. ... Wolfenstein 3D (commonly abbreviated to Wolf 3D) is the computer game that started the first person shooter genre on the PC. It was created by id Software and published by Apogee Software on May 5, 1992. ... The making of Doom, id Softwares computer game released on December 10, 1993, began in late 1992. ... Freehand is a long established computer graphics company based in Dunsfold Surrey - Freehands Website It is also a product from Macromedia which also deals with Graphics but the two are unrelated. ...


A number of programs shipped for NeXT computers, including the Lotus Improv spreadsheet program, WorldWideWeb, the world's first web browser, and Mathematica. The systems also shipped with a number of smaller applications built in such as the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, Oxford Quotations, the complete works of William Shakespeare, and the Digital Librarian search engine to access them all. Lotus Improv was a spreadsheet program from Lotus Development that took the n-dimesional modeling design and hierarchic UI of Javelin and moved it to modern platforms. ... A spreadsheet is a rectangular table (or grid) of information, often financial information. ... WorldWideWeb was the worlds first web browser and WYSIWYG (What you see is what you get) HTML editor. ... An example of a Web browser (Internet Explorer 7) A Web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... For other uses, see Mathematica (disambiguation). ... Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


In all, some 50,000 NeXT machines were sold.[31] This was a tiny segment of the market, and proved Jobs' own words prophetic. Although the lack of success by other new desktop platforms (such as the BeBox) suggests that the age of unique hardware designs was over, it is an open question as to whether the systems would have been more successful had they avoided the performance and price problems by including a hard drive in the first machines, and had found a more cost-effective RAM setup. The BeBox The BeBox was a short-lived dual processor PC, offered by Be Incorporated to run their own operating system, BeOS. The BeBox made its debut in October 1995 (BeBox Dual603-66). ...


1993–1996: NeXT Software, Inc.

NeXTSTEP, the operating system used by the NeXTcube and NeXTstation.
NeXTSTEP, the operating system used by the NeXTcube and NeXTstation.

NeXT started porting the NeXTSTEP operating system to the Intel platform in 1992. Work also began on replacing the 68000 series CPU's with the new PowerPC, a joint processor platform created by Apple, IBM and Motorola. In 1993, NeXT dropped their hardware business and re-named to NeXT Software, Inc., laying off 300 employees of 540 total employees; they also negotiated to sell the hardware business including the Fremont factory to Canon.[1] Canon later pulled out of the deal. By late 1993, the Intel port of NeXTSTEP was complete, and version 3.1, also known as NeXTSTEP 486, was released. Work on the PowerPC machines was stopped along with all hardware production. Before its release, Chrysler planned to buy 3,000 copies of the NeXTSTEP 486 operating system in 1992.[32] Also in 1993, CEO of Sun Microsystems Scott McNealy announced plans to invest US$10 million in NeXT, and use its software in future Sun systems.[33] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x900, 215 KB)== ron bums ==Bold text MICROSOFT OWNZ J00 RON BUMS File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x900, 215 KB)== ron bums ==Bold text MICROSOFT OWNZ J00 RON BUMS File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... NEXTSTEP is the original object-oriented, multitasking operating system that NeXT Computer, Inc. ... // An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... The Motorola 68000 is a 32-bit CISC microprocessor core designed and marketed by Freescale Semiconductor (formerly Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector). ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) (NYSE: IBM) (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and services. ... Motorola Inc. ... For other uses, including the Chrysler Brand, see Chrysler (disambiguation). ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... Scott McNealy holding Suns new UltraSPARC T1 processor, unveiled on November 14, 2005. ...


NeXTSTEP 3.x was later ported to PA-RISC[34] and SPARC based platforms, for a total of four versions including NeXTSTEP/NeXT (for NeXT's 68k "black boxes"), NeXTSTEP/Intel, NeXTSTEP/PA-RISC and NeXTSTEP/SPARC. Although these ports were not widely used, NeXTSTEP gained popularity at institutions such as the National Reconnaissance Office, Central Intelligence Agency, First Chicago NBD, Swiss Bank Corporation, and other organizations due to its programming model. HP PA-RISC 7300LC Microprocessor PA-RISC is a microprocessor architecture developed by Hewlett-Packards Systems & VLSI Technology Operation. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) is one of the 16 intelligence agencies in the U.S. It designs, builds and operates the reconnaissance satellites of the United States government. ... “CIA” redirects here. ... Bank One, based in Chicago, Illinois, was the sixth-largest bank in the United States. ... Swiss Bank Corporation (German: Schweizerischer Bankverein (SBV), French: Société de Banque Suisse (SBS), Italian:Società di Banca Svizzera) The history of the Swiss Bank Corporation (SBC) dates to 1854 and the consitution of Bankverein by which six Private Banking-houses: Bischoff zu St Alban, Ehinger & Cie. ...


NeXT partnered with Sun Microsystems to create OpenStep, which was NeXTSTEP without the Mach-based Unix kernel. When it was founded, NeXT originally intended to sell a toolkit running on top of other operating systems, but ventured into hardware instead. After dropping their hardware business, NeXT returned to selling a toolkit to run on other OSes. New products based on OpenStep continued to ship, including OpenStep Enterprise, a version that ran on Microsoft's Windows NT. Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... The OPENSTEP desktop. ... In computer programming, widget toolkits (or GUI toolkits) are sets of basic building elements for graphical user interfaces. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ...


The company also launched WebObjects, a platform for building large-scale dynamic web applications. It became very successful, and quickly surpassed NeXTSTEP as NeXT's biggest money maker. Many large businesses including Dell, Disney and BBC used the WebObjects software,[35] and Apple still uses it for their iTunes Store in addition to the majority of their main website.[36] WebObjects is a Java Web application server by Apple Computer. ... This article is about the corporation Dell, Inc. ... Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The iTunes Store is an online business run by Apple Inc. ...


1996: Acquisition by Apple

On December 20, 1996, Apple Computer announced its intention to purchase NeXT for approximately US$400 million in cash (returned to the initial investors) and 1.5 million Apple shares, which went to Steve Jobs.[37] The main purpose of the acquisition was to use NeXTSTEP as a foundation to replace the outdated Mac OS. Apple preferred this move to either the pursuit of in-house Copland efforts or the purchase of BeOS. Jobs returned to Apple as a consultant in 1997, and then became the interim CEO[38]. In 2000, he took the CEO position full-time.[39] is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Steven Paul Jobs (born February 24, 1955) is the co-founder and CEO of Apple and was the CEO of Pixar until its acquisition by Disney. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Copland was a project at Apple Computer to create an updated version of the Macintosh operating system. ... BeOS is an operating system for personal computers which began development by Be Inc. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ...


Jobs brought with him most of the NeXT executives, who replaced their Apple counterparts. Over the next four years, the NeXTSTEP operating system was ported to the PowerPC architecture, and the Intel version and the OpenStep Enterprise toolkit for Windows were kept in sync. The operating systems were code-named Rhapsody,[40] while the toolkit for development on all platforms was given the moniker Yellow Box. Apple added many of their facilities and tools to Rhapsody, including QuickTime and ColorSync. For backwards compatibility, Apple added the Blue Box to the Mac version of Rhapsody; this allowed existing Mac applications to be run in a self-contained environment.[41] PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... Rhapsody was the code name given to Apple Computers next-generation operating system during the period of its development between Apples purchase of NeXT in late 1996 and the announcement of Mac OS X in 1998. ... QuickTime is a multimedia framework developed by Apple Inc. ... ColorSync is Apples color management API for the Mac OS and Mac OS X. // Apple developed the original 1. ...


Rhapsody for Intel disappeared after two beta releases and the PowerPC version became Mac OS X Server 1.0. Two years later, a consumer version was released as Mac OS X 10.0. The server version was brought into sync soon after. The OpenStep toolkit was renamed from Yellow Box to Cocoa. Rhapsody's Blue Box was re-named Classic Environment. At the insistence of existing Mac developers, Apple included an updated version of the original Macintosh toolbox that allowed existing Mac applications integrated access to the environment without the constraints of Blue Box; this was named Carbon. Many interface features from NeXTSTEP were carried over into Mac OS X, including the Dock, the Services menu, the Finder's "browser" view, the text system (NSText) and system-wide selectors for fonts and colors. Mac OS X Server is the server-oriented version of Apples desktop operating system, Mac OS X. Mac OS X, in both desktop and server versions, is a Unix-like operating system based on technology that Apple acquired from NeXT Computer. ... Mac OS X (IPA: ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... A Cocoa application being developed using Xcode. ... Classic, or Classic Environment, is a hardware and software abstraction layer in Mac OS X that allows applications compatible with Mac OS 9 to run on the OS X operating system. ... Carbon is the codename of Apple Computers API for the Macintosh operating system, which permits a good degree of forward and backward compatibility between source code written to run on the classic Mac OS, and the newer Mac OS X. The APIs are published and accessed in the form... The Dock in Mac OS X v10. ... Services menu (or simply Services) is a user interface element in a computer operating system. ... The Finder is the default application program used on the Mac OS and Mac OS X operating systems that is responsible for the overall user-management of files, disks, network volumes and the launching of other applications. ...


NeXTSTEP's processor-independent capabilities were completely retained in Mac OS X. Every version was secretly compiled onto both the PowerPC and Intel x86 architectures, even though only PowerPC versions were released — except for Darwin, the open sourced foundation of Mac OS X, for which both versions were released. On June 6, 2005, Apple publicly announced that, starting in 2006, Macs would be based on Intel CPUs instead of PowerPCs, returning the NeXT software back to the platform to which it was ported in 1993.[42] Apple's Intel-based hardware transition was completed in August 2006. Darwin is a free and open source, Unix-like operating system first released by Apple Inc. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Corporate culture

Jobs had been stymied by Apple's corporate structure and was determined to avoid the bureaucratic infighting that had led to his resignation. The changes ranged from a health insurance plan that offered benefits to not only married couples, but unmarried couples and same-sex couples to a completely new corporate nomenclature.[43] At Apple, secretaries were area associates, but Jobs took it a step further and abandoned conventional corporate structures,[43] instead making NeXT a community with members instead of employees.[43] For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Health plan be merged into this article or section. ...


The office space and salary plans also contributed to the NeXT 'community'. Jobs found luxurious office space in Palo Alto on Deer Creek Road,[44] occupying a glass and concrete building, which featured a staircase by I. M. Pei.[44] The first floor was outfitted with hardwood flooring and huge worktables where the workstations would be assembled. Jobs wanted to avoid the inventory errors that had partly caused his ouster from Apple, so NeXT used just in time manufacturing (JIT).[44] The company would contract out for all of the major components, such as motherboards and cases, and have the finished components shipped to the first floor for assembly. The second floor was the office space, which had an open floor plan. The only enclosed rooms were Jobs' office and a few conference rooms.[44] Downtown Palo Alto Palo Alto is a city in Santa Clara County, in the San Francisco Bay Area of California, USA. Palo Alto is located at the northern end of the Silicon Valley, and is home to Stanford University (which is technically located in an adjacent area — Stanford, California... Ieoh Ming Pei (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; b. ... Inventory is a list of goods and materials, or those goods and materials themselves, held available in stock by a business. ... For other uses, see Just In Time. ... In general, a things components are its parts; the things that compose it. ...


As NeXT grew, and it became clear that the just in time manufacturing model would not be practical, new office space was rented on the San Francisco Bay in Redwood City.[43] The space, designed by I. M. Pei, was dominated by a floating staircase with no visible supports. The open floor plan was retained, though it was now very luxurious, including $10,000 sofas and Ansel Adams prints.[43] San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and the Golden Gate San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary through which water draining approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean. ... Redwood City is a suburb located on the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. ... Ansel Easton Adams (February 20, 1902 – April 22, 1984) was an American photographer, best known for his black-and-white photographs of the American West. ...


There were only two different salaries at NeXT until the early 1990s.[43] Team members who joined before 1986 were paid US$75,000 while those who joined afterwards were paid $50,000. This caused a few awkward situations where managers were paid less than their employees. Employees were given performance reviews and raises every six months because of the spartan salary plans. To foster openness, all employees had full access to the payrolls, though few employees ever took advantage of the privilege.[43]


The payroll schedule was also very different from other companies in Silicon Valley at the time. Instead of getting paid twice a month at the end of the pay period, employees would get paid once a month in advance.


Impact on the computer industry

Despite NeXT's lack of commercial success, it had a large impact on the computer industry. Object oriented programming and user interfaces became more common after the release of the NeXTcube and NeXTSTEP in 1988.[45] Other companies started work to duplicate the "top to bottom" OO system of the NeXT, which was considered by many in the industry to be the "next big thing".


One such project started at Apple around 1989, with the goal of building a NeXT-like but all-Mac operating system. Over the years the project was shuffled around, and eventually became part of the Apple-IBM Taligent system. Taligent was delivered in 1995 as a development platform only (as opposed to a complete operating system), but saw little use and disappeared soon after. For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Taligent was the name of an object-oriented operating system and the company dedicated to producing it. ...


Microsoft began its Cairo project, officially announced in 1991, which was to bring an object oriented user interface to a consumer version of Windows NT. The project was ultimately abandoned with some elements rolled into other products. By 1994, Microsoft and NeXT began collaborating on a Windows NT-port of OpenStep[46] which was never released. Cairo was the code name for a project at Microsoft from 1991 to 1996. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ...


WebObjects never became very popular because of its initial high price of $50,000,[47] but it also had an impact disproportionate to its popularity. Websites including Dell's online store, Disney, BBC News and the iTunes Store adopted the software to create dynamic webpages.[35] Though WebObjects was not the first, it heralded the advent of popular dynamic websites and is now bundled with Mac OS X Server and Xcode.[47] WebObjects is a Java Web application server by Apple Computer. ... This article is about the corporation Dell, Inc. ... Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... The iTunes Store is an online business run by Apple Inc. ... Mac OS X Server is the server-oriented version of Apples desktop operating system, Mac OS X. Mac OS X, in both desktop and server versions, is a Unix-like operating system based on technology that Apple acquired from NeXT Computer. ... Xcode is Apple Computers IDE for developing applications and other software for Mac OS X. It is shipped free with Mac OS X. First introduced on October 24, 2003 along with the release of Mac OS X v10. ...


NeXT's most notable impact on personal computer users came in the form of Mac OS X. Apple estimated that 10 million Mac users moved to the OPENSTEP-based Mac OS X by 2004.[48] Mac OS X retains many of the user interface and technical elements of NeXTStep, including the Dock, object oriented file browser, the XNU microkernel and relative processor independence. Notably absent are Display PostScript, which had been discontinued by 2001 and replaced with Quartz, and tear-off menus.[49] The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... The Dock in Mac OS X v10. ... The Finder is the default application program used on the Mac OS and Mac OS X operating systems that is responsible for the overall user-management of files, disks, network volumes and the launching of other applications. ... XNU is the name of the kernel that Apple acquired and developed for use in the Mac OS X operating system and released as open source as part of the Darwin operating system. ... NeXT Computer Inc. ... Quartz is the marketing name of the proprietary graphics layer that sits on top of the open source Darwin core of Mac OS X. Quartz is part of the Core Graphics framework. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


References

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  4. ^ a b Hormby, Thomas (2006). The NeXT years: Steve Jobs before his triumphant return to Apple (HTML). Low End Mac.
  5. ^ Rose, Frank (1990). West of Eden. Viking, pg. 193. ISBN 0-670-81278-1. 
  6. ^ Rose 1990, pg. 227
  7. ^ Rose 1990, pg. 291
  8. ^ Young, Jeffrey S.; Simon, William L. (2005). iCon: Steve Jobs. John Wiley & Sons, pg. 118. ISBN 0-471-72083-6. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Hormby, Thomas (2006). Good-bye Woz and Jobs: How the first Apple era ended in 1985 (HTML). Low End Mac.
  10. ^ Morrison, Ann. "NeXT, Microsoft tackle objects: NT to gain OpenStep port.", Fortune, February 20, 1984. 
  11. ^ Stross, Randall (1993). Steve Jobs and the NeXT Big Thing. Athenium, 56. ISBN 0-689-12135-0. 
  12. ^ Stross 1993, pg. 67
  13. ^ Hertzfeld, Andy. What's a Megaflop?. Folklore.org. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Stross 1993, pg. 72
  15. ^ Deutschman, Alan (200). Second Coming of Steve Jobs. Broadway Books, pg. 64. ISBN 0-7679-0432-X. 
  16. ^ Deutschman pg. 44
  17. ^ Heller, Steven; Helfand, Jessica; Lois, George (2000). Paul Rand. Phaidon Press, 256. ISBN 0-7148-3994-9. 
  18. ^ Young, Jeffrey S.; Simon, William L. (2005). iCon: Steve Jobs. John Wiley & Sons, pg. 134. ISBN 0-471-72083-6. 
  19. ^ Barlow, John. The NeXT and Former King: 1991. The WELL. Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  20. ^ Hormby, Thomas (2005). Full Circle: A Brief History of NeXT (HTML). Low End Mac.
  21. ^ Standefer, Robert (2004). "Evolution of Mac OS X", Macintosh Switcher's Guide. Wordware Publishing, pg.33. ISBN 1-55622-045-6. 
  22. ^ "Businessland Deal Seen for Next Inc.", REUTERS, March 25, 1989. 
  23. ^ Shaffer, Richard. "NeXT means business now.", Personal Computing, General Reference Center Gold, July 1989. 
  24. ^ Vance McCarthy. "Steve Jobs just says no.", Fortune, General Reference Center Gold, July 17, 1993. 
  25. ^ Simson L. Garfinkel (March 1993). Hardware was great while it lasted. NeXTWORLD. Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
  26. ^ Dan Lavin (March 1993). Canon to buy NeXT factory, design center. NeXTWORLD. Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
  27. ^ SERIAL ARCHIVE LISTINGS for NeXTWORLD. The Online Books Page. University of Pennsylvania Library. Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  28. ^ NextStep users seek safety in big numbers. "NeXT makes play for corporate market", PC Week, January 27, 1992. 
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  30. ^ Berners-Lee, Tim. The WorldWideWeb browser (HTML). Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
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  32. ^ "Next Computer Close To a Deal With Chrysler", The San Francisco Chronicle, September 8, 1992. 
  33. ^ "Sun invests in Next, which will license NextStep OS for Sparc.", InfoWorld, General Reference Center Gold, November 29,1993. 
  34. ^ Sherman, Lee (2004-04), "First NeXT RISC Workstation", NeXTWORLD, <http://www.simson.net/ref/NeXT/nextworld/94.4/94.4.Apr.PA-RISC1.html>
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  36. ^ Dalrymple, Jim (June 2, 2003). Apple releases WebObjects as a free application (HTML). Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  37. ^ Apple Computer (December 20, 1996). Apple Computer, Inc. Agrees to Acquire NeXT Software Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  38. ^ Coventry, Joshua (2006). Beleaguered: Apple Bottoms Out, 1996-98 (HTML). Low End Mac. Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  39. ^ Davis, Jim; Michael Kanellos (January 5, 2000). Jobs takes Apple CEO job full time (HTML). CNet. Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
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  42. ^ Apple Computer (June 6, 2005). Apple to Use Intel Microprocessors Beginning in 2006. Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
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is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... TidBITS is an award-winning electronic newsletter and web site dealing primarily with Apple Computer and Macintosh-related topics. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Andy Hertzfeld on NerdTV in an interview with Robert Cringely. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Well may refer to, El Pozo, 1965 Mexican film, English title The Well Jin, 1987 Chinese film, English title The Well Kaivo, 1992 Finnish film, English title The Well Kladenetzat, 1991 Bulgarian film, English title The Well Le Puits, 1999 French animated short film, English title The Well O... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Infotrac is a well-known full-text database produced by the Thomson Corporation. ... Infotrac is a well-known full-text database produced by the Thomson Corporation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Pennsylvania (also known as Penn[3][4]) is a private, coeducational research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Infotrac is a well-known full-text database produced by the Thomson Corporation. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... CNET Networks, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Infotrac is a well-known full-text database produced by the Thomson Corporation. ... Infotrac is a well-known full-text database produced by the Thomson Corporation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ars Technicas main page Ars Technica is a technology-related website catering to PC enthusiasts. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Deutschman, Alan (2001). The Second Coming of Steve Jobs. Broadway. ISBN 0-7679-0433-8. 
  • Linzmayer, Owen W. (2004). Apple Confidential 2.0. No Starch Press. ISBN 1-59327-010-0. 
  • Malone, Michael (1999). Infinite Loop. Currency. ISBN 0-385-48684-7. 
  • Stross, Randall E. (1993). Steve Jobs & the NeXT Big Thing. Scribner. ISBN 0-689-12135-0. 
  • Young, Jeffrey S.; Simon, William L. (2005). iCon: Steve Jobs. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-72083-6. 

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